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2022 ◽  
Vol 254 ◽  
pp. 113642
Author(s):  
Giovanni De Francesco ◽  
Timothy J. Sullivan

Author(s):  
Ruixue Huang

Insulin resistance is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), type II diabetes (T2D), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Emerging evidence indicates that these disorders are typically characterized by alterations in the gut microbiota composition, diversity, and their metabolites. Currently, it is understood that environmental hazards including ionizing radiation, toxic heavy metals, pesticides, particle matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are capable of interacting with gut microbiota and have a non-beneficial health effect. Based on the current study, we propose the hypothesis of “gut microenvironment baseline drift”. According to this “baseline drift” theory, gut microbiota is a temporarily combined cluster of species sharing the same environmental stresses for a short period, which would change quickly under the influence of different environmental factors. This indicates that the microbial species in the gut do not have a long-term relationship; any split, division, or recombination may occur in different environments. Nonetheless, the “baseline drift” theory considers the critical role of the response of the whole gut microbiome. Undoubtedly, this hypothesis implies that the gut microbiota response is not merely a “cross junction” switch; in contrast, the human health or disease is a result of a rich palette of gut-microbiota-driven multiple-pathway responses. In summary, environmental factors, including hazardous and normal factors, are critical to the biological impact of the gut microbiota responses and the dual effect of the gut microbiota on the regulation of biological functions. Novel appreciation of the role of gut microbiota and environmental hazards in the insulin resistance would shed new light on insulin resistance and also promote the development of new research direction and new overcoming strategies for patients.


Author(s):  
Lawrence Etoromat ◽  

This dissertation is presented on the topic, “Debt management literacy and financial performance of SACCOs in Kumi County”. The overall objective of the study was to determine the effect of Debt management literacy on financial performance of SACCOs in Kumi County and to achieve this the researcher used one specific objective Vinz; “To determine the effect of Debt management literacy on financial performance of SACCOs in Kumi County”. In carrying out the study, the researcher used a case study research design because of its ability to investigate the study variables in detail. The population under study was 150 (N) people and a sample population of 108 (n) people consisting of; SACCO board members, SACCO management team members and SACCO members. The sample size was determined by use of both probability and non-probability sampling techniques. In data collection, the researcher used a duo approach with the use of; Questionnaire survey method which allowed collection of firsthand information within a short period of time and interview method employed on some key informants i.e. SACCO Board members as this was intended to probe for more information, get clarification and capture facial expression. Two tools in this context were used i.e. Research Questionnaire and interview guide. The data collected was both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Data analysis was carried out in two fold; Quantitative data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 25*64 bit. Qualitative data was recorded in the researchers note book and transcribed for a clear meaning. The research findings highlighted a strong positive relationship between debt management literacy and financial performance of SACCOs with R = 0.666. The study confirmed that Debt management literacy explains 44.4% of financial performance as evident with R2= 0.444. The researcher based on the study findings recommended creation of awareness and corporative member education on debt management; Documentation and implementation of a comprehensive credit or debt management policy; There must be a clear line of authority as to who authorizes and approves what and creation of a policy on relationship management strategies so as to ensure long and lasting beneficial relationships with clients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Arantza Vega ◽  
M. Isabel Peña ◽  
Inés Torrado

