small sample size
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (3) ◽  
pp. 0-0

This paper studies the motivation of learning law, compares the teaching effectiveness of two different teaching methods, e-book teaching and traditional teaching, and analyses the influence of e-book teaching on the effectiveness of law by using big data analysis. From the perspective of law student psychology, e-book teaching can attract students' attention, stimulate students' interest in learning, deepen knowledge impression while learning, expand knowledge, and ultimately improve the performance of practical assessment. With a small sample size, there may be some deficiencies in the research results' representativeness. To stimulate the learning motivation of law as well as some other theoretical disciplines in colleges and universities has particular referential significance and provides ideas for the reform of teaching mode at colleges and universities. This paper uses a decision tree algorithm in data mining for the analysis and finds out the influencing factors of law students' learning motivation and effectiveness in the learning process from students' perspective.

Valerie Wing Yu Wong ◽  
Ying Huang ◽  
Wan In Wei ◽  
Samuel Yeung Shan Wong ◽  
Kin On Kwok

Abstract Background Despite clear evidence of benefits in acute-care hospitals, controversy over the effectiveness of IPC measures for MDROs is perceptible and evidence-based practice has not been established. Objective To investigate the effects of IPC interventions on MDRO colonization and infections in LTCFs. Data sources Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL from inception to September 2020. Eligibility criteria Original and peer-reviewed articles examining the post-intervention effects on MDRO colonization and infections in LTCFs. Interventions (i) Horizontal interventions: administrative engagement, barrier precautions, education, environmental cleaning, hand hygiene, performance improvement, and source control; and (ii) vertical intervention: active surveillance plus decolonization. Study appraisal and synthesis We employed a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the pooled risk ratios (pRRs) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization by intervention duration; and conducted subgroup analyses on different intervention components. Study quality was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tools. Results Of 3877 studies identified, 19 were eligible for inclusion (eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies reported outcomes associated with MRSA (15 studies), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) (four studies), Clostridium difficile (two studies), and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) (two studies). Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pRRs were close to unity regardless of intervention duration (long: RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.60–1.10]; medium: RR 0.81 [95% CI 0.25–2.68]; short: RR 0.95 [95% CI 0.53–1.69]). Vertical interventions in studies with a small sample size showed significant reductions in MRSA colonization while horizontal interventions did not. All studies involving active administrative engagement reported reductions. The risk of bias was high in all but two studies. Conclusions Our meta-analysis did not show any beneficial effects from IPC interventions on MRSA reductions in LTCFs. Our findings highlight that the effectiveness of interventions in these facilities is likely conditional on resource availability—particularly decolonization and barrier precautions, due to their potential adverse events and uncertain effectiveness. Hence, administrative engagement is crucial for all effective IPC programmes. LTCFs should consider a pragmatic approach to reinforce standard precautions as routine practice and implement barrier precautions and decolonization to outbreak responses only.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 440
Pascal Bezel ◽  
Jasmin Wani ◽  
Gilles Wiederkehr ◽  
Christa Bodmer ◽  
Carolin Steinack ◽  

Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) by endobronchial valve (EBV) implantation has been shown to improve dyspnea, pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in highly selected patients with severe emphysema and hyperinflation. The most frequent adverse event is a pneumothorax (PTX), occurring in approximately one-fifth of the cases due to intrathoracic volume shifts. The majority of these incidents are observed within 48 h post-procedure. However, the delayed occurrence of PTX after hospital discharge is a matter of concern. There is currently no approved concept for its prevention. Particularly, it is unknown whether and when respiratory manoeuvers such as spirometry post EBV treatment are feasible and safe. As per standard operating procedure at the University Hospital Zurich, early spirometry is scheduled after BLVR and prior to the discharge of the patient in order to monitor treatment success. The aim of our retrospective study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of early spirometry. In addition, we hypothesized that early spirometry could be useful to identify patients at risk for late PTX, which may occur after hospital discharge. All patients who underwent BLVR using EBVs between January 2018 and January 2020 at our hospital were enrolled in this study. After excluding 16 patients diagnosed post-procedure with PTX and four patients for other reasons, early spirometry was performed in 61 cases. There was neither a clinically relevant PTX during or after early spirometry nor a late PTX following hospital discharge. In conclusion, we found early spirometry, conducted not sooner than three days following EBV treatment, to be feasible and safe. Furthermore, early spirometry seems to be a useful predictor for successful BLVR, and it may help to decide whether a patient can be discharged. Given the small sample size and the retrospective design of our study, a prospective study that includes routine chest imaging after early spirometry to definitively exclude PTX is needed to recommend early spirometry as part of the standard protocol following EBV treatment.

