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2022 ◽  
Solomon A Sloat ◽  
Luke M Noble ◽  
Annalise B Paaby ◽  
Max Bernstein ◽  
Audrey Chang ◽  

Factors shaping the distribution and abundance of species include life-history traits, population structure, and stochastic colonization-extinction dynamics. Field studies of model species groups help reveal the roles of these factors. Species of Caenorhabditis nematodes are highly divergent at the sequence level but exhibit highly conserved morphological uniformity, and many of these species live in sympatry on microbe-rich patches of rotten material. Here, we use field experiments and large-scale opportunistic collections to investigate species composition, abundance, and colonization efficiency of Caenorhabditis in two of the world's best studied lowland tropical field sites: Barro Colorado Island in Panamá and La Selva in Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. We observed seven species of Caenorhabditis, four of them known only from these collections. While these localities contain species from many parts of the phylogeny, both localities were dominated by globally distributed androdiecious species. We found that Caenorhabditis were able to colonize baits accessible only by phoresy, preferring to colonize baits making direct contact with the ground. We estimate founder numbers per colonization event to be low.

2022 ◽  
Fang Qin ◽  
Sen Du ◽  
Zefeng Zhang ◽  
Hanqi Ying ◽  
Ying Wu ◽  

AbstractViruses play critical roles in influencing biogeochemical cycles and adjusting host mortality, population structure, physiology, and evolution in the ocean. Marine viral communities are composed of numerous genetically distinct subfamily/genus-level viral groups. Among currently identified viral groups, the HMO-2011-type group is known to be dominant and broadly distributed. However, only four HMO-2011-type cultivated representatives that infect marine SAR116 and Roseobacter strains have been reported to date, and the genetic diversity, potential hosts, and ecology of this group remain poorly elucidated. Here, we present the genomes of seven HMO-2011-type phages that were isolated using four Roseobacter strains and one SAR11 strain, as well as additional 207 HMO-2011-type metagenomic viral genomes (MVGs) identified from various marine viromes. Phylogenomic and shared-gene analyses revealed that the HMO-2011-type group is a subfamily-level group comprising at least 10 discernible genus-level subgroups. Moreover, >2000 HMO-2011-type DNA polymerase sequences were identified, and the DNA polymerase phylogeny also revealed that the HMO-2011-type group contains diverse subgroups and is globally distributed. Metagenomic read-mapping results further showed that most HMO-2011-type phages are prevalent in global oceans and display distinct geographic distributions, with the distribution of most HMO-2011-type phages being associated with temperature. Lastly, we found that members in subgroup IX, represented by pelagiphage HTVC033P, were among the most abundant HMO-2011-type phages, which implies that SAR11 bacteria are crucial hosts for this viral group. In summary, our findings substantially expand current knowledge regarding the phylogenetic diversity, evolution, and distribution of HMO-2011-type phages, highlighting HMO-2011-type phages as major ecological agents that can infect certain key bacterial groups.

Riti Mann ◽  
Rayane Rafei ◽  
Cindy Gunawan ◽  
Christopher J. Harmer ◽  
Mohammad Hamidian

To date, efforts to study the resistance mechanisms of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii have been largely focused on the two major globally distributed clones (GC1 and GC2). ST85 is an emerging sequence type, and unlike other clones, it is associated with the carriage of the bla NDM gene.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 552
Christopher Weirich ◽  
Yandan Lin ◽  
Tran Khanh

Today, up to hundreds of RGB and W-LEDs are positioned in a vehicle’s interior context and are able to be individually controlled in intensity, color and sequence. However, which kind of illumination distracts or supports car occupants and how to define such a modern illumination system is still under discussion and unknown. For that, first a definition for an in-vehicle lighting system is introduced. Second, a globally distributed study was performed based on a free-access online survey to investigate in-vehicle lighting for visual signaling within 10 colors, eight positions and six dynamic patterns. In total, 238 participants from China and Europe rated color preferences, color moods, light-position preferences, differences between manual and autonomous driving and also different meanings for dynamic lighting patterns. Out of these, three strong significant (p < 0.05) color preference groups were identified with a polarized, accepted or merged character. For the important driving-signaling mood attention, we found a significant hue dependency for Europeans which was missing within the Chinese participants. In addition, we identified that light positioned at the door and foot area was globally favored. Furthermore, we evaluated qualitative results: men are primarily focusing on fast-forward, whereas women paid more attention on practical light usage. These findings conclude the need for a higher lighting-car-occupant adaptation in the future grounded by deeper in-vehicle human factors research to achieve a higher satisfaction level. In interdisciplinary terms, our findings might also be helpful for interior building or general modern cockpit designs for trains or airplanes.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 70
Giang Tran Thi ◽  
Ilenia Azzena ◽  
Fabio Scarpa ◽  
Piero Cossu ◽  
Cong Danh Le ◽  

