energy allocation
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Junghoon Lee ◽  
Gyung-Leen Park

This paper designs an energy allocation scheme based on maximum flow modeling for a microgrid containing renewable energy generators and consumer facilities. Basically, the flow graph consists of a set of nodes representing consumers or generators as well as a set of weighted links representing the amount of energy generation, consumer-side demand, and transmission cable capacity. The main idea lies in that a special node is added to account for the interaction with the main grid and that two-pass allocation is executed. In the first pass, the maximum flow solver decides the amount of the insufficiency and thus how much to purchase from the main grid. The second pass runs the flow solver again to fill the energy lack and calculates the surplus of renewable energy generation. The performance measurement result obtained from a prototype implementation shows that the generated energy is stably distributed over multiple consumers until the energy generation reaches the maximum link capacity.

Fang Wang ◽  
Weixiang Lv

Abstract Migratory insects display diverse behavioral strategies in response to external environmental shifts, via energy allocation of migration-reproduction trade-offs. However, how migratory insects distribute energy between migration and reproduction as an adaptive strategy to confront temporary low temperatures remains unclear. Here, we used Mythimna separata, a migratory cereal crop pest, to explore the effects of low temperature on reproductive performance, behavior, and energy allocation. We found that the influence of low temperatures on reproduction was not absolutely negative, but instead depended on the intensity, duration, and age of exposure to low temperature. Exposure to 6°C for 24 h significantly accelerated the onset of oviposition and ovarian development, and increased the synchrony of egg-laying and lifetime fecundity in 1-day-old adults compared to the control, while female's flight capacity decreased significantly on the first and second day after moths were exposed to 6°C. Furthermore, the abdominal and total triglycerides levels of females decreased significantly from exposure to low temperature, but their thoracic triglyceride content was significantly higher than the control on the third and fourth day. These results indicated that low temperatures induced M. separata to reduce energy investment for the development of flight system. This resulted in the shifting of moths from being migrants to residents during the environmental sensitive period (first day post-emergence). This expands our understanding of the adaptive strategy employed by migratory insects to deal with low temperatures and aids in the management of this pest species in China.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 8121
Ahmed Samy ◽  
Haining Yu ◽  
Hongli Zhang ◽  
Guangyao Zhang

Recently, the development of distributed renewable energy resources, smart devices, and smart grids empowers the emergence of peer-to-peer energy trading via local energy markets. However, due to security and privacy concerns in energy trading, sensitive information of energy traders could be leaked to an adversary. In addition, malicious users could perform attacks against the energy market, such as collusion, double spending, and repudiation attacks. Moreover, network attacks could be executed by external attackers against energy networks, such as eavesdropping, data spoofing, and tampering attacks. To tackle the abovementioned attacks, we propose a secure and privacy-preserving energy trading system (SPETS). First, a permissioned energy blockchain is presented to perform secure energy transactions between energy sellers and buyers. Second, a discrete-time double auction is proposed for energy allocation and pricing. Third, the concept of reputation scores is adopted to guarantee market reliability and trust. The proposed energy system is implemented using Hyperledger Fabric (HF) where the chaincode is utilized to control the energy market. Theoretical analysis proves that SPETS is resilient to several security attacks. Simulation results demonstrate the increase in sellers’ and buyers’ welfare by approximately 76.5% and 26%, respectively. The proposed system ensures trustfulness and guarantees efficient energy allocation. The benchmark analysis proves that SPETS consumes few resources in terms of memory and disk usage, CPU, and network utilization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1320
Xunmeng Li ◽  
Kai Wang ◽  
Jianqu Chen ◽  
Shouyu Zhang

