molecular targeting agents
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Jinjin Chu ◽  
Xianzhu Fang ◽  
Zhonghou Sun ◽  
Linlin Gai ◽  
Wenqing Dai ◽  

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third prevalent cancer worldwide, the morbidity and mortality of which have been increasing in recent years. As molecular targeting agents, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) have significantly increased the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients. Nevertheless, most patients are eventually resistant to anti-EGFR McAbs. With the intensive study of the mechanism of anti-EGFR drug resistance, a variety of biomarkers and pathways have been found to participate in CRC resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. More and more studies have implicated non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) primarily including microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), are widely involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. They function as essential regulators controlling the expression and function of oncogenes. Increasing data have shown ncRNAs affect the resistance of molecular targeted drugs in CRC including anti-EGFR McAbs. In this paper, we have reviewed the advance in mechanisms of ncRNAs in regulating anti-EGFR McAbs therapy resistance in CRC. It provides insight into exploring ncRNAs as new molecular targets and prognostic markers for CRC.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 3698
Atsushi Makimoto ◽  
Jun Fang ◽  
Hiroshi Maeda

Most pediatric cancers are highly chemo-sensitive, and cytotoxic chemotherapy has always been the mainstay of treatment. Anthracyclines are highly effective against most types of childhood cancer, such as neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, nephroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and so forth. However, acute and chronic cardiotoxicity, one of the major disadvantages of anthracycline use, limits their utility and effectiveness. Hydroxypropyl acrylamide polymer-conjugated pirarubicin (P-THP), which targets tumor tissue highly selectively via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and secondarily releases active pirarubicin molecules quickly into the acidic environment surrounding the tumor. Although, the latter rarely occurs in the non-acidic environment surrounding normal tissue. This mechanism has the potential to minimize acute and chronic toxicities, including cardiotoxicity, as well as maximize the efficacy of chemotherapy through synergy with tumor-targeting accumulation of the active molecules and possible dose-escalation. Simply replacing doxorubicin with P-THP in a given regimen can improve outcomes in anthracycline-sensitive pediatric cancers with little risk of adverse effects, such as cardiotoxicity. As cancer is a dynamic disease showing intra-tumoral heterogeneity during its course, continued parallel development of cytotoxic agents and molecular targeting agents is necessary to find potentially more effective treatments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Qiyu Jiang ◽  
Yan Ma ◽  
Jingjing Han ◽  
Jingdong Chu ◽  
Xuemei Ma ◽  

The MDM2 binding protein (MTBP) has been considered an important regulator of human malignancies. In this study, we demonstrate that the high level of MTBP’s endogenous expression is correlated with poor prognosis of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who received sorafenib. MTBP interacted with the Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and enhanced the transcription factor activity of PXR. Moreover, MTBP enhanced the accumulation of PXR in HCC cells’ nuclear and the recruitment of PXR to its downstream gene’s (cyp3a4’s) promoter region. Mechanically, the knockdown of MTBP in MHCC97-H cells with high levels of MTBP decelerated the clearance or metabolism of sorafenib in HCC cells and led to the resistance of HCC cells to sorafenib. Whereas overexpression of MTBP in in MHCC97-L cells with low levels of MTBP showed the opposite trend. By establishing the interaction between MTBP and PXR, our results indicate that MTBP could function as a co-activator of PXR and could be a promising therapeutic target to enhance the sensitivity of HCC cells to molecular targeting agents.

Dr. Sayantan Ghosh ◽  
Ms. Manaswi N

Experimental oncotherapeutics programs have been in place at major academic centres for over four decades. The emergence of molecular targeting agents and the recent introduction of immuno-oncology drugs have expanded the scope and eligibility for first-in-human trials. Improved understanding of tumor biology coupled with the ability to screen for tumor associated targets, as well as, genetic alterations have heralded the era of personalized (personalized or precision) cancer treatment. Molecular targeting agents with their improved tolerability and sustained responses compared to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy have contributed to remarkable improvements in clinical outcomes Dramatic phase 1 observations of anti-tumor activity of novel molecules in the relapsed or refractory setting have ofen led to their investigation as monotherapy or in combinatorial strategies early in the course of cancer treatment. Studies have thus evolved from the traditional role of dose and toxicity-fnding studies to innovative enrichment study designs which match patients with study agents, thus increasing the potential of clinical efcacy, even in the early dose escalation setting.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Shuji Hiramoto ◽  
Tomohiko Taniyama ◽  
Ayako Kikuchi ◽  
Tetsuo Hori ◽  
Akira Yoshioka ◽  

Abstract Background In recent years, the use of both molecular targeting agents (MTAs) and immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) tend to occupy important positions in systemic anticancer therapy (SACT). The objective of this study is to describe the predictors of SACT include both MTAs and ICIs near the end of life (EOL) and the effect on EOL care in patients with advanced cancer. Methods We analyzed all patients who died of advanced cancer from August 2016 to August 2019, and we analyzed the survival time of patients who underwent anticancer agents excluded due to the loss of information about the last administration of SACT. The primary endpoint of this study was to identify predictors during the last administration of SACT near EOL. Results In a multivariate analysis, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS) (ORs 33.781) was significantly related factors within 14 days of death from the last administration of SACT. Age (ORs 0.412), ECOG-PS (ORs 11.533), primary cancer site of upper GI cancers (ORs 2.205), the number of comorbidities (ORs 0.207), MTAs (ORs 3.139), and ICIs (ORs 3.592) were significantly related factors within 30 days of death. The median survival time (MST) of patients with PS 3–4 was 29 days, while that of patients with both PS 0–2 was 76 days. The prevalence rate of delirium with MTAs was 17.5%, which was significantly lower than that of patients without it (31.8%). The prevalence rate of the mean dose of opioids in patients with ICIs was 97.9 mg/day, which was significantly higher than that of patients without it (44.9 mg/day). Conclusions Age, ECOG-PS, primary cancer site, the number of comorbidities, MTAs, and ICIs use were significant associated with SACT near EOL. Information on these factors may aid clinical decision making in referral to palliative care institutes.

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