respiratory pathogens
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Long T. Nguyen ◽  
Santosh R. Rananaware ◽  
Brianna L. M. Pizzano ◽  
Brandon T. Stone ◽  
Piyush K. Jain

Abstract Background The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has swept through the globe at an unprecedented rate. CRISPR-based detection technologies have emerged as a rapid and affordable platform that can shape the future of diagnostics. Methods We developed ENHANCEv2 that is composed of a chimeric guide RNA, a modified LbCas12a enzyme, and a dual reporter construct to improve the previously reported ENHANCE system. We validated both ENHANCE and ENHANCEv2 using 62 nasopharyngeal swabs and compared the results to RT-qPCR. We created a lyophilized version of ENHANCEv2 and characterized its detection capability and stability. Results Here we demonstrate that when coupled with an RT-LAMP step, ENHANCE detects COVID-19 samples down to a few copies with 95% accuracy while maintaining a high specificity towards various isolates of SARS-CoV-2 against 31 highly similar and common respiratory pathogens. ENHANCE works robustly in a wide range of magnesium concentrations (3 mM-13 mM), allowing for further assay optimization. Our clinical validation results for both ENHANCE and ENHANCEv2 show 60/62 (96.7%) sample agreement with RT-qPCR results while only using 5 µL of sample and 20 minutes of CRISPR reaction. We show that the lateral flow assay using paper-based strips displays 100% agreement with the fluorescence-based reporter assay during clinical validation. Finally, we demonstrate that a lyophilized version of ENHANCEv2 shows high sensitivity and specificity for SARS-CoV-2 detection while reducing the CRISPR reaction time to as low as 3 minutes while maintaining its detection capability for several weeks upon storage at room temperature. Conclusions CRISPR-based diagnostic platforms offer many advantages as compared to conventional qPCR-based detection methods. Our work here provides clinical validation of ENHANCE and its improved form ENHANCEv2 for the detection of COVID-19.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Karine Vidal ◽  
Shamima Sultana ◽  
Alberto Prieto Patron ◽  
Irene Salvi ◽  
Maya Shevlyakova ◽  

Objectives: Risk factors for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in community settings are not fully understood, especially in low-income countries. We examined the incidence and risk factors associated with ARIs in under-two children from the Microbiota and Health study.Methods: Children from a peri-urban area of Dhaka (Bangladesh) were followed from birth to 2 years of age by both active surveillance of ARIs and regular scheduled visits. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected during scheduled visits for detection of bacterial facultative respiratory pathogens. Information on socioeconomic, environmental, and household conditions, and mother and child characteristics were collected. A hierarchical modeling approach was used to identify proximate determinants of ARIs.Results: Of 267 infants, 87.3% experienced at least one ARI episode during the first 2 years of life. The peak incidence of ARIs was 330 infections per 100 infant-years and occurred between 2 and 4 months of age. Season was the main risk factor (rainy monsoon season, incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.43 [1.92–3.07]; cool dry winter, IRR 2.10 [1.65–2.67] compared with hot dry summer) in the first 2 years of life. In addition, during the first 6 months of life, young maternal age (<22 years; IRR 1.34 [1.01–1.77]) and low birth weight (<2,500 g; IRR 1.39 [1.03–1.89]) were associated with higher ARI incidence.Conclusions: Reminiscent of industrialized settings, cool rainy season rather than socioeconomic and hygiene conditions was a major risk factor for ARIs in peri-urban Bangladesh. Understanding the causal links between seasonally variable factors such as temperature, humidity, crowding, diet, and ARIs will inform prevention measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Chunli Li ◽  
Rahat Zaheer ◽  
Andrea Kinnear ◽  
Murray Jelinski ◽  
Tim A. McAllister

A comparative study of microbiota of the respiratory tract and joints of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cattle mortalities was undertaken. Nasopharynx, trachea, lung and joint samples were collected from 32 cattle that died of BRD, “cases”, and 8 that died of other causes, “controls”. Bacterial diversity was lower (p < 0.05) in the nasopharynx, trachea and lungs of cases as compared to controls. In cases, alpha-diversity (p < 0.05) was lower in the lungs and joints than the nasopharynx. Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla in all samples. Relative abundances of Mycoplasma spp. in the lung, Pasteurella spp. in the trachea and lung, and Histophilus spp. in the lung, trachea and nasopharynx of cases were higher (p < 0.001) than controls. Mycoplasma spp. comprised 20.5% of bacterial flora in the joint, 36.0% in the lung, 22.4% in the trachea and 8.8% in the nasopharynx. Mannheimia spp. (21.8%) and Histophilus spp. (10.4%) were more abundant in lungs. Cattle that died of BRD possessed less diverse respiratory microbiomes with a higher abundance of respiratory pathogens. Mycoplasma spp. were prominent members of pneumonic lungs and joints displaying septic arthritis.