Sargassum fusiforme is a seaweed species that plays an important role in the diverse communities of the flora and fauna of coastal food webs. Assessments of its biomass and energy allocation in addition to allometric organ growth have important ecological value for understanding the community structure, carbon storage, and resource assessment of seaweed beds during periods in which they thrive. In this study, the morphology of Sargassum fusiforme and the biomass of organs and total organisms in the maturation period were studied, and the allometric relationships for different organs of Sargassum fusiforme were analyzed using the standardized major axis (SMA). In the maturation period of Sargassum fusiforme, branch number, height × stem diameter were the prior independent variables, and the optimum biomass was y = 0.002x1.107 (R2 = 0.923). The biomass allocation ratio of blades was the highest (38.33%), followed by stems (32.90%) and receptacles (28.77%). The growth rates of the various organs were found to differ, and the rate of biomass increase for the blades and stems tended to converge. The rate of receptacle biomass growth of Sargassum fusiforme was the highest in the maturation period, and the rate of organ biomass increase was Wb < Ws < Wt < Wr, which reflects the trade-off with energy allocation as a strategy used by Sargassum fusiforme.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (50) ◽  
pp. e2107621118
Daniel E. Lieberman ◽  
Timothy M. Kistner ◽  
Daniel Richard ◽  
I-Min Lee ◽  
Aaron L. Baggish

The proximate mechanisms by which physical activity (PA) slows senescence and decreases morbidity and mortality have been extensively documented. However, we lack an ultimate, evolutionary explanation for why lifelong PA, particularly during middle and older age, promotes health. As the growing worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity accelerates the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases among aging populations, integrating evolutionary and biomedical perspectives can foster new insights into how and why lifelong PA helps preserve health and extend lifespans. Building on previous life-history research, we assess the evidence that humans were selected not just to live several decades after they cease reproducing but also to be moderately physically active during those postreproductive years. We next review the longstanding hypothesis that PA promotes health by allocating energy away from potentially harmful overinvestments in fat storage and reproductive tissues and propose the novel hypothesis that PA also stimulates energy allocation toward repair and maintenance processes. We hypothesize that selection in humans for lifelong PA, including during postreproductive years to provision offspring, promoted selection for both energy allocation pathways which synergistically slow senescence and reduce vulnerability to many forms of chronic diseases. As a result, extended human healthspans and lifespans are both a cause and an effect of habitual PA, helping explain why lack of lifelong PA in humans can increase disease risk and reduce longevity.

2021 ◽  
Yumeng Pang ◽  
Chih-Shin Chen ◽  
Tomohiko Kawamura ◽  
Yoko Iwata

Abstract Squid are characterized by flexible life-history traits (LHTs) that change in response to changing oceanic parameters. Male alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), characterized by large-sized ‘consorts’ versus small-sized ‘sneakers’, are commonly observed in loliginid species. This study reports on LHTs flexibility in male squids displaying ARTs. LHTs of consorts and sneakers in Uroteuthis edulis, including body size, age, growth rate and gonado-somatic energy allocation, were compared among seasonal and geographical groups from Japan and Taiwan. The ratio of consorts to sneakers was highest in the group spawning in the ‘Japan-warm’ season (June-November), followed by that of the ‘Japan-cold’ season (December-May), and lowest in Taiwan (spring and autumn). LHTs were compared among cohorts separated by hatching season and catch location (Jwarm, Jcold and Taiwan cohorts). Mean body size of consorts showed no difference among cohorts, although Taiwan consorts were relatively younger than Japan consorts. Mean size and age of sneakers decreased with increased water temperature at hatching. Growth rates of consorts and sneakers were slightly different among cohorts, in accordance with differences of statolith increment widths during their early life stage (50-150 d). Growth rates of both consorts and sneakers were highest in the Taiwan cohort, followed by the Jwarm cohort, with the Jcold cohort lowest. Sneakers invested more both in mantle and gonadal weights than consorts in all cohorts. Gonado-somatic energy allocation patterns of consorts and sneakers were consistent at different temperatures. LHTs of U. edulis consorts and sneakers were strongly influenced by temperature, with higher flexibility in sneakers than consorts.

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