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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Binyam Fekadu ◽  
Ismael Ali ◽  
Zergu Tafesse ◽  
Hailemariam Segni

Abstract Background Essential newborn care (ENC) is a package of interventions which should be provided for every newborn baby regardless of body size or place of delivery immediately after birth and should be continued for at least the seven days that follows. Even though Ethiopia has endorsed the implementation of ENC, as other many counties, it has been challenged. This study was conducted to measure the level of essential newborn care practice and identify health facility level attributes for consistent delivery of ENC services by health care providers. Methods This study employed a retrospective cross-sectional study design in 425 facilities. Descriptive statistics were formulated and presented in tables. Binary logistic regression was employed to assess the statistical association between the outcome variable and the independent variables. All variables with p < 0.2 in the bivariate analysis were identified as candidate variables. Then, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using candidate variables to determine statistically significant predictors of the consistent delivery of ENC by adjusting for possible confounders. Results A total of 273, (64.2%), of facilities demonstrated consistent delivery of ENC. Five factors—availability of essential obstetrics drugs in delivery rooms, high community score card (CSC) performances, availability of maternity waiting homes, consistent partograph use, and availability of women-friendly delivery services were included in the model. The strongest predictor of consistent delivery of essential newborn care (CD-ENC) was consistent partograph use, recording an odds ratio of 2.66 (AOR = 2.66, 95%CI: 1.71, 4.13). Similarly, providing women-friendly services was strongly associated with increased likelihood of exhibiting CD-ENC. Furthermore, facilities with essential obstetric drugs had 1.88 (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.08) times higher odds of exhibiting consistent delivery of ENC. Conclusion The delivery of essential newborn care depends on both health provider and facility manager actions and availability of platforms to streamline relationships between the clients and health facility management.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Oumar Bassoum ◽  
Ndeye Mareme Sougou ◽  
Mouhamadou Faly Ba ◽  
Malick Anne ◽  
Mamoudou Bocoum ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In Senegal, studies focusing specifically on vaccination coverage with the Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine, the birth dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV zero dose) and the birth dose of hepatitis B (HepB-BD) vaccine are insufficient. This study aimed to highlight vaccination coverages with birth doses and factors associated with timely vaccination in Podor health district. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from June 19 to 22, 2020. The study population consisted of children aged 12 to 23 months of which 832 were included. A stratified two-stage cluster survey was carried out. The sources of data were home-based records (HBR), health facility registries (HFR) and parental recalls. Timely vaccination refers to any vaccination that has taken place within 24 h after birth. Descriptive analyzes, the chi-square test and logistic regression were performed. Results The crude vaccination coverages with BCG, OPV zero dose and HepB-BD were 95.2%, 88.3% and 88.1%, respectively. Vaccination coverages within 24 h after birth were estimated at 13.9%, 30% and 42.1%, respectively. The factors associated with timely HepB-BD are delivery in a health facility (AOR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.02–2.40), access to television (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16–2.29), weighing (AOR = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.97–8.53) and hospitalization of the newborn immediately after birth (AOR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28–0.62). Conclusion Timely administration of birth doses is a challenge in the Podor health district. The solutions would be improving geographic access to health facilities, involving community health workers, raising awareness and integrating health services.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Samson Peter Mvandal ◽  
Gotfrida Marandu

Abstract Background Early diagnosis of malaria and treatment seeking behavior play key role in controlling and preventing further complication related to malaria disease. Aim of this study was to determine the responses on early malaria diagnosis and treatment seeking behavior among outpatient clients attending at Sekou toure regional referral hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatient client at Sekou-Touré regional referral hospital, convenient simple random sampling used and self-administered questionnaire were used to collect data and data was entered into Microsoft excel and then exported to SPSS version 25.0 for further analysis and presented on the percentages and table. The analysis of strength of relationships between categorical variables was conducted using the Chi-square test. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results A total of 192 respondents completed the study with a response rate of 97.6%. The study revealed that Most of the respondents about 90.6% stated they would seek treatment from health facility when symptoms appear. However, only 6.3% seek treatment within 24 hours of onset of illness (p= 0.017). Half of respondents (50.5%) experienced malaria symptoms in the past six months and only 30% seek for treatment at health facility. Preference of health facility, (51%) respondents were going direct to pharmacy to buy medicine for self-treatment. Overall, cost of service, time consumed and distance of health facility especially health center shows significant with such delay. Conclusion A low proportion of malaria-suspected patients sought treatment within 24 h of fever onset compared to the national target. Distance from the health facility, cost of service and time consumed were found to be predictors of early treatment-seeking behavior for malaria. Strengthening strategies tailored to increasing awareness for communities about malaria, importance of going hospital and early treatment-seeking behavior is essential.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262411
Author(s):  
Adugnaw Zeleke Alem ◽  
Yigizie Yeshaw ◽  
Alemneh Mekuriaw Liyew ◽  
Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema ◽  
Tesfa Sewunet Alamneh ◽  
...  