Yeonsu Kim ◽  
Xiaoyan Zheng ◽  
Kathrin Eschke ◽  
M. Zeeshan Chaudhry ◽  
Federico Bertoglio ◽  

AbstractGlobal pandemics caused by influenza or coronaviruses cause severe disruptions to public health and lead to high morbidity and mortality. There remains a medical need for vaccines against these pathogens. CMV (cytomegalovirus) is a β-herpesvirus that induces uniquely robust immune responses in which remarkably large populations of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells are maintained for a lifetime. Hence, CMV has been proposed and investigated as a novel vaccine vector for expressing antigenic peptides or proteins to elicit protective cellular immune responses against numerous pathogens. We generated two recombinant murine CMV (MCMV) vaccine vectors expressing hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus (MCMVHA) or the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (MCMVS). A single injection of MCMVs expressing either viral protein induced potent neutralizing antibody responses, which strengthened over time. Importantly, MCMVHA-vaccinated mice were protected from illness following challenge with the influenza virus, and we excluded that this protection was due to the effects of memory T cells. Conclusively, we show here that MCMV vectors induce not only long-term cellular immunity but also humoral responses that provide long-term immune protection against clinically relevant respiratory pathogens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
My V. T. Phan ◽  
Charles N. Agoti ◽  
Patrick K. Munywoki ◽  
Grieven P. Otieno ◽  
Mwanajuma Ngama ◽  

AbstractPneumonia remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Most molecular diagnoses of viruses rely on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that however can fail due to primer mismatch. We investigated the performance of routine virus diagnostics in Kilifi, Kenya, using random-primed viral next generation sequencing (viral NGS) on respiratory samples which tested negative for the common viral respiratory pathogens by a local standard diagnostic panel. Among 95 hospitalised pneumonia patients and 95 household-cohort individuals, analysis of viral NGS identified at least one respiratory-associated virus in 35 (37%) and 23 (24%) samples, respectively. The majority (66%; 42/64) belonged to the Picornaviridae family. The NGS data analysis identified a number of viruses that were missed by the diagnostic panel (rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus), and these failures could be attributed to PCR primer/probe binding site mismatches. Unexpected viruses identified included parvovirus B19, enterovirus D68, coxsackievirus A16 and A24 and rubella virus. The regular application of such viral NGS could help evaluate assay performance, identify molecular causes of missed diagnoses and reveal gaps in the respiratory virus set used for local screening assays. The results can provide actionable information to improve the local pneumonia diagnostics and reveal locally important viral pathogens.

2022 ◽  
pp. 2101013
Alexander Y. Trick ◽  
Fan‐En Chen ◽  
Liben Chen ◽  
Pei‐Wei Lee ◽  
Alexander C. Hasnain ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Sarika K. L. Hogendoorn ◽  
Loïc Lhopitallier ◽  
Melissa Richard-Greenblatt ◽  
Estelle Tenisch ◽  
Zainab Mbarack ◽  

Abstract Background Inappropriate antibiotics use in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is a major contributor to resistance. We aimed to design an algorithm based on clinical signs and host biomarkers to identify bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among patients with LRTI. Methods Participants with LRTI were selected in a prospective cohort of febrile (≥ 38 °C) adults presenting to outpatient clinics in Dar es Salaam. Participants underwent chest X-ray, multiplex PCR for respiratory pathogens, and measurements of 13 biomarkers. We evaluated the predictive accuracy of clinical signs and biomarkers using logistic regression and classification and regression tree analysis. Results Of 110 patients with LRTI, 17 had bacterial CAP. Procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble triggering receptor expressed by myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) showed an excellent predictive accuracy to identify bacterial CAP (AUROC 0.88, 95%CI 0.78–0.98; 0.84, 0.72–0.99; 0.83, 0.74–0.92, respectively). Combining respiratory rate with PCT or IL-6 significantly improved the model compared to respiratory rate alone (p = 0.006, p = 0.033, respectively). An algorithm with respiratory rate (≥ 32/min) and PCT (≥ 0.25 μg/L) had 94% sensitivity and 82% specificity. Conclusions PCT, IL-6 and sTREM-1 had an excellent predictive accuracy in differentiating bacterial CAP from other LRTIs. An algorithm combining respiratory rate and PCT displayed even better performance in this sub-Sahara African setting.

