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Bone Reports ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
pp. 101157
Daniel Chaverri ◽  
Daniel Vivas ◽  
Santiago Gallardo-Villares ◽  
Fernando Granell-Escobar ◽  
Javier A. Pinto ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. canprevres.CAPR-21-0451-E.2021
Huanling Zhao ◽  
Jiahao Zhu ◽  
Lap Ah TSE ◽  
Sanjay Kinra ◽  
Yingjun Li

Endocrinology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Brendan J Houston ◽  
Anne E O’Connor ◽  
Degang Wang ◽  
Georgia Goodchild ◽  
D Jo Merriner ◽  

Abstract Testicular derived inhibin B (α/βB dimers) acts in an endocrine manner to suppress pituitary production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), by blocking the actions of activins (βA/B/βA/B dimers). Previously, we identified a homozygous genetic variant (c.1079T>C:p.Met360Thr) arising from uniparental disomy of chromosome 2 in the INHBB gene (βB-subunit of inhibin B and activin B) in a man suffering from infertility (azoospermia). In this study, we aimed to test the causality of the p.Met360Thr variant in INHBB and testis function. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate Inhbb  M364T/M364T mice, where mouse INHBB p.Met364 corresponds with human p.Met360. Surprisingly, we found that the testes of male Inhbb  M364T/M364T mutant mice were significantly larger compared with those of aged-matched wildtype littermates at 12 and 24 weeks of age. This was attributed to a significant increase in Sertoli cell and round spermatid number and, consequently, seminiferous tubule area, in Inhbb  M364T/M364T males compared to wildtype males. Despite this testis phenotype, male Inhbb  M364T/M364T mutant mice retained normal fertility. Serum hormone analyses however, indicated that the Inhbb  M364T variant resulted in reduced circulating levels of activin B, but did not affect FSH production. We also examined the effect of this p.Met360Thr, and an additional INHBB variant (c.314C>T: p.Thr105Met) found in another infertile man, on inhibin B and activin B in vitro biosynthesis. It was found that both INHBB variants resulted in a significant disruption to activin B in vitro biosynthesis. Together, this analysis supports that INHBB variants that limit activin B production have consequences for testis composition in males.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 284
John H. White

Vitamin D deficiency, characterized by low circulating levels of calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25D) has been linked to increased risk of infections of bacterial and viral origin. Innate immune cells produce hormonal calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25D) locally from circulating calcifediol in response to pathogen threat and an immune-specific cytokine network. Calcitriol regulates gene expression through its binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a ligand-regulated transcription factor. The hormone-bound VDR induces the transcription of genes integral to innate immunity including pattern recognition receptors, cytokines, and most importantly antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Transcription of the human AMP genes β-defensin 2/defensin-β4 (HBD2/DEFB4) and cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) is stimulated by the VDR bound to promoter-proximal vitamin D response elements. HDB2/DEFB4 and the active form of CAMP, the peptide LL-37, which form amphipathic secondary structures, were initially characterized for their antibacterial actively. Notably, calcitriol signaling induces secretion of antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo, and low circulating levels of calcifediol are associated with diverse indications characterized by impaired antibacterial immunity such as dental caries and urinary tract infections. However, recent work has also provided evidence that the same AMPs are components of 1,25D-induced antiviral responses, including those against the etiological agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, the SARS-CoV2 coronavirus. This review surveys the evidence for 1,25D-induced antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo in humans and presents our current understanding of the potential mechanisms by which CAMP and HBD2/DEFB4 contribute to antiviral immunity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Qiao Zhao ◽  
Sabine J. L. Nooren ◽  
Laurien E. Zijlstra ◽  
Jos J. M. Westenberg ◽  
Lucia J. M. Kroft ◽  

