airway opening
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Claude Guérin ◽  
Martin Cour ◽  
Laurent Argaud

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is mostly characterized by the loss of aerated lung volume associated with an increase in lung tissue and intense and complex lung inflammation. ARDS has long been associated with the histological pattern of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). However, DAD is not the unique pathological figure in ARDS and it can also be observed in settings other than ARDS. In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related ARDS, the impairment of lung microvasculature has been pointed out. The airways, and of notice the small peripheral airways, may contribute to the loss of aeration observed in ARDS. High-resolution lung imaging techniques found that in specific experimental conditions small airway closure was a reality. Furthermore, low-volume ventilator-induced lung injury, also called as atelectrauma, should involve the airways. Atelectrauma is one of the basic tenet subtending the use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) set at the ventilator in ARDS. Recent data revisited the role of airways in humans with ARDS and provided findings consistent with the expiratory flow limitation and airway closure in a substantial number of patients with ARDS. We discussed the pattern of airway opening pressure disclosed in the inspiratory volume-pressure curves in COVID-19 and in non-COVID-19 related ARDS. In addition, we discussed the functional interplay between airway opening pressure and expiratory flow limitation displayed in the flow-volume curves. We discussed the individualization of the PEEP setting based on these findings.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11279
Jan Matejka ◽  
Martin Rozanek ◽  
Jakub Rafl

High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is a type of mechanical ventilation with a protective potential characterized by a small tidal volume. Unfortunately, HFOV has limited monitoring of ventilation parameters and mechanical parameters of the respiratory system, which makes it difficult to adjust the continuous distension pressure (CDP) according to the individual patient’s airway status. Airway resistance Raw is one of the important parameters describing the mechanics of the respiratory system. The aim of the presented study was to verify in vitro whether the resistance of the respiratory system Rrs can be reliably determined during HFOV to evaluate Raw in pediatric and adult patients. An experiment was performed with a 3100B high-frequency oscillator, a physical model of the respiratory system, and a pressure and flow measurement system. The physical model with different combinations of resistance and compliance was ventilated during the experiment. The resistance Rrs was calculated from the impedance of the physical model, which was determined from the spectral density of the pressure at airway opening and the spectral cross-density of the gas flow and pressure at airway opening. Rrs of the model increased with an added resistor and did not change significantly with a change in compliance. The method is feasible for monitoring respiratory system resistance during HFOV and has the potential to optimize CDP settings during HFOV in clinical practice.

Circulation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 144 (Suppl_2) ◽  
Shiv Bhandari ◽  
Jason Coult ◽  
Natalie Bulger ◽  
Catherine Counts ◽  
Heemun Kwok ◽  

Introduction: In 40-70% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases, chest compressions (CCs) during CPR induce measurable oscillations in capnography (E T CO 2 ). Recent studies suggest the magnitude and frequency of oscillations are due to intrathoracic airflow dependent on airway patency. These oscillations can be quantified by the Airway Opening Index (AOI), ranging from 0-100%. We sought to develop, automate, and evaluate multiple methods of computing AOI throughout CPR. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all OHCA cases in Seattle, WA during 2019. E T CO 2 and impedance waveforms from LifePak 15 defibrillators were annotated for the presence of intubation and CPR, and imported into MATLAB for analysis. Four proposed methods for computing AOI were developed (Fig. 1) using peak E T CO 2 in conjunction with ΔE T CO 2 (oscillations in E T CO 2 from CCs). We examined the feasibility of automating ΔE T CO 2 and AOI calculation during CCs throughout OHCA resuscitation and evaluated differences in mean AOI using each method. Statistical significance was assessed with ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). Results: AOI was measurable in 312 of 465 cases. Mean [95% confidence interval] AOI across all cases was 34.3% [32.0-36.5%] for method 1, 27.6% [25.5-29.7%] for method 2, 22.7% [21.1-24.3%] for method 3, and 28.8% [26.6-31.0%] for method 4. Mean AOI was significantly different across the four methods (p<0.001), with the greatest difference between method 1 and 3 (11.6%, p<0.001), but no significant difference between methods 2 and 4 (p=0.44). Mean ΔE T CO 2 was 7.76 [7.08-8.44] mmHg. Conclusion: We implemented four proposed methods of automatically calculating AOI during OHCA. Each method produced a different average AOI. Consistent, automated methods to measure AOI provide the foundation to evaluate if, and how, AOI may change with treatment or predict outcomes. These four approaches require additional investigation to understand which may be best suited to improve OHCA care.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Matthias K. Jung ◽  
Gregor V. R. von Ehrlich-Treuenstätt ◽  
Holger Keil ◽  
Paul A. Grützner ◽  
Niko R. E. Schneider ◽  

