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Chanh-Nghiem Nguyen ◽  
Van-Linh Lam ◽  
Phuc-Hau Le ◽  
Huy-Thanh Ho ◽  
Chi-Ngon Nguyen

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely reported for its useful applications in assessing internal fruit qualities. Motivated by apple consumption in the global market, this study aims to evaluate the possibility of applying NIR imaging to detect slight bruises in apple fruits. A simple optical setup was designed, and low-cost system components were used to promote the future development of practical and cost-efficient devices. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, slight bruises were created by a mild impact with a comparably low impact energy of only 0.081 Joules. Experimental results showed that 100% of bruises in Jazz and Gala apples were accurately detected immediately after bruising and within 3 hours of storage. Thus, it is promising to develop customer devices to detect slight bruises for not only apple fruits but also other fruits with soft and thin skin at their early damage stages.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Abrar Malik ◽  
Mir Irfan Ul Haq ◽  
Ankush Raina ◽  
Kapil Gupta

Purpose Environmental degradation has emerged as one of the major limitations of industrial revolution and has led to an increased focus towards developing sustainable strategies and techniques. This paper aims to highlight the sustainability aspects of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology that helps towards a better implementation of Industry 4.0. It also aims to provide a brief picture of relationships between 3D printing, Industry 4.0 and sustainability. The major goal is to facilitate the researchers, scholars, engineers and recommend further research, development and innovations in the field. Design/methodology/approach The various enabling factors for implementation of Industry 4.0 are discussed in detail. Some barriers to incorporation of 3D Printing, its applications areas and global market scenario are also discussed. A through literature review has been done to study the detailed relationships between 3D printing, Industry 4.0 and sustainability. Findings The technological benefits of 3D printing are many such as weight savings, waste minimization and energy savings. Further, the production of new 3D printable materials with improved features helps in reducing the wastage of material during the process. 3D printing if used at a large scale would help industries to implement the concept of Industry 4.0. Originality/value This paper focuses on discussing technological revolution under Industry 4.0 and incorporates 3D printing-type technologies that largely change the product manufacturing scenario. The interrelationships between 3D printing, Industry 4.0 and sustainability have been discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 147-162
Е. S. Novikova

The article examines the risks and possible prospects for the transformation of higher education from the standpoint of the Russian and world economy, identifies the main reasons for the current situation in terms of the influence of foreign capital on the level of competitiveness of the domestic economy's production capacities and its involvement in global value chains. An analysis of the risks of increasing the dependence of Russian higher education on the global market of educational services is carried out. This may negatively affect the preservation of the potential of human capital in the domestic market of the country. In this regard, the current trends in the field of educational activity, including the globalization of higher education in the context of digitalization, as well as the process of internationalization of scientific research, are considered. Additional trends in the transformation of higher education were identified that could contribute to the sustainable development of the Russian economy, primarily in the domestic market, taking into account the involvement of Russia in the system of international division of labor. Based on the results obtained, the key directions of the development of Russian higher education are identified, taking into account possible risks and prospects in order to achieve sustainable development of the Russian economy based on the long-term development of the domestic market, where special attention is paid to the human capital of the country, including not only material, but also moral aspects of society.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 129-146
E. D. Frolova ◽  
V. S. Beliaeva ◽  
A. A. Ishukov ◽  
A. A. Frolov

At its present stage of internationalization of education, its architecture and forms have changed. The study of these aspects requires an integrated approach. Increasing the volume of exports of educational services remains a priority for Russia, which, according to the authors, does not realize its educational export potential sufficiently. The purpose of the article is to reveal the features of the current stage of internationalization of higher education through the compilation of its complex characteristics by a set of cross-sections, to interpret the calculations obtained in a new way, to identify new facts and factors affecting the development trend and to develop proposals for Russia as an exporter of educational services. The main sources used were the statistical databases of the WTO, the EEC of the EAEU. Analytical approach, comparative and statistical analysis were used. As a result, the authors found confirmation of the continuing trend of growth in global spending on education, the volume of investments in the global market of educational services, an increase in the number of foreign students, and the preservation of Russia's share in the number of foreign students. The authors also identified new characteristics of the global educational services market, such as: the acceleration of the growth rate of global exports of educational services, the decline in the share of the United States and the growth of the share of the UAE in the global educational services market, the transformation of Asian countries from donors to recipient countries of educational services.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 833
Youngju Kim ◽  
Jacopo Valsecchi ◽  
Ohsung Oh ◽  
Jongyul Kim ◽  
Seung Wook Lee ◽  

