respiratory tract
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2027 ◽  
Vol 74 (10) ◽  
pp. 6142-2027

Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) infections in poultry are an important epidemiological and economic problem in poultry production all over the world. The differences between M. synoviae strains are related to the pathogenicity and the course of the disease. In recent years, the pathogenicity of M. synoviae strains has increased, and some of them are capable of causing serious infections. Both horizontal and vertical transmission routes play an important role in MS infection in flocks. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of infection with selected MS strains obtained from chickens showing a clinical form of MS infection on SPF chicken embryos. Ten strains of M. synoviae were used for this purpose. The strains were isolated from the respiratory tract and the oviduct of chickens with symptoms typical of infection with this pathogen. Genetic material isolated from liquid cultures of these strains was confirmed by molecular (PCR and LAMP) and microbiological methods. The selected M. synoviae strains belonged to six different genotypes. Significant differences in virulence between the strains were demonstrated. In nine infected groups of embryos, M. synoviae strains caused weight loss, and in seven groups they produced anatomopathological changes characteristic of mycoplasma infections. The most pathogenic for SPF chicken embryos turned out to be strains characterized as genotype F isolated from the chicken oviduct and strains of genotype C isolated from the respiratory tract. One strain of genotype H isolated from the respiratory tract showed no pathogenic effect on SPF chicken embryos. The study showed that infections with M. synoviae can have a significant impact on the production of chicken chicks in commercial hatcheries and the economy of the poultry industry.

2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 112595
Felix Zulhendri ◽  
Conrad O. Perera ◽  
Steven Tandean ◽  
Rizky Abdulah ◽  
Herry Herman ◽  

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 40
Taisuke Tomonaga ◽  
Hiroto Izumi ◽  
Chinatsu Nishida ◽  
Kaori Kato ◽  
Kazuhiro Yatera ◽  

Photocatalytic filters installed in air purifiers have been used to purify spaces by decomposing allergenic substances. However, we have not found any reports that evaluate the effectiveness of photocatalytic filters in suppressing allergic reactions in living organisms. In this study, we intratracheally instilled ovalbumin (OVA) into OVA-sensitized mice after the OVA was photocatalyzed by a titanium dioxide (TiO2) filter, and verified the experimental model for evaluating the allergy-suppressing effect of photocatalysts. Mice were sensitized to OVA (10 µg/mouse) four times, and were intratracheally instilled with OVA (10 µg/mouse) after photocatalysis three times. Non-sensitized animals were instilled with normal saline following the same exposure schedule. The mice were dissected 24 h after final exposure. The OVA after photocatalysis significantly decreased the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the concentration of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 in serum, which were elevated in untreated OVA. Moreover, our experimental model showed the suppression of allergic reactions in mice, along with the decomposition of OVA after photocatalysis using the photocatalytic filter. Taken together, our experimental model for evaluating allergic reactions in the respiratory tract suggested that the allergy-suppressing effect of the photocatalytic filter can be evaluated.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 149
Eline Van Crombrugge ◽  
Emma Vanbeylen ◽  
Jolien Van Cleemput ◽  
Wim Van den Broeck ◽  
Kathlyn Laval ◽  

Respiratory disease in horses is caused by a multifactorial complex of infectious agents and environmental factors. An important pathogen in horses is equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1). During co-evolution with this ancient alphaherpesvirus, the horse’s respiratory tract has developed multiple antiviral barriers. However, these barriers can become compromised by environmental threats. Pollens and mycotoxins enhance mucosal susceptibility to EHV-1 by interrupting cell junctions, allowing the virus to reach its basolateral receptor. Whether bacterial toxins also play a role in this impairment has not been studied yet. Here, we evaluated the role of α-hemolysin (Hla) and adenylate cyclase (ACT), toxins derived from the facultative pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and the primary pathogen Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. bronchiseptica), respectively. Equine respiratory mucosal explants were cultured at an air–liquid interface and pretreated with these toxins, prior to EHV-1 inoculation. Morphological analysis of hematoxylin–eosin (HE)-stained sections of the explants revealed a decreased epithelial thickness upon treatment with both toxins. Additionally, the Hla toxin induced detachment of epithelial cells and a partial loss of cilia. These morphological changes were correlated with increased EHV-1 replication in the epithelium, as assessed by immunofluorescent stainings and confocal microscopy. In view of these results, we argue that the ACT and Hla toxins increase the susceptibility of the epithelium to EHV-1 by disrupting the epithelial barrier function. In conclusion, this study is the first to report that bacterial exotoxins increase the horse’s sensitivity to EHV-1 infection. Therefore, we propose that horses suffering from infection by S. aureus or B. bronchiseptica may be more susceptible to EHV-1 infection.

2022 ◽  
Carlos F Hurtado Serra ◽  
Helu Liu ◽  
Jun Qian ◽  
Munemasa Mori ◽  
Jining Lu ◽  

Differences in ciliary morphology and dynamics among multiciliated cells of the respiratory tract have been well reported and known to contribute to efficient mucociliary clearance. Nevertheless, little is known about how phenotypic differences among multiciliated cells are established in the mammalian lung. Here we show that Prominin-1 (Prom1), a transmembrane protein widely used as stem cell and tumor-initiating marker, is crucial to this process. During airway differentiation, Prom1 becomes restricted to multiciliated cells, where it is expressed at distinct levels along the proximal-distal axis of the airways and in the adult airway epithelium in vitro. We found that Prom1 is induced by Notch in post-specified multiciliated cells and that Notch inactivation abolishes the gradients of Prom1 in the developing airways and in differentiating organotypic cultures. Prom1 was not required for multicilia formation and when inactivated resulted in longer cilia, which remained functional but beating at a lower frequency. Disruption of Notch resulted in opposite effects and suggested that Notch fine-tunes Prom1 levels to regulate the multiciliated cell phenotype and generate diversity among these cells in the respiratory tract. By controlling these features, this mechanism contributes to the innate defense of the lung against environmental agents and prevent pulmonary disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 178
Magdalena Grochowska ◽  
Dominika Ambrożej ◽  
Aneta Wachnik ◽  
Urszula Demkow ◽  
Edyta Podsiadły ◽  

Since the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, many countries have introduced measures to limit the transmission. The data based on ICD-10 codes of lower respiratory tract infections and microbiological analysis of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections were collected. The retrospective five-year analysis of the medical records revealed a substantial decrease in respiratory tract infections during the pandemic year (from April 2020 to March 2021). We noted an 81% decline in the LRTI-associated hospital admissions based on the ICD-10 analysis (from a mean of 1170 admissions per year in the previous four years to 225 admissions between April 2020 through March 2021). According to microbiological analysis, there were 100%, 99%, 87%, and 47% drops in influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus, and norovirus cases reported respectively during the pandemic season until April 2021 in comparison to pre-pandemic years. However, the prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial infections was stable. Moreover, in August 2021, an unexpected rise in RSV-positive cases was observed. The measures applied during the COVID-19 pandemic turned out to be effective but also had a substantial contribution to the so-far stable epidemiological situation of seasonal infections.

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