The prevalence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is rapidly increasing and mostly occurring in patients aged 65 years or older. The main cause of death in these patients is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Novel markers of vascular integrity may thus be of clinical value for identifying patients at high risk for CVD. Here we associated the levels of selected circulating angiogenic miRNAs, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) with cardiovascular structure and function (as determined by cardiovascular MRI) in 67 older patients reaching ESKD that were included from ‘The Cognitive decline in Older Patients with End stage renal disease’ (COPE) prospective, multicentered cohort study. We first determined the association between the vascular injury markers and specific heart conditions and observed that ESKD patients with coronary heart disease have significantly higher levels of circulating ADMA and miR-27a. Moreover, circulating levels of miR-27a were higher in patients with atrial fibrillation. In addition, the circulating levels of the vascular injury markers were associated with measures of cardiovascular structure and function obtained from cardiovascular MRI: pulse wave velocity (PWV), ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac index (CI). We found Ang-2 and miR-27a to be strongly correlated to the PWV, while Ang-2 also associated with ejection fraction. Finally, we observed that in contrast to miR-27a, Ang-2 was not associated with a vascular cause of the primary kidney disease, suggesting Ang-2 may be an ESKD-specific marker of vascular injury. Taken together, among older patients with ESKD, aberrant levels of vascular injury markers (miR-27a, Ang-2 and ADMA) associated with impaired cardiovascular function. These markers may serve to identify individuals at higher risk of CVD, as well as give insight into the underlying (vascular) pathophysiology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 690
Roberta Zerlotin ◽  
Angela Oranger ◽  
Patrizia Pignataro ◽  
Manuela Dicarlo ◽  
Filippo Maselli ◽  

Irisin is a peptide secreted by skeletal muscle following exercise that plays an important role in bone metabolism. Numerous experiments in vitro and in mouse models have shown that the administration of recombinant irisin promotes osteogenesis, protects osteocytes from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, prevents disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass, and accelerates fracture healing. Although some aspects still need to be elucidated, such as the dose- and frequency-dependent effects of irisin in cell cultures and mouse models, ample clinical evidence is emerging to support its physiological relevance on bone in humans. A reduction in serum irisin levels, associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures, was observed in postmenopausal women and in both men and women during aging, Recently, cohort studies of subjects with secondary osteoporosis showed that these patients have lower circulating levels of irisin, suggesting that this myokine could be a novel marker to monitor bone quality in this disease. Although there are still few studies, this review discusses the emerging data that are highlighting the involvement of irisin in some diseases that cause secondary osteoporosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Masako Fujiwara ◽  
Itiro Ando ◽  
You Shishido ◽  
Yutaka Imai ◽  
Hiroyuki Terawaki

Abstract Background Hemodialysis (HD) is a protein catabolic event. However, the amino acid (AA) kinetics during HD sessions involved in protein breakdown have not been well investigated in patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Case presentation Three patients (two patients with DM and one patient without DM) underwent fasting HD. Plasma levels of branched-chain AAs (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine), major non-essential AAs (alanine and glutamine, including glutamate), insulin, and ketone bodies were measured every hour during each HD session. After the start of the HD session, the plasma levels of insulin and all BCAAs dropped simultaneously. There was a significant subsequent increase in the plasma level of leucine and isoleucine levels, while valine levels remained constant. However, the recovery in levels of BCAAs during HD indicated a profound amount of BCAAs entering the blood from body tissues such as muscles. BCAAs may have surpassed their removal by HD. Ketone body levels increased continuously from the start of the sessions and reached high values in patients with DM. Synchronous changes in insulin depletion and an increase in the levels of ketone bodies may indicate disruption of energy metabolism. Conclusions This is the first report to demonstrate the time course of the changes in circulating levels of BCAAs and related metabolites in energy homeostasis during HD. An increase in BCAA levels during HD was found to be due to their transfer from the body tissue which suggested protein breakdown.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 555
Xing Wang ◽  
Hannah Kaiser ◽  
Amanda Kvist-Hansen ◽  
Benjamin D. McCauley ◽  
Lone Skov ◽  