AbstractThe aim of this study was to compare the remaining motion of an immobilized cervical spine using an innovative cervical collar as well as two traditional cervical collars. The study was performed on eight fresh human cadavers. The cervical spine was immobilized with one innovative (Lubo Airway Collar) and two traditional cervical collars (Stifneck and Perfit ACE). The flexion and lateral bending of the cervical spine were measured using a wireless motion tracker (Xsens). With the Weinman Lubo Airway Collar attached, the mean remaining flexion was 20.0 ± 9.0°. The mean remaining flexion was lowest with the Laerdal Stifneck (13.1 ± 6.6°) or Ambu Perfit ACE (10.8 ± 5.8°) applied. Compared to that of the innovative Weinmann Lubo Airway Collar, the remaining cervical spine flexion was significantly decreased with the Ambu Perfit ACE. There was no significant difference in lateral bending between the three examined collars. The most effective immobilization of the cervical spine was achieved when traditional cervical collars were implemented. However, all tested cervical collars showed remaining motion of the cervical spine. Thus, alternative immobilization techniques should be considered.

Emanuele Rezoagli ◽  
Aurora Magliocca ◽  
Domenico Luca Grieco ◽  
Giacomo Bellani ◽  
Giuseppe Ristagno

2021 ◽  
Hongmei Chen ◽  
Yan Luo ◽  
Dongmei Li ◽  
Minyue Sun ◽  
Xiangmei Yang

Abstract Airway opening is a key technique in the implementation of airway management. Based on the airway opening theory of CPR and tracheal intubation, we developed a new device to replace manual methods to open the airway of patients and maintain airway patency automatically and accurately. This device is a novel, automatic, non-invasive, simple, multifunctional, and widely used airway opening device, which can measure three important values of angle, adjust the lifting height of the upper body of patients, place patients in an optimized position accurately, maintain airway patency, protect the cervical spine, and dynamically display the values of angle, height, working speed, and time. Moreover, the device can be used in the clinical practices of bronchoscopy, tracheal intubation, difficult intubation, and CPR, which can free the hands of health care staff, alleviate their fatigue, and compensate for the incorrect, inadequate, or ineffective operation in the manual airway opening methods. We conducted a preliminary manikin study to evaluate the effectiveness of the device in airway opening and found that the device has good efficacy on airway opening.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Mariangela Pellegrini ◽  
Göran Hedenstierna ◽  
Anders Sune Larsson ◽  
Gaetano Perchiazzi

