Purpose: Responding to a recent editorial arguing against defining rehabilitation, we discuss the reasons for developing a classification of rehabilitation for research purposes, its philosophical background and some of the possible risks. Why define: Science requires the definition and classification of phenomena to allow replication of experiments and studies, and to allow interpretation and use of the findings. As understanding increases, the definitions can be refined. Defining rehabilitation does run the risk of excluding some interventions or practices that are either considered rehabilitation (perhaps wrongly) or are rehabilitation interventions; when identified, these errors in definition can be remedied. Defining rehabilitation for research purposes should not inhibit but could (possibly) orient research. Risk of not: Without a definition, rehabilitation will remain in a permanent limbo. Experts will (apparently) know what it is, while others are left guessing or failing to comprehend or recognise it. This uncertainty may reassure some people, because all possible interventions are included; we argue that it downgrades the understanding of our field because interventions that are not rehabilitation are, nonetheless, called rehabilitation. In an era of international collaboration, and of undertaking systematic reviews with metanalysis, we need a shared definition. Conclusion: Terminology is often controversial, but definition enables progress in understanding such that terms themselves can evolve over time.
The paper develops a methodology for interpreting and analysing translation features (including strategies, tactics, and operations) of the Chinese press within the language pair “Chinese – Ukrainian”. Special attention is paid to the lexical and grammatical characteristics of the Chinese press as manipulative instruments. The philosophical background of the Chinese newspaper lexicon is considered, which stipulates a diverse use of common and specific vocabulary (including terms) from modern Chinese (?? / báihuà), idiomatic expressions (?? / chéngy?), neologisms and literary words from old Chinese (?? / wény?), and emotionally coloured vocabulary. The grammatical level is represented by a fixed word order in a sentence; complex, compound, and two-member simple sentences; all communicative types of sentences; lack of elliptical structures; a large number of particles. The research offers an integrated approach to the study of the strategy of communicatively equivalent translation, translation tactics, and operations when dealing with the Chinese press. Some translation regularities are illustrated.
This article analyzes the philosophical arguments used by John of Damascus against the Manichaean dualist cosmological system in his Dialogue contra Manichaeos, showing some parallels with his Dialectica, and revealing a common Aristotelian background. The philosophical argument in the Dialogue seems to be a practical application of philosophical doctrines formulated in the Dialectica. From a wider perspective of anti-Manichean polemics used in part for instructional purposes for students of philosophy and theology in Late Antiquity, the conclusion is made that the purpose of the Dialogue was aimed not so much against the Manichaean cosmogony and cosmology, but against the Manichaean theodicy, which might have been attractive to some Christians of John’s times.
I suggest that it is fruitful to read Hume's Enquiry concerning Human Understanding as a concise exposition of an epistemic ideal whose complex philosophical background is laid down in A Treatise of Human Nature. Accordingly, the Treatise offers a theory of cognitive and affective capacities, which serves in the Enquiry as the foundation for a critique of chimerical epistemic ideals, and the development of an alternative ideal. Taking the "mental geography" of the Treatise as his starting point, this is the project Hume pursues in the Enquiry. The epistemic ideal Hume spells out in the Enquiry is an alternative to competing ideals: the Aristotelian, the Cartesian, and the Newtonian, and can be read as an exposition of the epistemic ideal of modern science. Although the spell of the Aristotelian and the Cartesian ideals had been in decline for several decades by the 1740s, they had not fully lost their grip on the philosophical imagination. Yet, it was the Newtonian epistemic ideal that became dominant in Scotland and Britain by then, guiding inquiry in moral and natural philosophy, as well as in medical theory. Hume offers a critique of these ideals. He shows that Aristotelian and Cartesian epistemic aspirations rest on mistaken views on human cognitive capacities. And albeit the Newtonian ideal is not prone to this mistake by Hume's standards, its epistemic expectations extend far beyond the limits of those capacities. Hume's epistemic ideal can be read as a correction, limitation and refinement of the Newtonian ideal: it sets epistemic aims and propagates methods for the production of fallible, limited and potentially useful knowledge that falls short of the great epistemic expectations of Newton and many Newtonians - but it conforms to what we expect from modern science.
Language identification is a complex process. In most cases, the processes of language identification by governmental
agencies are based on their political compulsions and intentions. Even objective studies made by linguists are not free from the flaws of
their philosophical background. This kind of lack of objectivity in establishing linguistic identities may lead to linguistic right
movements. In this context, an ethnolinguistic analysis to establish the identity of a language becomes important. The cases of Balmiki and
Kupia represent a situation where the linguistic identities of many languages are equally disputable due to the lack of scientific and
objective studies. They are listed as different languages in many governmental and non-governmental reports. Linguists who have worked on
these languages held the view that Balmiki is an isolated language spoken in Odisha only and is certainly different from Kupia, which is
spoken in Andhra Pradesh. The present study attempts to ascertain the ethnolinguistic position of Balmiki vis-à-vis Kupia using
bibliographical evidence. It concludes that Balmiki and Kupia are one and the same language. It also finds that it is well recorded and
studied by different scholars since long.
The death of god, which refers to the absence of god's value, weight, significance, and role from people's life experience, is among the most dominant themes of existential literature, especially that of Sartre. It is heavily investigated in his theoretical as well as creative works, such as Being and Nothingness (1969) and The Flies (1989) as it constitutes the cornerstone of his philosophical views of Existentialism, nihilism, freedom, and responsibility. It is hard to understand Sartre's The Flies (1989) and its philosophical background as well as theme(s) without considering the concept of the death of god and its involvement in the development of actions. Accordingly, this paper reads The Flies (1989) investigating Sartre's techniques of introducing and contending that god is dead and has nothing to do with people's life or prosperity. Considering the related literature and the different perspectives of Nietzsche and Hegel regarding Existentialism, the paper deciphers certain scenes and speeches delivered by several characters, such as Zeus, Orestes, and Electra, and it concludes that Sartre’s The Flies (1989) shows how the belief in the death of god may function as a productive force in humans' life and existence. Thus, the paper may help readers of Sartre better understand the existential mechanism of the death of god and comprehend why Sartre's Existentialism is to be viewed as an optimistic, rather than pessimistic, approach.
Russell preserved notes he took on McTaggart’s course on Lotze’s major works in 1898. They are published here for the first time. Russell’s abbreviations are expanded and deletions noted. N. Milkov introduces the notes and provides Russell’s biographical and philosophical background. The course on Lotze, on whose philosophy of geometry Russell had already written, was influential in his development away from monism.