Jessica A. Belser ◽  
Joanna A. Pulit-Penaloza ◽  
Nicole Brock ◽  
Hannah M. Creager ◽  
Kortney M. Gustin ◽  

Efficient human-to-human transmission represents a necessary adaptation for a zoonotic influenza A virus (IAV) to cause a pandemic. As such, many emerging IAVs are characterized for transmissibility phenotypes in mammalian models, with an emphasis on elucidating viral determinants of transmission and the role host immune responses contribute to mammalian adaptation. Investigations of virus infectivity and stability in aerosols concurrent with transmission assessments have increased in recent years, enhancing our understanding of this dynamic process. Here, we employ a diverse panel of 17 human and zoonotic IAVs, inclusive of seasonally circulating H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, and avian and swine viruses associated with human infection, to evaluate differences in spray factor (a value that assesses efficiency of the aerosolization process), stability, and infectivity following aerosolization. While most seasonal influenza viruses did not exhibit substantial variability within these parameters, there was more heterogeneity among zoonotic influenza viruses, which possess a diverse range of transmission phenotypes. Aging of aerosols at different relative humidities identified strain-specific levels of stability with different profiles identified between zoonotic H3, H5, and H7 subtype viruses associated with human infection. As studies continue to elucidate the complex components governing virus transmissibility, notably aerosol matrices and environmental parameters, considering the relative role of subtype- and strain-specific factors to modulate these parameters will improve our understanding of the pandemic potential of zoonotic influenza A viruses. Importance Transmission of respiratory pathogens through the air can facilitate the rapid and expansive spread of infection and disease through a susceptible population. While seasonal influenza viruses are quite capable of airborne spread, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how well influenza viruses remain viable after aerosolization, and if influenza viruses capable of jumping species barriers to cause human infection differ in this property from seasonal strains. We evaluated a diverse panel of influenza viruses associated with human infection (originating from human, avian, and swine reservoirs) for their ability to remain viable after aerosolization in the laboratory under a range of conditions. We found greater diversity among avian and swine-origin viruses compared with seasonal influenza viruses; strain-specific stability was also noted. Although influenza virus stability in aerosols is an underreported property, if molecular markers associated with enhanced stability are identified, we will be able to quickly recognize emerging strains of influenza that present the greatest pandemic threat.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sylwia Jarzynka ◽  
Riccardo Spott ◽  
Tinatini Tchatchiashvili ◽  
Nico Ueberschaar ◽  
Mark Grevsen Martinet ◽  

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have been shown to exhibit plenty of benefits for infants, such as prebiotic activity shaping the gut microbiota and immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity. For some pathogenic bacteria, antimicrobial activity has been proved, but most studies focus on group B streptococci. In the present study, we investigated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of the total and fractionated HMOs from pooled human milk against four common human pathogenic Gram-negative species (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia cenocepacia) and three Gram-positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis). The activity of HMOs against enterococci and B. cenocepacia are addressed here for the first time. We showed that HMOs exhibit a predominant activity against the Gram-positive species, with E. faecalis being the most sensitive to the HMOs, both in planktonic bacteria and in biofilms. In further tests, we could exclude fucosyllactose as the antibacterial component. The biological significance of these findings may lie in the prevention of skin infections of the mother’s breast as a consequence of breastfeeding-induced skin laceration and/or protection of the infants’ nasopharynx and lung from respiratory pathogens such as staphylococci.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Kun Li ◽  
Christine Wohlford-Lenane ◽  
Jennifer A. Bartlett ◽  
Paul B. McCray

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes respiratory infection in humans, with symptom severity that ranges from asymptomatic to severe pneumonia. Known risk factors for severe MERS include male sex, older age, and the presence of various comorbidities. MERS-CoV gains entry into cells by binding its receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), on the surface of airway epithelia. We hypothesized that expression of this receptor might be an additional determinant of outcomes in different individuals during MERS-CoV infection. To learn more about the role of DPP4 in facilitating MERS-CoV infection and spread, we used ELISA and immunofluorescent staining to characterize DPP4 expression in well-differentiated primary human airway epithelia (HAE). We noted wide inter-individual variation in DPP4 abundance, varying by as much as 1000-fold between HAE donors. This variability appears to influence multiple aspects of MERS-CoV infection and pathogenesis, with greater DPP4 abundance correlating with early, robust virus replication and increased cell sloughing. We also observed increased induction of interferon and some interferon-stimulated genes in response to MERS-CoV infection in epithelia with the greatest DPP4 abundance. Overall, our results indicate that inter-individual differences in DPP4 abundance are one host factor contributing to MERS-CoV replication and host defense responses, and highlight how HAE may serve as a useful model for identifying risk factors associated with heightened susceptibility to serious respiratory pathogens.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document