Background:Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) allows first-line therapies in patients with immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) to chemotherapeutic drugs (ChD) and monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Desensitization in delayed drug reactions has traditionally used slow protocols extending up to several weeks; RDD protocols have been scarcely reported.Patients and Method:We retrospectively analyzed the patients referred to the Allergy Department, who had experienced a delayed DHR (> 6 h) related to a ChD or mAb and underwent an RDD protocol. The rate of successful administration of the offending drug and the presence of adverse reactions were evaluated.Results:A total of 93 RDDs were performed in 11 patients (including 6 men and 5 women, with a median age of 61 years). The primary DHR were maculopapular exanthema (MPE) (8), generalized delayed urticaria (1), MPE with pustulosis and facial edema (1), and facial edema with desquamative eczema (1). The meantime for the onset of symptoms was 3 days (range 1–16 days). RDD was performed using a protocol involving 8–13 steps, with temozolomide (25), bendamustine (4), rituximab (9), infliximab (24), gemcitabine (23), and docetaxel (8), within 4.6–6.5 h. Sixteen breakthrough reactions were reported during the RDD (17.2 %) in 5 patients; all were mild reactions including 11 delayed and 5 immediate reactions. All patients completed their treatment.Conclusions:RDD is a potentially safe and effective procedure in patients suffering from delayed reactions to ChD and mAb. It allows them to receive full treatment in a short period, thereby reducing time and hospital visits.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryota Nakajima ◽  
Toru Miyama ◽  
Tomo Kitahashi ◽  
Noriyuki Isobe ◽  
Yuriko Nagano ◽  
...  

Extreme storms, such as tropical cyclones, are responsible for a significant portion of the plastic debris transported from land to sea yet little is known about the storm response of microplastics and other debris in offshore and open waters. To investigate this, we conducted floating plastic surveys in the center of Sagami Bay, Japan approximately 30 km from the coastline, before and after the passage of a typhoon. The concentrations (number of particles/km2) of micro- and mesoplastics were two orders of magnitude higher 1-day after the typhoon than the values recorded pre-typhoon and the mass (g/km2) of plastic particles (sum of micro- and mesoplastics) increased 1,300 times immediately after the storm. However, the remarkably high abundance of micro- and mesoplastics found at 1-day after the typhoon returned to the pre-typhoon levels in just 2 days. Model simulations also suggested that during an extreme storm a significant amount of micro- and mesoplastics can be rapidly swept away from coastal to open waters over a short period of time. To better estimate the annual load of plastics from land to sea it is important to consider the increase in leakages of plastic debris into the ocean associated with extreme storm events.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 247
Author(s):  
Hao Zhang ◽  
Ling Pan ◽  
Xuqing Xie

Droplets impinging on solid surfaces is a common phenomenon. However, the motion of surfaces remarkably influences the dynamical behaviors of droplets, and related research is scarce. Dynamical behaviors of water nanodroplets impinging on translation and vibrating solid copper surfaces were investigated via molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The dynamical characteristics of water nanodroplets with various Weber numbers were studied at four translation velocities, four vibration amplitudes, and five vibration periods of the surface. The results show that when water nanodroplets impinge on translation surfaces, water molecules not only move along the surfaces but also rotate around the centroid of the water nanodroplet at the relative sliding stage. Water nanodroplets spread twice in the direction perpendicular to the relative sliding under a higher surface translation velocity. Additionally, a formula for water nanodroplets velocity in the translation direction was developed. Water nanodroplets with a larger Weber number experience a heavier friction force. For cases wherein water nanodroplets impinge on vibration surfaces, the increase in amplitudes impedes the spread of water nanodroplets, while the vibration periods promote it. Moreover, the short-period vibration makes water nanodroplets bounce off the surface.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chenyu Lin ◽  
Wen Chen ◽  
Yong Han ◽  
Yujie Sun ◽  
Xiaoqiong Zhao ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common severe acute syndrome caused by multiple causes, which is characterized by a rapid decline of renal function in a short period. Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are effective in the treatment of AKI. However, it remains unclear about the mechanism of their beneficial effects. PENT-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) may play an important role in the kidney tissue repair. In this study, an endeavor would be made to explore the enhancing effect of PINK1 overexpression on the repair of AKI through BMSCs. Methods: In this study, the ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (IRI-AKI) in mice and the hypoxia-reoxygenation model of cells were established, and the indexes were detected by pathology and immunology experimental.Results: After ischemia/reperfusion, compared with the BMSCs group, the OE PINK1 group had a decreased expression of BUN, the mitigated renal fibrosis , the reduced tissue damage degree. Overexpressed PINK1 could decrease the inflammatory reaction of injured kidney tissues in IRI-AKI mice, the decreased expression of IL-10 in peripheral blood serum; and regulate the distribution of immune cells in the kidney during IRI, the decreased infiltration of lymphocytes, the increased infiltration of macrophages; and reduce the stress response of BMSCs under hypoxia and inflammation; and enhance the stress response of BMSCs to renal tubular epithelial cells(RTECs) under hypoxia and inflammation, the decreased apoptosis rate of RTECs, the decreased release of TNF-α in the cell supernatant, and the decreased proliferation of PBMCs in peripheral blood after hypoxia and reoxygenation; and regulate the autophagy of BMSCs in kidney tissues with IRI-AKI to better repair the injured kidney tissues, the increased expression of LC3-B related to autophagy and the decreased expression of mTOR.Conclusions: In this study, PINK1 overexpression enhances the repair effect of BMSCs on IRI-AKI, and the distribution of injured renal immune cells during IRI regulation by BMSCs. Besides, PINK1 enhances BMSCs and their resistance to the stress response of RTECs under hypoxia and inflammation. In addition, it regulates mitophagy during IRI-AKI. The findings of this study provide a new direction and target for the repair of IRI-AKI through BMSCs.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryunosuke Harada ◽  
Hiroshi Yoshitake ◽  
Motoki Shino