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory condition associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Systemic anti-psoriatic treatments mainly include methotrexate and biological therapies targeting TNF, IL-12/23 and IL-17A. We profiled plasma proteins from patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis to explore potential biomarkers of effective systemic treatment and their relationship to CVD. We found that systemically well-treated patients (PASI < 3.0, n = 36) had lower circulating levels of IL-17 pathway proteins compared to untreated patients (PASI > 10, n = 23). Notably, IL-17C and PI3 were decreased with all four examined systemic treatment types. Furthermore, in patients without CVD, we observed strong correlations among IL-17C/PI3/PASI (r ≥ 0.82, p ≤ 1.5 × 10−12) pairs or between IL-17A/PASI (r = 0.72, p = 9.3 × 10−8). In patients with CVD, the IL-17A/PASI correlation was abolished (r = 0.2, p = 0.24) and the other correlations were decreased, e.g., IL-17C/PI3 (r = 0.61, p = 4.5 × 10−5). Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis and CVD had lower levels of IL-17A compared to those without CVD (normalized protein expression [NPX] 2.02 vs. 2.55, p = 0.013), and lower IL-17A levels (NPX < 2.3) were associated with higher incidence of CVD (OR = 24.5, p = 0.0028, 95% CI 2.1–1425.1). As a result, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, we propose circulating IL-17C and PI3 as potential biomarkers of effective systemic anti-psoriatic treatment, and IL-17A as potential marker of CVD.

2022 ◽  
Yanislava Karusheva ◽  
Matt Ratcliff ◽  
Audrey Melvin ◽  
Alexander Moerseburg ◽  
Naveed Sattar ◽  

Genetic variants in proteins can interfere with measurement of their circulating concentrations. Given the growing biomedical importance of GDF-15, we wished to establish whether a common histidine to aspartate variant present in position 6 of the mature GDF-15 protein (H202D variant) interfered with its measurement by two commonly used immunoassays. We first examined the detectability of recombinant monomers, homodimers and heterodimers of GDF-15 by assays and/or reagents used in two widely used immunoassays (Roche Elecsys GDF-15 and the R&D antibody combinations used in their Quantikine and DuoSet ELISAs). The Roche assay detected the H and D containing peptides similarly but the assays based on the R&D reagents consistently underreported concentrations of the D-containing variant peptide. Measurements of plasma concentrations of GDF-15 in genotyped human participants showed that the R&D reagents reported values in heterozygotes were ~25% lower, and in homozygotes, 50% lower than the Roche assay. We finally studied the activation of the GDF-15 receptor, GFRAL-Ret, in a cell based assay and found that the activities of the HH and DD containing GDF-15 peptide were indistinguishable. These results have implications for the interpretation of genetic epidemiological studies which have used the R&D reagents to measure GDF-15, and for the emerging clinical use of GDF-15 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. We provide correction equations, which may be of utility for the analysis of data generated with the R&D reagents where the genotype of the participants is known.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Mohamed M. Ali ◽  
Imaduddin Mirza ◽  
Dina Naquiallah ◽  
Chandra Hassan ◽  
Mario Masrur ◽  

CD147 is a glycoprotein that stimulates the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), known contributors to cardiovascular risk. The activity of CD147 protein depends on its glycosylation. However, it is unclear whether CD147 protein expression or glycosylation are influenced by the diabetic milieu characterized by hyperglycemia and abundant glycation-end-products (AGEs). We examined the circulating and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) levels of CD147 and their correlation with vascular function in obese, obese diabetic, and non-obese controls (n = 40, each). The circulating levels of CD147 and the glycosylated CD147 protein in VAT were considerably higher in obese, particularly obese diabetic subjects compared to controls. Obese diabetics had the lowest brachial and arteriolar vasoreactivity and the highest carotid pulse-wave velocity (PWV, a measure of arterial stiffness) among the three groups. CD147 correlated positively with body mass index (BMI), total and visceral fat mass, PWV, and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, MMPs, and AGEs and negatively with brachial artery and VAT-arteriolar vasoreactivity and nitric oxide production. Multivariate regression revealed that BMI, body fat mass, insulin, and glucose levels significantly predicted CD147. Our data suggest that higher levels of CD147 in obese subjects, particularly those with diabetes, are linked to vascular dysfunction and several cardiometabolic risk factors.

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