Taenia saginata is a globally distributed tapeworm responsible for human taeniasis due to the ingestion of raw or undercooked beef. T. saginata is present in several Asian countries, including China, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, and Vietnam, but little is known about its genetic variation. Studying the tapeworm’s phylogeographic patterns is crucial to better understanding their association with the geographic distribution of taeniasis/cysticercosis in human populations. In the present study, 38 specimens of this putative species were collected in central regions of Vietnam and analysed using the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) as a molecular marker to assess the correct species identification and investigate the level of genetic variation at different geographic scales. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were carried out on a dataset that included COI sequences from Vietnamese specimens and from all conspecifics available in GenBank to date. The results showed that the collected Vietnamese specimens belonged to the species T. saginata. In Southeast Asia, signs of a possible founder effect were discovered, with the most common haplotypes frequent and present in many countries, except Lao PDR, which shares its most common haplotype only with individuals from Thailand. Remarkably, a unique taxonomic entity was found worldwide, even though the available COI sequences of T. saginata belonging to non-Asiatic countries are, at present, limited. Therefore, future studies including more COI sequences from a higher number of countries and the use of a combined molecular approach with multiple genetic markers would be useful to provide deeper insight into the global genetic variation of this species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 258 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
P. Swaczyna ◽  
T. J. Eddy ◽  
E. J. Zirnstein ◽  
M. A. Dayeh ◽  
D. J. McComas ◽  

Abstract Remote imaging of plasmas in the heliosphere and very local interstellar medium is possible with energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), created through the charge exchange of protons with interstellar neutral atoms. ENA observations collected by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) revealed two distinctive sources. One source is the globally distributed flux (GDF), which extends over the entire sky and varies over large spatial scales. The other source encompasses only a narrow circular band in the sky and is called the IBEX ribbon. Here, we utilize the observed difference in spatial scales of these two ENA sources to separate them. We find that linear combinations of spherical harmonics up to degree ℓ max = 3 can reproduce most of the ENA fluxes observed outside the ribbon region. We use these combinations to model the GDF and the difference between the observed fluxes and the GDF yields estimation of the ribbon emission. The separated ribbon responds with a longer time delay to the solar wind changes than the GDF, suggesting a more distant source of the ribbon ENAs. Moreover, we locate the direction of the maximum plasma pressure based on the GDF. This direction is 17°.2 ± 0°.5 away from the upwind direction within the plane containing the interstellar flow and interstellar magnetic field vectors. This deflection is consistent with the expected position of the maximum external pressure at the heliopause. The maps with separated ribbon and GDF are posted concurrently with this paper and can be used to further study these two sources.

2021 ◽  
John E Bowen ◽  
Alexandra C Walls ◽  
Anshu Joshi ◽  
Kaitlin R Sprouse ◽  
Cameron Stewart ◽  

Numerous safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines have been developed that utilize various delivery technologies and engineering strategies. The influence of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein conformation on antibody responses induced by vaccination or infection in humans remains unknown. To address this question, we compared plasma antibodies elicited by six globally-distributed vaccines or infection and observed markedly higher binding titers for vaccines encoding a prefusion-stabilized S relative to other groups. Prefusion S binding titers positively correlated with plasma neutralizing activity, indicating that physical stabilization of the prefusion conformation enhances protection against SARS-CoV-2. We show that almost all plasma neutralizing activity is directed to prefusion S, in particular the S1 subunit, and that variant cross-neutralization is mediated solely by RBD-specific antibodies. Our data provide a quantitative framework for guiding future S engineering efforts to develop vaccines with higher resilience to the emergence of variants and longer durability than current technologies.