2022 ◽  
Amal A Kokandi

Abstract Introduction:Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) are rare, life-threatening conditions caused mainly by drugs. Their management relies on the withdrawal of the culprit medication and supportive measures. Different pharmacotherapies have varied effects. However, data related to TEN and SJS in Saudi is limited. This study aimed to identify the causative agents, associated factors, and outcomes of TEN/SJS cases admitted to a teaching hospital (King Abdulaziz University) in Jeddah during the last 10 years.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of TEN/SJS patients admitted to the hospital over the last 10 years.Results: We identified 12 patients with TEN/SJS. Of these, nine survived the condition and were discharged. The culprit medication was identified in eight of them, including antibiotics in six cases and Tegretol and allopurinol in one case each. Most of the patients received systemic steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins.Conclusion: TEN/SJS is mainly caused by medications of which antibiotics are the most implicated. Consistent with other studies, the mortality rate associated with TEN/SJS in Saudi is 25%. Limitations: restricted to a single center and small sample size.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 419
Takashi Yurube ◽  
Yutaro Kanda ◽  
Masaaki Ito ◽  
Yoshiki Takeoka ◽  
Teppei Suzuki ◽  

An electrical conductivity-measuring device (ECD) has recently been developed to support pedicle screw placement. However, no evidence exists regarding its efficacy for syndromic/neuromuscular scoliosis with extremely difficult screwing. We retrospectively reviewed 2010–2016 medical records of 21 consecutive syndromic/neuromuscular scoliosis patients undergoing free-hand segmental fixation surgery at our institution and compared the pedicle screw insertion accuracy and safety between 10 with a conventional non-ECD probe (2010–2013) and 11 with an ECD probe (2014–2016). We analyzed preoperative pedicle shape and postoperative screw placement in computed tomography. There were no significant differences between ECD and non-ECD groups in demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics including scoliosis severity and pedicle diameter. The abandonment rate due to liquorrhea or perforation was lower in ECD (12.3%) than in non-ECD (26.7%) (p < 0.01). Acceptable insertion without perforation or <2-mm lateral/cranial position was more frequent in ECD (67.1%) than in non-ECD (56.9%) (p = 0.02). Critical ≥5-mm medial/caudal malposition was not seen in ECD (0.0%) but in non-ECD (2.4%) (p = 0.02). The perforation distance was shorter in ECD (2.2 ± 1.1 mm) than in non-ECD (2.6 ± 1.7 mm) (p = 0.01). Results involve small sample size, selection, performance, and learning curve biases; nevertheless, ECD could be useful for more accurate and safer pedicle screw placement in severe syndromic/neuromuscular scoliosis.

2022 ◽  
Sally Hunsberger ◽  
Lori Long ◽  
Sarah E. Reese ◽  
Gloria H. Hong ◽  
Ian A. Myles ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
María Luisa Serrano Salazar ◽  
Jose Portolés ◽  
Maria de Valdenebro Recio ◽  
Silvia Rosado Garcia ◽  
Maria del Rosario Llópez Carratalá ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Cytokine storm control is the main target for improving severe COVID-19 by using immunosuppressive treatment. Effective renal replacement therapy (RRT) could give us an advantage removing cytokines in patients with RRT requirements superimposed on COVID-19. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> This is a prospective observational study in COVID-19 patients who required hemodialysis (HD). Patients were assigned to online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) and expanded HD (HDx) according to Brescia group recommendations. We measured several cytokines, β2 microglobulin and albumin levels pre/post-dialysis and on 1st–2nd week. We compared levels among both techniques and control group (HD without COVID-19). <b><i>Results:</i></b> We included 26 patients: 18 with COVID-19 on RRT (5 of them had acute kidney injury [AKI]) and 8 controls. We confirm higher cytokine levels in COVID-19 patients than controls and even higher in patients with AKI than in those with chronic kidney disease. Most cytokines raised during HD session, except IL-10 and TNFα. IL-10 was eliminated by any dialysis technique, while clearance of TNFα was higher in the HDx group. HDx achieved a deeper normalization of cytokines and β2 microglobulin reduction. Mortality was higher in the OL-HDF group than the HDx group. <b><i>Discussion:</i></b> Not all cytokines behave equally along HD session. The following characteristics should be taken into account, such as intrinsic kinetic profile during a HD session. HDx seems to get better performance, probably due to the combination of different factors; however, we did not reach statistical significance due to the small sample size, dropout, and reduction of AKI incidence during the 2nd pandemic wave. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> HDx appears to provide better clearance for TNFα and β2 microglobulin during HD session and associates lower mortality. We propose the HDx technique for COVID-19 patients with RRT requirements since it seems to be safe and more effective than OL-HDF. Further studies are still needed, but we hope that our preliminary data may help us in future pandemic waves of SARS-CoV-2 or other viruses still to come.

