neglected tropical diseases
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0260326
Ricardo Antunes Dantas de Oliveira ◽  
Diego Ricardo Xavier Silva ◽  
Maurício Gonçalves e Silva

Snakebite accidents are considered category A neglected tropical diseases. Brazil stands out for snakebite accidents, mainly in the Amazon region. The best possible care after snakebite accidents is to obtain antiophidic sera on time. And the maximum ideal time to reach it is about 2 hours after an accident. Based on public health information and using a tool to analyze geographical accessibility, we evaluate the possibility of reaching Brazilian serum-providing health facilities from the relationship between population distribution and commuting time. In this exploratory descriptive study, the geographic accessibility of Brazilian population to health facilities that supply antiophidic serum is evaluated through a methodology that articulates several issues that influence the commuting time to health units (ACCESSMOD): population and facilities’ distribution, transportation network and means, relief and land use, which were obtained in Brazilian and international sources. The relative importance of the population without the possibility of reaching a facility in two hours is highlighted for Macro-Regions, States and municipalities. About nine million people live in locations more than two hours away from serum-providing facilities, with relevant variations between regions, states, and municipalities. States like Mato Grosso, Pará and Maranhão had the most important participation of population with reaching time problems to those units. The most significant gaps are found in areas with a dispersed population and sometimes characterized by a high incidence of snakebites, such as in the North of the country, especially in the Northeastern Pará state. Even using a 2010 population distribution information, because of the 2020 Census postponement, the tendencies and characteristics analyzed reveal challenging situations over the country. The growing availability of serum-providing health facilities, the enhanced possibilities of transporting accident victims, and even the availability of sera in other types of establishments are actions that would allow expanding the possibilities of access to serum supply.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010061
Sebastião Rogério da Silva Neto ◽  
Thomás Tabosa Oliveira ◽  
Igor Vitor Teixeira ◽  
Samuel Benjamin Aguiar de Oliveira ◽  
Vanderson Souza Sampaio ◽  

Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) primarily affect the poorest populations, often living in remote, rural areas, urban slums or conflict zones. Arboviruses are a significant NTD category spread by mosquitoes. Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika are three arboviruses that affect a large proportion of the population in Latin and South America. The clinical diagnosis of these arboviral diseases is a difficult task due to the concurrent circulation of several arboviruses which present similar symptoms, inaccurate serologic tests resulting from cross-reaction and co-infection with other arboviruses. Objective The goal of this paper is to present evidence on the state of the art of studies investigating the automatic classification of arboviral diseases to support clinical diagnosis based on Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) models. Method We carried out a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) in which Google Scholar was searched to identify key papers on the topic. From an initial 963 records (956 from string-based search and seven from a single backward snowballing procedure), only 15 relevant papers were identified. Results Results show that current research is focused on the binary classification of Dengue, primarily using tree-based ML algorithms. Only one paper was identified using DL. Five papers presented solutions for multi-class problems, covering Dengue (and its variants) and Chikungunya. No papers were identified that investigated models to differentiate between Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika. Conclusions The use of an efficient clinical decision support system for arboviral diseases can improve the quality of the entire clinical process, thus increasing the accuracy of the diagnosis and the associated treatment. It should help physicians in their decision-making process and, consequently, improve the use of resources and the patient’s quality of life.

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Aya Hefnawy ◽  
Gabriel Negreira ◽  
Marlene Jara ◽  
James A. Cotton ◽  
Ilse Maes ◽  

Humans and their pathogens are continuously locked in a molecular arms race during which the eventual emergence of pathogen drug resistance (DR) seems inevitable. For neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), DR is generally studied retrospectively once it has already been established in clinical settings.

2022 ◽  
pp. 004947552110666
Santosh Govind Rathod ◽  
Afaq Ahmad Khan ◽  
Sajad Ahmed Geelani ◽  
Reshma Roshan ◽  
Javid Rasool Bhat

Snake bite is an acute life threating medical emergency and is included amonst neglected tropical diseases. 1 Every year in India 200,000 people bitten by snakes and >25% are fatal. 2 In Maharashtra, Konkan area, the green pit viper (Trimeresurus gramineus) is uncommon, though this snake has become more common. [ Figure 1 ]

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 5
Martin Walker ◽  
Luzia T. Freitas ◽  
Julia B. Halder ◽  
Matthew Brack ◽  
Jennifer Keiser ◽  

The Infectious Diseases Data Observatory (IDDO, has launched a clinical data platform for the collation, curation, standardisation and reuse of individual participant data (IPD) on treatments for two of the most globally important neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs). This initiative aims to harness the power of data-sharing by facilitating collaborative joint analyses of pooled datasets to generate robust evidence on the efficacy and safety of anthelminthic treatment regimens. A crucial component of this endeavour has been the development of a Research Agenda to promote engagement with the SCH and STH research and disease control communities by highlighting key questions that could be tackled using data shared through the IDDO platform. Here, we give a contextual overview of the priority research themes articulated in the Research Agenda—a ‘living’ document hosted on the IDDO website—and describe the three-stage consultation process behind its development. We also discuss the sustainability and future directions of the platform, emphasising throughout the power and promise of ethical and equitable sharing and reuse of clinical data to support the elimination of NTDs.