Scattering studies of milk and milk products, which are highly relevant food products on the global market, are often utilized and reported in literature to investigate and understand the subtle microscopic structural differences between dairy samples. These structural features determine the physical properties and ultimately the texture of milk products and, thus, also influence the consumer’s experience. Small-angle neutron scattering is a prominent example, which enables observations of length scales, which convey proteins and fat globules in food-grade milk. In addition, deuteration enables contrast variations between the constituents of dairy products. In this study, we investigate the potential of probing small-angle neutron scattering from milk samples through quantitative neutron dark-field imaging using grating interferometry, to establish the feasibility of studying, in particular, fat globules and milk gel structures with this spatially resolved scattering technique.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 203
Lizette Liliana Rodríguez-Verástegui ◽  
Candy Yuriria Ramírez-Zavaleta ◽  
María Fernanda Capilla-Hernández ◽  
Josefat Gregorio-Jorge

Trees and herbs that produce fruits represent the most valuable agricultural food commodities in the world. However, the yield of these crops is not fully achieved due to biotic factors such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Viruses are capable of causing alterations in plant growth and development, thereby impacting the yield of their hosts significantly. In this work, we first compiled the world′s most comprehensive list of known edible fruits that fits our definition. Then, plant viruses infecting those trees and herbs that produce fruits with commercial importance in the global market were identified. The identified plant viruses belong to 30 families, most of them containing single-stranded RNA genomes. Importantly, we show the overall picture of the host range for some virus families following an evolutionary approach. Further, the current knowledge about plant-virus interactions, focusing on the main disorders they cause, as well as yield losses, is summarized. Additionally, since accurate diagnosis methods are of pivotal importance for viral diseases control, the current and emerging technologies for the detection of these plant pathogens are described. Finally, the most promising strategies employed to control viral diseases in the field are presented, focusing on solutions that are long-lasting.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 882
Hiroko Oe ◽  
Yasuyuki Yamaoka

Purpose—This study aims to demonstrate the antecedent factors of consumers’ cosmetics purchasing behaviour in the emerging market of Thailand from the perspective of sustainability. Specifically, the study aims to quantitatively analyse the impact of three hypothesised antecedents of consumer behaviour: product quality, communicating sustainability, and ethical business behaviour. Methodology—A quantitative methodology is applied in the study, which collects survey data from Thailand. This study focuses on two cosmetic brands in Thailand, a domestic brand and an international brand. The total 800-sample dataset was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling to validate a conceptual model with measurements of three antecedent factors: quality, ethical behaviour, and communication sustainability. Findings—It is found that ‘ethical behaviour of the producers had a non-significant impact for all samples and the ‘domestic brand’, whereas communicating sustainability had a significant impact in all sample cases. The proposed measurement scales present a practical and pioneering tool for assessing consumer responses and behaviour towards cosmetic brands. The set of scales will also help cosmetics marketers to appraise their strategic planning and monitor their progress toward creating and identifying consumer loyalty to cosmetics brands via producers’ ethical behaviour and CSR messaging. Originality—The global market and inter-stakeholder communications have greatly changed the way people perceive, behave towards, and react to business suppliers. The understanding of consumer brand loyalty in the cosmetics industry and the business strategies focused on the impact of communicating sustainability with ethical behaviour remain limited, especially in the context of the emerging market. This research contributes to filling this gap with empirical analyses.

Mohammed Asadullah Jahangir ◽  
Pooja Jain ◽  
Rishabh Verma ◽  
Mohamad Taleuzzaman ◽  
Mohamed Jawed Ahsan ◽  

Abstract: Herbal medicines are being used by humans since the oldest civilizations and have been an integral part of traditional and alternative medicines. In recent times, pharmaceutical and biomedical scientists are taking interest in developing nutraceutical-based medicines to overcome the side effects and adverse drug reactions caused by allopathic medicines. Nutraceuticals have started occupying the global market. Nutraceuticals have gained widespread acceptance due to their efficacy in treating difficult to treat diseases, low toxicity, low cost, easy accessibility, etc. Safety and efficacy are other important factors in the commercialization process of nutraceuticals. Different novel advanced drug delivery systems have been constantly studied to improve the efficacy and bioavailability of medicines obtained from herbal sources. The transdermal drug delivery system provides a potent alternative to the conventional method of using nutraceuticals. The development of transdermal system-based nutraceuticals could provide the advantage of enhanced bioavailability, improved solubility, bypass the first-pass metabolism, and targeted delivery of drugs in brain-related disorders. It additionally provides the advantage of being non-invasive. This article reviews the potential effects of various nutraceuticals, in brain-related disorders as well as trends in transdermal nano-systems to deliver such nutraceuticals. We would also focus on advantages, application as well as recent United States-based patents which emphasized emerging interest towards transdermal nutraceuticals in brain disorders.