Ziwen Xu ◽  
Shiquan Lv ◽  
Shuxiang Hu ◽  
Liang Chao ◽  
Fangxu Rong ◽  

Paddy soils are globally distributed and saturated with water long term, which is different from most terrestrial ecosystems. To better understand the environmental risks of antibiotics in paddy soils, this study chose sulfadiazine (SDZ) as a typical antibiotic. We investigated its adsorption behavior and the influence of soil solution properties, such as pH conditions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ionic concentrations (IC), and the co-existence of Cu2+. The results indicated that (1) changes in soil solution pH and IC lower the adsorption of SDZ in paddy soils. (2) Increase of DOC facilitated the adsorption of SDZ in paddy soils. (3) Cu2+ co-existence increased the adsorption of SDZ on organic components, but decreased the adsorption capacity of clay soil for SDZ. (4) Further FTIR and SEM analyses indicated that complexation may not be the only form of Cu2+ and SDZ co-adsorption in paddy soils. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that soil solution properties and co-existent cations determine the sorption behavior of SDZ in paddy soils.

Camilo Romero Núñez ◽  
Laura Miranda Contreras ◽  
Rafael Heredia Cardenas

Aims: Giardia duodenalis is a globally distributed zoonotic protozoan. It has a variable prevalence. This study determines the prevalence of Giardia spp. in cat faecal samples from states of the Mexican Republic. Place and Duration of Study: Was carried out in 23 of the 32 states of the Mexican Republic, from June to December 2019.  Methodology: Stool samples from 1591 client-owned cats were analysed for the detection of G. duodenalis (cysts or trophozoites). Faecal samples were analysed by direct smear techniques with and without staining (Lugol) and centrifugal floatation (faust), and were examined under a light microscope.  Results: Of the cats sampled, 56.94% were positive for G. duodenalis. Its prevalence was associated and is a risk factor in cats that live with other animals (Chi2= 21.84, p= 0.0001; OR= 1.61, p= 0.0001), with hunting habits (Chi2= 5.53 p= 0.01, OR= 1.27 p= 0.01), with access to the outside (Chi2= 53.06, p= 0.0001; OR= 2.13, p=0.0001) and with the aqueous faeces (Chi2= 12.30, p=0.03; Chi2= 1.71, p= 0.03). Factors for not presenting Giardia spp. in faeces were, not brushing the cat (OR=0.74, p= 0.006), provenance (OR= 0.42, p=0.02), and median height (OR= 0.78, p= 0.01). Age, gender, hair type, coexistence with other cats and other stool findings were not associated as risk factors for infection. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a high overall prevalence of G. duodenalis in cats in Mexico, in addition to an association of its prevalence with risk factors such as cats living with other animals, hunting habits and access to outdoors.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12362
Daniel Madzia ◽  
Victoria M. Arbour ◽  
Clint A. Boyd ◽  
Andrew A. Farke ◽  
Penélope Cruzado-Caballero ◽  

Ornithischians form a large clade of globally distributed Mesozoic dinosaurs, and represent one of their three major radiations. Throughout their evolutionary history, exceeding 134 million years, ornithischians evolved considerable morphological disparity, expressed especially through the cranial and osteodermal features of their most distinguishable representatives. The nearly two-century-long research history on ornithischians has resulted in the recognition of numerous diverse lineages, many of which have been named. Following the formative publications establishing the theoretical foundation of phylogenetic nomenclature throughout the 1980s and 1990s, many of the proposed names of ornithischian clades were provided with phylogenetic definitions. Some of these definitions have proven useful and have not been changed, beyond the way they were formulated, since their introduction. Some names, however, have multiple definitions, making their application ambiguous. Recent implementation of the International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature (ICPN, or PhyloCode) offers the opportunity to explore the utility of previously proposed definitions of established taxon names. Since the Articles of the ICPN are not to be applied retroactively, all phylogenetic definitions published prior to its implementation remain informal (and ineffective) in the light of the Code. Here, we revise the nomenclature of ornithischian dinosaur clades; we revisit 76 preexisting ornithischian clade names, review their recent and historical use, and formally establish their phylogenetic definitions. Additionally, we introduce five new clade names: two for robustly supported clades of later-diverging hadrosaurids and ceratopsians, one uniting heterodontosaurids and genasaurs, and two for clades of nodosaurids. Our study marks a key step towards a formal phylogenetic nomenclature of ornithischian dinosaurs.

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