Raíssa Bernardes da Silva ◽  
Willian dos Reis Bertoldo ◽  
Lucila Langoni Naves ◽  
Fernanda Bernadelli de Vito ◽  
Jeziel Dener Damasceno ◽  

Leishmania parasites are the causative agents of a group of neglected tropical diseases known as leishmaniasis. The molecular mechanisms employed by these parasites to adapt to the adverse conditions found in their hosts are not yet completely understood. DNA repair pathways can be used by Leishmania to enable survival in the interior of macrophages, where the parasite is constantly exposed to oxygen reactive species. In higher eukaryotes, DNA repair pathways are coordinated by the central protein kinases ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR). The enzyme Exonuclease-1 (EXO1) plays important roles in DNA replication, repair, and recombination, and it can be regulated by ATM- and ATR-mediated signaling pathways. In this study, the DNA damage response pathways in promastigote forms of L. major were investigated using bioinformatics tools, exposure of lineages to oxidizing agents and radiation damage, treatment of cells with ATM and ATR inhibitors, and flow cytometry analysis. We demonstrated high structural and important residue conservation for the catalytic activity of the putative LmjEXO1. The overexpression of putative LmjEXO1 made L. major cells more susceptible to genotoxic damage, most likely due to the nuclease activity of this enzyme and the occurrence of hyper-resection of DNA strands. These cells could be rescued by the addition of caffeine or a selective ATM inhibitor. In contrast, ATR-specific inhibition made the control cells more susceptible to oxidative damage in an LmjEXO1 overexpression-like manner. We demonstrated that ATR-specific inhibition results in the formation of extended single-stranded DNA, most likely due to EXO1 nucleasic activity. Antagonistically, ATM inhibition prevented single-strand DNA formation, which could explain the survival phenotype of lineages overexpressing LmjEXO1. These results suggest that an ATM homolog in Leishmania could act to promote end resection by putative LmjEXO1, and an ATR homologue could prevent hyper-resection, ensuring adequate repair of the parasite DNA.

2022 ◽  
Fazila Haryati Ahmag ◽  
Hasmah Mohamed Haris ◽  
Noor Aliza Lodz ◽  
Norzawati Yoep ◽  

BACKGROUND Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection is one of the 13 notable Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) according to the CDC and WHO. In 2010, it is estimated that 1.73 billion people are infected with STH globally of which 70% of cases occur in Asia. To date, there is a dearth of published literature on the prevalence of STH infection throughout Malaysia. OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study are to review research activity on STH infection in Malaysia, to estimate the prevalence of STH infection among Malaysian, and to identify significant risk factors associated with the infection. METHODS We will conduct a scoping review based on the 6-stages structured framework of Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) methodology. A comprehensive search strategy focusing on STH infection will be executed using electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE). A systematic approach to searching, screening, reviewing and data extraction will be applied based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Review (PRISMA-ScR). Mendeley software and Microsoft Excel programmes will be used to manage the references and to remove duplicates. Relevant data from selected articles will be extracted using a standardized data extraction form using the Google Form application. Results will be summarized descriptively in tabular form including types of interventions, study design, settings, tools used, and the outcomes of each study. RESULTS We would like to provide further evidence on the prevalence of STH in terms of parasite species that predominately cause the infection and the intensity of the infection. Finally, we will present the significant risk factors that contribute to STH infection and discuss prevention taken by considering the government or private sectors involvement towards curbing this issue. CONCLUSIONS We hope that the findings of this scoping review will provide information for policymakers and strengthen policy guidelines to eradicate STH infection, and for researchers to further study and investigate any STH-related issue in Malaysia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 75 (suppl 2) ◽  
Zilmar Augusto de Souza Filho ◽  
Antonia Margareth Moita Sá ◽  
Linda Karolinne Rodrigues Almeida Cunha ◽  
Tainan Fabrício da Silva ◽  
Rafaela Barros dos Santos ◽  

ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze knowledge production adherence from a master’s course in nursing in the Amazon to care and health demands in the region, with an emphasis on neglected tropical diseases and traditional populations in the Amazon. Methods: a descriptive study, with a quantitative approach and documentary basis, analyzing dissertations defended in a Graduate Program in Nursing at the Universidade do Estado do Pará in association with the Universidade Federal do Amazonas, from 2012-2019. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: of the 105 dissertations analyzed, 30 (28.6%) were related to neglected tropical diseases. Of these, 11 (10.5%) dealt with Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, malaria, and leprosy. Traditional populations in the Amazon participated in only 11 (10.5%) studies. Conclusions: knowledge production in a master’s course has adherence to care and health demands in the region; however, it needs to enhance its production to strengthen its identity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
Nzeribe Emmanuella ◽  
Okereke Melody ◽  
Ogunkola Isaac Olushola ◽  
Isa Mashkur Abdulhamid ◽  
Adebisi Yusuff Adebayo ◽  

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