2022 ◽  
Ernest Sayapov ◽  
Mathieu Molenaar ◽  
Alvaro Nunez ◽  
Ahmed Benchekor ◽  
Abdullah Hadhrami ◽  

Abstract Recent years and especially the coronavirus pandemic have been very challenging for the oil industry, resulting in a significant reduction in investment, forcing companies to review budgets and search for more efficient and economical technologies to achieve the target level of hydrocarbon production and revenue generation. In PDO, one of the most challenging fields is "AS", where extreme downhole conditions require a very well-engineered approach to become economical. This field has already seen some of the most advanced technology trials in PDO that are also covered in multiple SPE papers. Based on the new approaches and techniques that were successfully implemented on recently drilled wells, it was decided to review the older, previously fractured wells in the area and assess them for a refracturing opportunity. The main challenge in this project was that these older wells were previously hydraulically fractured in multiple target intervals, therefore both zonal isolation and successful placement of the new fracs were becoming the major concerns. As the planned coverage by the new fractures was to ensure no bypassed pay, the only applicable technology on the market was a pinpoint fracturing process, whereby the targeted placement is achieved through limited entry perforations and focused energy of the injected fluid. The subject pinpoint technology anticipates that the limited entry sandblasting perforation is created and then proppant laden fluid is pumped through a sandblasting nozzle which is part of either a coiled tubing (CT) or a jointed pipe (JP) Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA), and the backside (or the annulus of the injection path) is used to maintain the positive backpressure from the top. This technology allows for choosing a desirable order of target interval selection inside the well, unlike conventional plug and perf or a simplified multistage completion, where the treatments must be placed only in order from bottom to top. Another advantage of this approach is a faster frac cycle through the elimination of wellbore cleanout requirement. Being a unique and first-ever application in the Middle East, using CT for placing frac treatments through a jetting nozzle demonstrates the full scale potential of this approach not only in conventional wells but also in complex, sour and High Pressure (HP) environments that are often found in the Sultanate of Oman and in the Middle East. This paper will cover the advantages and disadvantages, complexity and requirements, opportunities and lessons learnt in relation to this approach.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Bernard Laubscher ◽  
Manuel Diezi ◽  
Raffaele Renella ◽  
Edward A. D. Mitchell ◽  
Alexandre Aebi ◽  

Abstract Background Neonicotinoids (NN) are selective neurotoxic pesticides that bind to insect but also mammal nicotinic acetycholine receptors (nAChRs). As the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide, they are ubiquitously found in the environment, wildlife, and foods, and thus of special concern for their impacts on the environment and human health. nAChRs are vital to proper brain organization during the prenatal period and play important roles in various motor, emotional, and cognitive functions. Little is known on children’s contamination by NN. In a pilot study we tested the hypothesis that children’s cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can be contaminated by NN. Methods NN were analysed in leftover CSF, blood, and urine samples from children treated for leukaemias and lymphomas and undergoing therapeutic lumbar punctions. We monitored all neonicotinoids approved on the global market and some of their most common metabolites by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results From August to December 2020, 14 children were consecutively included in the study. Median age was 8 years (range 3–18). All CSF and plasma samples were positive for at least one NN. Nine (64%) CSF samples and 13 (93%) plasma samples contained more than one NN. Thirteen (93%) CSF samples had N-desmethyl-acetamiprid (median concentration 0.0123, range 0.0024–0.1068 ng/mL), the major metabolite of acetamiprid. All but one urine samples were positive for ≥ one NN. A statistically significant linear relationship was found between plasma/urine and CSF N-desmethyl-acetamiprid concentrations. Conclusions We have developed a reliable analytical method that revealed multiple NN and/or their metabolites in children’s CSF, plasma, and urine. Our data suggest that contamination by multiple NN is not only an environmental hazard for non-target insects such as bees but also potentially for children.

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