BackgroundPotentially harmful lung overstretch can follow intraparenchymal gas redistribution during mechanical ventilation. We hypothesized that inspiratory efforts characterizing spontaneous breathing, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and high inspiratory resistances influence inspiratory intraparenchymal gas redistribution.MethodsThis was an experimental study conducted on a swine model of mild acute respiratory distress syndrome. Dynamic computed tomography and respiratory mechanics were simultaneously acquired at different PEEP levels and external resistances, during both spontaneous breathing and controlled mechanical ventilation. Images were collected at two cranial–caudal levels. Delta-volume images (ΔVOLs) were obtained subtracting pairs of consecutive inspiratory images. The first three ΔVOLs, acquired for each analyzed breath, were used for the analysis of inspiratory pendelluft defined as intraparenchymal gas redistribution before the start of inspiratory flow at the airway opening. The following ΔVOLs were used for the analysis of gas redistribution during ongoing inspiratory flow at the airway opening.ResultsDuring the first flow-independent phase of inspiration, the pendelluft of gas was observed only during spontaneous breathing and along the cranial-to-caudal and nondependent-to-dependent directions. The pendelluft was reduced by high PEEP (p &lt; 0.04 comparing PEEP 15 and PEEP 0 cm H2O) and low external resistances (p &lt; 0.04 comparing high and low external resistance). During the flow-dependent phase of inspiration, two patterns were identified: (1) gas displacing characterized by large gas redistribution areas; (2) gas scattering characterized by small, numerous areas of gas redistribution. Gas displacing was observed at low PEEP, high external resistances, and it characterized controlled mechanical ventilation (p &lt; 0.01, comparing high and low PEEP during controlled mechanical ventilation).ConclusionsLow PEEP and high external resistances favored inspiratory pendelluft. During the flow-dependent phase of the inspiration, controlled mechanical ventilation and low PEEP and high external resistances favored larger phenomena of intraparenchymal gas redistribution (gas displacing) endangering lung stability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 899
Jan Matejka ◽  
Martin Rozanek ◽  
Jakub Rafl ◽  
Petr Kudrna ◽  
Karel Roubik

High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), which uses a small tidal volume and a high respiratory rate, is considered a type of protective lung ventilation that can be beneficial for certain patients. A disadvantage of HFOV is its limited monitoring of lung mechanics, which complicates its settings and optimal adjustment. Recent studies have shown that respiratory system reactance (Xrs) could be a promising parameter in the evaluation of respiratory system mechanics in HFOV. The aim of this study was to verify in vitro that a change in respiratory system mechanics during HFOV can be monitored by evaluating Xrs. We built an experimental system consisting of a 3100B high-frequency oscillatory ventilator, a physical model of the respiratory system with constant compliance, and a system for pressure and flow measurements. During the experiment, models of different constant compliance were connected to HFOV, and Xrs was derived from the impedance of the physical model that was calculated from the spectral density of airway opening pressure and spectral cross-power density of gas flow and airway opening pressure. The calculated Xrs changed with the change of compliance of the physical model of the respiratory system. This method enabled monitoring of the trend in the respiratory system compliance during HFOV, and has the potential to optimize the mean pressure setting in HFOV in clinical practice.

Edgardo Giacomo D'Angelo ◽  
Matteo M. Pecchiari ◽  
François Bellemare ◽  
Gabriele Cevenini ◽  
Paolo Barbini

We investigated the effects of heliox administration (80% Helium in O2) on tidal inspiratory flow limitation (tIFL) occurring in supine anesthetized spontaneously breathing rabbits, regarded as an animal model of obstructive apnea-hypopnea syndrome. 22 rabbits were instrumented to record oro-nasal mask flow, airway opening, tracheal and esophageal pressures and diaphragm and genioglossus electromyographic activities while breathing either room air or heliox, and, in 12 rabbits, also during the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP; 6 cmH2O). For the group, heliox increased peak inspiratory flow, ventilation (18±11%), peak inspiratory tracheal and dynamic transpulmonary pressures, but in no animal eliminated tIFL, as instead CPAP did in all. Muscle activities were unaffected by heliox. In the presence of IFL the increase in flow with heliox (ΔV̇IFL) varied markedly among rabbits (2 to 49%), allowing the distinction between responders and non-responders. None of the baseline variables discriminated responders and non-responders. However, fitting the Rohrer equation (R=K1+K2V̇) to the tracheal pressure-flow relationship over the first 0.1s of inspiration while breathing air allowed such discrimination on the basis of larger K2 in responders (0.005±.002 vs 0.002±.001 cmH2O·s2·ml-2; p<0.001), suggesting a corresponding difference in the relative contribution of laminar and turbulent flow. The differences in ΔV̇IFL between responders and non-responders were simulated by modeling the collapsible segment of the upper airways as a non-linear resistor and varying its pressure-volume curve, length and diameter, thus showing the importance of mechanical and geometrical factors in determining the response to heliox in the presence of tIFL.

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