antibiotic treatment
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2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 112486
Shiyu Li ◽  
Yusong Jin ◽  
Wenyi Fu ◽  
Abigail D. Cox ◽  
Dale Lee ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 185
Davide Roncarati ◽  
Vincenzo Scarlato ◽  
Andrea Vannini

Since the discovery of penicillin in the first half of the last century, antibiotics have become the pillars of modern medicine for fighting bacterial infections. However, pathogens resistant to antibiotic treatment have increased in recent decades, and efforts to discover new antibiotics have decreased. As a result, it is becoming increasingly difficult to treat bacterial infections successfully, and we look forward to more significant efforts from both governments and the scientific community to research new antibacterial drugs. This perspective article highlights the high potential of bacterial transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators as targets for developing new drugs. We highlight some recent advances in the search for new compounds that inhibit their biological activity and, as such, appear very promising for treating bacterial infections.

JAMA Surgery ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. e216900
Charles Parsons ◽  
Nathan I. Shapiro ◽  
Randall Cooper ◽  
Aleksandr Tichter ◽  

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
David M. P. De Oliveira ◽  
Brian M. Forde ◽  
Minh-Duy Phan ◽  
Bernhard Steiner ◽  
Bing Zhang ◽  

Within intensive care unit settings, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is a major cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia, and hospital-associated outbreaks are becoming increasingly widespread. Antibiotic treatment of A. baumannii infection is often compromised by MDR strains resistant to last-resort β-lactam (e.g., carbapenems), polymyxin, and tetracycline class antibiotics.

Gut Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Jana Schreier ◽  
Daniela Karasova ◽  
Magdalena Crhanova ◽  
Ivan Rychlik ◽  
Silke Rautenschlein ◽  

Abstract Background Enterococcus cecorum (EC) is one of the main reasons for skeletal disease in meat type chickens. Intervention strategies are still rare and focus mainly on early antibiotic treatment of the disease, although there are no data available concerning the effectivity of this procedure. The present study aimed to investigate the effectivity of early lincomycin-spectinomycin treatment during the first week of life after EC-infection. Furthermore, the impact of lincomycin-spectinomycin treatment and EC infection on the development of cecal microbiota was investigated. Methods A total of 383 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four groups (non-infected and non-treated, non-infected and treated, EC-infected and non-treated, and EC-infected and treated). The EC-infected groups were inoculated orally with an EC suspension at the day of arrival and at study day 3. The treatment groups were treated with lincomycin-spectinomycin via the drinking water for six consecutive days, starting two hours after the first inoculation. Necropsy of 20 chickens per group was performed at study days 7, 14, 21, and 42. Bacteriological examination via culture and real-time PCR was performed to detect EC in different extraintestinal organs. Cecal samples of nine chickens per group and necropsy day were analyzed to characterize the composition of the cecal microbiota. Results No clinical signs or pathologic lesions were found at necropsy, and EC was not detected in extraintestinal organs of the EC-infected and treated birds. Lincomycin-spectinomycin promoted the growth of the bacterial genus Escherichia/Shigella and reduced the amount of potentially beneficial Lactobacillus spp. in the ceca regardless of EC-infection. Unexpectedly, the highest abundances of the genus Enterococcus were found directly after ending antibiotic treatment in both treatment groups, suggesting the growth of resistant enterococcal species. EC was not detected among the most abundant members of the genus Enterococcus. Oral EC-infection at the first day of life did not influence the development of cecal microbiota in the present study. Conclusions Lincomycin-spectinomycin treatment during the first week of life can prevent the EC-associated disease in broiler type chickens and has a direct impact on the development of the cecal microbiota. The low abundance of EC in the ceca of infected chickens underlines the pathogenic nature of the disease-causing EC strains. Further research on alternative prevention and intervention strategies is needed with regard to current efforts on reducing the use of antibiotics in livestock animals.

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Samantha E. Nicolau ◽  
Kim Lewis

Persisters are phenotypic variants that survive exposure to antibiotics through temporary dormancy. Mutants with increased levels of persisters have been identified in clinical isolates, and evidence suggests these cells contribute to chronic infections and antibiotic treatment failure.

Respiration ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Yuanyuan Wang ◽  
Victor Pera ◽  
H. Marike Boezen ◽  
Jan-Willem C. Alffenaar ◽  
Bob Wilffert ◽  

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Although antibiotic treatment is recommended for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), its value in real-world settings is still controversial. <b><i>Objectives:</i></b> This study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of antibiotic treatment on AECOPD outpatients. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> A cohort study was conducted under the PharmLines Initiative. We included participants with a first recorded diagnosis of COPD who received systemic glucocorticoid treatment for an AECOPD episode. The exposed and reference groups were defined based on any antibiotic prescription during the AECOPD treatment. The short-term outcome was AECOPD treatment failure within 14–30 days after the index date. The long-term outcome was time to the next exacerbation. Adjustment for confounding was made using propensity scores. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Of the 1,105 AECOPD patients, antibiotics were prescribed to 518 patients (46.9%) while 587 patients (53.1%) received no antibiotics. The overall antibiotic use was associated with a relative risk reduction of AECOPD treatment failure by 37% compared with the reference group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.63 [95% CI: 0.40–0.99]). Protective effects were similar for doxycycline, macrolides, and co-amoxiclav, although only the effect of doxycycline was statistically significant (aOR 0.53 [95% CI: 0.28–0.99]). No protective effect was seen for amoxicillin (aOR 1.49 [95% CI: 0.78–2.84]). The risk of and time to the next exacerbation was similar for both groups. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Overall, antibiotic treatment, notably with doxycycline, supplementing systemic glucocorticoids reduces short-term AECOPD treatment failure in real-world outpatient settings. No long-term beneficial effects of antibiotic treatment on AECOPD were found for the prevention of subsequent exacerbations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 108 ◽  
pp. 103366
Henny O. Omosigho ◽  
Elmer Swart ◽  
Tom P. Sizmur ◽  
Dave J. Spurgeon ◽  
Claus Svendsen ◽  

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