Background Timely initiation of antenatal care (ANC) is an important component of ANC services that improve the health of the mother and the newborn. Mothers who begin attending ANC in a timely manner, can fully benefit from preventive and curative services. However, evidence in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) indicated that the majority of pregnant mothers did not start their first visit timely. As our search concerned, there is no study that incorporates a large number of sub-Saharan Africa countries. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of timely initiation of ANC and its associated factors in 36 sSA countries. Methods The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of 36 sSA countries were used for the analysis. The total weighted sample of 233,349 women aged 15–49 years who gave birth in the five years preceding the survey and who had ANC visit for their last child were included. A multi-level logistic regression model was used to examine the individual and community-level factors that influence the timely initiation of ANC. Results were presented using adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results In this study, overall timely initiation of ANC visit was 38.0% (95% CI: 37.8–38.2), ranging from 14.5% in Mozambique to 68.6% in Liberia. In the final multilevel logistic regression model:- women with secondary education (AOR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.11), higher education (AOR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.36, 1.51), women aged 25–34 years (AOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.23), ≥35 years (AOR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.35), women from richest household (AOR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.22), women perceiving distance from the health facility as not a big problem (AOR = 1.05; 95%CI: 1.03, 1.07), women exposed to media (AOR = 1.29; 95%CI: 1.26, 1.32), women living in communities with medium percentage of literacy (AOR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.40, 1.63), and women living in communities with high percentage of literacy (AOR = 1.56; 95%CI: 1.38, 1.76) were more likely to initiate ANC timely. However, women who wanted their pregnancy later (AOR = 0.84; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.86), wanted no more pregnancy (AOR = 0.80; 95%CI: 0.77, 0.83), and women residing in the rural area (AOR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.87, 0.92) were less likely to initiate ANC timely. Conclusion Even though the WHO recommends all women initiate ANC within 12 weeks of gestation, sSA recorded a low overall prevalence of timely initiation of ANC. Maternal education, pregnancy intention, residence, age, wealth status, media exposure, distance from health facility, and community-level literacy were significantly associated with timely initiation of ANC. Therefore, intervention efforts should focus on the identified factors in order to improve timely initiation of ANC in sSA. This can be done through the providing information and education to the community on the timing and importance of attending antenatal care and family planning to prevent unwanted pregnancy, especially in rural settings.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Md. Mizanur Rahman ◽  
Md. Rashedul Islam ◽  
Md. Shafiur Rahman ◽  
Fahima Hossain ◽  
Ashraful Alam ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Ensuring access to health services for all is the main goal of universal health coverage (UHC) plan. Out-of-pocket (OOP) payment still remains the main source of funding for healthcare in Bangladesh. The association between barriers to accessing healthcare and over-reliance on OOP payments has not been explored in Bangladesh using nationally representative household survey data. This study is a novel attempt to examine the burden of OOP payment and forgone healthcare in Bangladesh, and further explores the inequalities in catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) and forgone healthcare at the national and sub-national levels. Methods This study used data from the most recent nationally representative cross-sectional survey, Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, conducted in 2016–17 (N = 39,124). In order to identify potential determinants of CHE and forgone healthcare, multilevel Poisson regression was used. Inequalities in CHE and forgone healthcare were measured using the slope index of inequality. Results Around 25% of individuals incurred CHE and 14% of the population had forgone healthcare for any reasons. The most common reasons for forgone healthcare were treatment cost (17%), followed by none to accompany or need for permission (5%), and distance to health facility (3%). Multilevel analysis indicated that financial burden and forgone care was higher among households with older populations or chronic illness, and those who utilize either public or private health facilities. Household consumption quintile had a linear negative association with forgone care and positive association with CHE. Conclusion This study calls for incorporation of social safety net in health financing system, increase health facility, and gives priority to the disadvantaged population to ensure access to health services for all.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dereje Habte ◽  
Samuel Zemenfeskudus ◽  
Mulugeta Endale ◽  
Mohammed Zeidan ◽  
Daniel Getachew ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Ethiopia Population-based HIV Impact Assessment findings showed that in Addis Ababa, only 65.2% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) know their status. We present the enhanced HIV/AIDS data management and systematic monitoring experience in Addis Ababa City Administration Health Bureau (AACAHB). Methods AACAHB established a command-post with leadership and technical team members from the health bureau, 10 sub-city health offices, and non-governmental stakeholders. The command-post improved governance, standardized HIV program implementation, and established accountability mechanism. A web-based database was established at each health facility, sub-city, and AACAHB level. Performance was scored (green, ≥75%; yellow, 50–74%; red, < 50%). The command-post reviewed performance on weekly basis. A mentorship team provided a weekly site-level support at underperforming public and private health facilities. At facility level, quality of data on recording tools such as registers, and individual medical records were maintained through continued review, feedback mechanisms and regular consistency check of data. Percentage and 95% confidence interval were computed to compare the improvement in program performance over time. Results After 6 months of intervention period, the monthly New HIV case finding in 47 health facilities increased from 422 to 734 (1.7 times) and treatment initiation increased from 302 to 616 (2 times). After 6 months, the aggregate scoring for HIV testing at city level improved from yellow to green, HIV case finding improved from red to green, and treatment initiation improved from red to yellow. An increasing trend was noted in HIV positive case finding with statistically significant improvement from 43.4% [95% Confidence Interval: 40.23–46.59%] in May 2019 to 74.9% [95% Confidence Interval: 72.03–77.6%] in September 2019. Similarly, significant improvement was recorded for new HIV treatment from 30.9% [95% Confidence Interval: 28.01–33.94%] in May 2019 to 62.5% [95% Confidence Interval: 59.38–65.6%] in September 2019. Conclusions Regular data driven HIV program review was institutionalized at city, sub-city and health facility levels which further improved HIV program monitoring and performance. The performance of HIV case finding and treatment initiation improved significantly via using intensified monitoring, data driven performance review, targeted site-level support based on the gap, and standardized approaches.


Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Prabhat Jha ◽  
Yashwant Deshmukh ◽  
Chinmay Tumbe ◽  
Wilson Suraweera ◽  
Aditi Bhowmick ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anosisye Mwandulusya Kesale ◽  
Christopher Mahonge ◽  
Mikidadi Muhanga

The governance of COVID 19 in Lower and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) is very critical for curbing its effects. However, it is unknown what governance strategies are adopted by Health Facility Governing Committees (HFGCs) s as a response to the pandemic. We employed an exploratory qualitative design to study the governance strategies adopted by HFGCs during the COVID19. Since COVID 19 is new, an inductive approach was used as it involves analyzing collected data with little or no predetermined theory for the study. A purposive sampling technique was employed in which multistage clustered sampling was used to select regions, councils, health facilities and respondents. In-depth interviews with HFGCs chairpersons and Focus Group Discussions with members of HFGCs were used to collect data. The data were analyzed based on the themes which emerged during data collection. We found five governance strategies that were found to be commonly adopted by many HFGCs which are financial allocation, re-planing, mobilization of resources, community sensitization and mobilization of stakeholders. however, these governance structures were not all adopted by all HFGCs. The HFGCs slowly adopted governance strategies in the times of COVID 19 pandemics because were unprepared. Despite being empowered by the Direct Health Facility Financing, still, the newest of the COVID 19 has been a challenge to many HFGCs. This calls for urgent capacity building for governance institutions on how to deal will pandemics in primary health facilities.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anosisye Kesale ◽  
Christopher Mahonge ◽  
Mikidadi Muhanga

Abstract Background: Decentralization has dominated the agenda for the reforms of the organization of service delivery in Lower and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Decentralization faces a formidable challenge of fiscal decentralization in primary healthcare facilities. Of now, LMICs are implementing fiscal decentralization reforms to empower health facilities and their Health Facility Governing Committees (HFGCs). Given the paucity of the impact of fiscal decentralization, this study was conducted to assess the functionality of HFGCs and their associative factors in primary health care facilities implementing fiscal decentralization through Direct Health Facility Financing (DHFF) in Tanzania.Methods: A cross-sectional design was employed to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. The study was conducted in 32 selected primary health facilities implementing DHFF in Tanzania. Probability and nonprobability sampling procedures were employed, in which a multistage sampling procedure was used to select 280 respondents. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Descriptive analysis was employed to determine the functionality of HFGCs and binary logistic regression was employed to determine associated factors for the functionality of HFGC. Qualitative analysis was done through thematic analysis.Result: HFGC functionality under DHFF has been found to be good by 78.57%. Specifically, HFGCs have been found to have good functionality in mobilizing communities to join Community Health Funds 87.14%, participating in the procurement process 85%, discussing community health challenges 81.43% and planning and budgeting 80%. The functionality of HFGCs has been found to be associated with the planning and budgeting aspects p-value of 0.0011, procurement aspects p-value 0.0331, availability of information reports p-value 0.0007 and Contesting for HFGC position p-value 0.0187.Conclusion: The study has revealed that fiscal decentralization through DHFF significantly improves the functionality of HFGCs. Therefore, the study recommends more effort be put into facilitating the availability of finances to the health facilities.


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