2022 ◽  
Benyamin Yadali Jamaloei ◽  
Robert Burstall ◽  
Amit Nakhwa

Abstract The Montney reservoir is one of the most prolific unconventional multi-stacked dry and liquid-rich gas plays in North America. The type of fracturing method and fluid has a significant impact on water-phase trapping, casing deformation, and well performance in the Montney. Different fracturing methods (plug and perf/plug and perf with ball/ball and seat/single-entry pinpoint) and fluids (slickwater/hybrid/oil-based/energized/foam) have been tested in 4000+ Montney wells to find optimal fracturing method and fluid for different reservoir qualities and fluid windows and to minimize water-phase trapping and casing deformation. The previous studies reviewing the performance of fracturing methods in Montney do not represent a holistic evaluation of these methods, due to some limitations, including: (1) Using a small sample size, (2) Having a limited scope by focusing on a specific aspect of fracturing (method/fluid), (3) Relying on data analytics approaches that offer limited subsurface insight, and (4) Generating misleading results (e.g., on optimum fracturing method/fluid) through using disparate data that are unstructured and untrustworthy due to significant regional variation in true vertical depth (TVD), geological properties, fluid windows, completed lateral length, fracturing method/fluid/date, and drawdown rate management strategy. The present study eliminates these limitations by rigorously clustering the 4000+ Montney wells based on the TVD, geological properties, fluid window, completed lateral length, fracturing method/fluid/date, and drawdown strategy. This clustering technique allows for isolating the effect of each fracturing method by comparing each well's production (normalized by proppant tonnage, fluid volume, and completed length) to that of its offsets that use different fracturing methods but possess similar geology and fluid window. With similar TVD and fracturing fluid/date, wells completed with pinpoint fracturing outperform their offsets completed with ball and seat and plug and perf fracturing. However, wells completed with ball and seat and plug and perf methods that outperform their offset pinpoint wells have either: (1) Been fractured 1 to 4 years earlier than pinpoint wells and/or (2) Used energized oil-based fluid, hybrid fluid, and energized slickwater versus slickwater used in pinpoint offsets, suggesting that the water-phase trapping is more severe in these pinpoint wells due to the use of slickwater. Previous studies often favored one specific fracturing method or fluid without highlighting these complex interplays between the type of fracturing method/fluid, completion date (regional depletion), and the reservoir properties and hydrodynamics. This clustering technique shows how proper data structuring in disparate datasets containing thousands of wells with significant variations in geological properties, fluid windows, fracturing method/fluid, regional depletion, and drawdown strategy permits a consistent well performance comparison across a play by isolating the impact of any given parameter (e.g., fracturing methods, depletion) that is deemed more crucial to fracturing design and field development planning.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12630
Manan Alhakbany ◽  
Laila Al-Ayadhi ◽  
Afaf El-Ansary

Background C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) has diverse functions: anti-inflammation, metabolic regulation, and protection against endothelial dysfunction. Methods The plasma level of CTRP3 in autistic patients (n = 32) was compared to that in controls (n = 37) using ELISA. Results CTRP3 was higher (24.7% with P < 0.05) in autistic patients than in controls. No association was observed between CTRP3 and the severity of the disorder using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). A positive correlation between CARs and the age of patients was reported. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated a low area under the curve (AUC) for all patients (0.636). Low AUCs were also found in the case of severe patients (0.659) compared to controls, but both values were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). Despite the small sample size, we are the first to find an association between CTRP3 and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani ◽  
Mirella Aglietti ◽  
Guido Intaschi ◽  
Silvia Bacciardi

Background: Poor adherence to treatment is a common clinical problem in individuals affected by mental illness and substance use/dependence. In Italy, mental care is organized in a psychiatric service and addiction unit (SERD), characterized by dual independent assets of treatment. This difference, in the Emergency Room setting, leads to a risk of discontinuity of treatment in case of hospitalization. In this study we clinically characterized individuals who decided to attend hospital post-discharge appointments at SERD, in accordance with medical advice. Methods: This is a retrospective study, based on two years of discharged records of patients entering “Versilia Hospital” (Viareggio, Italy) emergency room, with urinalyses testing positive for substance use, and hospitalization after psychiatric consultation. The sample was divided according to the presence or absence of SERD consultation after discharge. Results: In the 2-year period of the present study, 1005 individuals were hospitalized. Considering the inclusion criterion of the study, the sample consisted of 264 individuals. Of these, 128 patients attended post-discharge appointments at SERD showing urinalyses positive to cocaine, opiates, and poly use; they were more frequently diagnosed as personality disorder and less frequently as bipolar disorder. The prediction was higher for patients that had already been treated at SERD, for patients who received SERD consultation during hospitalization, and for patients with positive urinalyses to cocaine and opiates at treatment entry. Conversely, patients who did not attend SERD consultation after discharge were affected by bipolar disorders. Limitations: Small sample size. Demographical data are limited to gender and age due to paucity of data in hospital information systems. SERD is located far from the hospital and is open only on weekdays; thus, it cannot ensure a consultation with all inpatients. Conclusions: Mental illness diagnosis, the set of substance use positivity at hospitalization, and having received SERD consultation during hospitalization appeared to have a critical role in promoting continuity of care. Moreover, to reduce the gap between the need and the provision of the treatment, a more effective personalized individual program of care should be implemented.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document