Abstract To ensure the coexistence of autonomous personal mobility vehicles (PMVs) and pedestrians in a pedestrian zone, they should be able to smoothly pass across and avoid each other. Studies suggest that it is possible that PMVs and pedestrians can pass each other in a short period of time without compromising their comfort; this can be achieved through understanding how pedestrians react to the behavior of PMVs and by modifying the autonomous navigation of PMVs accordingly. Therefore, in this study, the avoidance behavior characteristics of pedestrians were investigated. Experiments were conducted to understand the influence of the selected avoiding behavior parameters and to understand the behavior characteristics of pedestrians in relation to the behavior of PMVs. Furthermore, a path planning strategy that enables smooth passing was developed based on these characteristics. The usefulness of this method was evaluated. The avoidance time and the avoiding angular velocity at the start and end of the avoidance behavior were the parameters that contributed to smooth autonomous navigation. The results show that pedestrian tolerance improves and the avoidance width decreases depending on these parameters. Furthermore, smooth autonomous navigation can be achieved using the characteristics of pedestrians’ cognition against PMVs.


Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 123
Author(s):  
Gianfranco Piccirillo ◽  
Federica Moscucci ◽  
Damiano Magrì

Little is known about the impact of air pollution on neuroautonomic system. The authors have investigated possible influence of air pollution and outdoor temperature on the carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH), as main cause of neurally mediated syncope in forty-years-old subjects and older. Pollutants’ concentrations and outdoor temperature of days in which 179 subjects with recurrent syncope underwent carotid sinus massage (CSM) were analyzed. Before this manoeuvre, cardiovascular control by short period heart and blood pressure spectral duration of segment between the end of P and R ECG-waves (PeR) were registred; RR variability on the same short period ECG recordings and their spectral coherence were also analyzed. CSH was found in 57 patients (28 with cardioinhibitory response and 29 subjects showed vasodepressor reaction), while 122 subjects had a normal response. CSM performed during high ozone concentrations was associated with slightly higher risk of cardioinhibitory response (odd ratio 1.012, 95% CI 1.001–1.023, p < 0.05), but neither this or other polluting agent nor outdoor temperature seemed to influence autonomic control in basal resting condition. Thus, ozone seemed to influence response to the CSM in CSH patients and it is probably able to facilitate a cardioinhibitory response, perhaps through an increase of nerve acetylcholine release. P→PR coherence could be useful in predicting a sinus cardioinhibitory hypersensitivity in those cases when CSM is contraindicated.


Author(s):  
Soomin Jeon ◽  
Hyaekang Kim ◽  
Jina Kim ◽  
Donghyeok Seol ◽  
Jinchul Jo ◽  
...  

Recently, the concept of the “gut-brain axis” has risen and suggested that microbes in the GI tract affect the brain by modulating signal molecules. Although many pieces of research were reported in a short period, a signaling mechanism and the effects of a specific bacterial strain are still unclear.


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