scholarly journals Non-Coding RNAs Regulate the Resistance to Anti-EGFR Therapy in Colorectal Cancer

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Jinjin Chu ◽  
Xianzhu Fang ◽  
Zhonghou Sun ◽  
Linlin Gai ◽  
Wenqing Dai ◽  

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third prevalent cancer worldwide, the morbidity and mortality of which have been increasing in recent years. As molecular targeting agents, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) have significantly increased the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients. Nevertheless, most patients are eventually resistant to anti-EGFR McAbs. With the intensive study of the mechanism of anti-EGFR drug resistance, a variety of biomarkers and pathways have been found to participate in CRC resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. More and more studies have implicated non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) primarily including microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), are widely involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. They function as essential regulators controlling the expression and function of oncogenes. Increasing data have shown ncRNAs affect the resistance of molecular targeted drugs in CRC including anti-EGFR McAbs. In this paper, we have reviewed the advance in mechanisms of ncRNAs in regulating anti-EGFR McAbs therapy resistance in CRC. It provides insight into exploring ncRNAs as new molecular targets and prognostic markers for CRC.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (12) ◽  
pp. 1339
Jen-Hao Yeh ◽  
Hsiang-Lin Tsai ◽  
Yen-Cheng Chen ◽  
Ching-Chun Li ◽  
Ching-Wen Huang ◽  

Backgroundand objectives: Patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer have considerably poorer responses to conventional systemic treatment. The real-world effects of triplet therapy with BRAF, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in Asia have not been well-reported. Materials and Methods: This single-center case series included patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer undergoing triplet therapy after failure of prior systemic treatment from 2016 to 2020. The primary outcome was progression-free survival, and secondary outcomes were overall survival, response rate, disease control rate, and adverse events. Results: Nine eligible patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer receiving triplet therapy were enrolled, with a median follow-up time of 14.5 months (range, 1–26). Most patients (88.8%) had two or more prior systemic treatments, and the triplet regimen was mainly dabrafenib, trametinib, and panitumumab. The overall response rate and disease control rate were 11.1% and 33.3%, respectively. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 2.9 and 7.4 months, respectively, and a trend toward better overall survival was found with left-sided metastatic colorectal cancer compared with right-sided disease (9.2 vs. 6.9 months, p = 0.093). Adverse events were mostly Grade 1–2, including nausea, hypertension, gastrointestinal symptoms, and skin disorders. Conclusions: In this single-center case series, triplet therapy with BRAF, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in BRAF-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer had an acceptable safety profile and reasonable efficacy.

Cancers ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 434 ◽  
Ming-Ju Tsai ◽  
Jen-Yu Hung ◽  
Mei-Hsuan Lee ◽  
Chia-Yu Kuo ◽  
Yu-Chen Tsai ◽  

Patients with lung adenocarcinoma harboring common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations usually have a good response rate (RR) and longer progression-free survival (PFS) to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, the treatment efficacy to uncommon EGFR mutations remains controversial. We, therefore, performed a retrospective study, screening 2958 patients. A total of 67 patients with lung adenocarcinoma harboring uncommon EGFR mutations were enrolled and 57 patients with stage IV diseases receiving a first-line EGFR TKI were included for further analyses. The patients were classified into 27 (47%) “a single sensitizing uncommon mutation”, 7 (12%) “multiple sensitizing mutations”, 5 (9%) “a sensitizing mutation and a resistant uncommon mutation”, and 18 (32%) “other resistant uncommon mutations”. No significant difference was noted in PFS or overall survival (OS) between groups. Patients receiving different first-line EGFR TKIs had similar PFS and OS. The elder patients had a significantly poorer performance status than the younger patients but a significantly longer PFS than the younger patients (median PFS: 10.5 vs. 5.5 months, p = 0.0320). In conclusion, this is the first study to identify that elderly patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma harboring uncommon EGFR mutation might have a longer PFS. Large-scale prospective studies are mandatory to prove our findings.

2015 ◽  
Vol 33 (3_suppl) ◽  
pp. 325-325
Thiago Lins Almeida ◽  
Jessica Ribeiro Gomes ◽  
Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado ◽  
Antonio C. Buzaid ◽  
Fernando C. Maluf

325 Background: The prognosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) remains poor despite FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine based chemotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has a major role in pancreatic cancer carcinogenesis.The RAS status showed to be a predictive factor for response to anti-EGFR therapy in colon cancer. We aim to analyze the K-RAS and N-RAS status in PA and its prognostic impact. Methods: Retrospective analysis included 24 patients with metastatic (67%) or locally advanced (29%) PA at diagnosis (AEMOC, Brazil). K-RAS and N-RAS profile were performed by polymerase chain reaction and bidirectional sequencing (codons 12, 13, 61, 117, 146). The results were then analyzed in regards to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in PA. Results: The sample showed: median age of 63 years (28-86), 62.5% male, 45.8% smoker, head site (67%), ductal (68%), and mild differentiation features (45%). The first-line therapy was FOLFIRINOX (62.5%) and gemcitabine (33.3%). The median PFS and OS were 6.5 and 13 months (mo), respectively. Nineteen patients (79.1%) presented mutation in K-RAS: four c.35G>A (G12D), four c.34G>C (G12R), four c.35G>T (G12V), three c.35G>C (G12A), one c.437C>T (A146V), and one c.34G>T (G12C). Mutation in N-RAS (c.38G>A (G13D) was detected in only one patient (4%). The only independent factor for survival was K-RAS status: the c.35G>A (G12D) polymorphism yielded worse PFS and OS when compared to non-c.35G>A (G12D) mutation: 3 vs 7 mo [HR 0.25, 95% CI, (0.04–1.63)] for PFS (p<0,0043) and 3.5 vs13 mo [HR 0.17, 95% CI, 0.01-1.58)] for OS (p<0,0001), respectively. Conclusions: K-RAS was the only prognostic factor for PFS and OS, with the polymorphism c.35G>A (G12D) being related to a worse prognostic. Further studies are necessary to better evaluate whether K-RAS and N-RAS status is prognostic and/or predictive factor.

2010 ◽  
Vol 28 (31) ◽  
pp. 4722-4729 ◽  
John H. Sampson ◽  
Amy B. Heimberger ◽  
Gary E. Archer ◽  
Kenneth D. Aldape ◽  
Allan H. Friedman ◽  

Purpose Immunologic targeting of tumor-specific gene mutations may allow precise eradication of neoplastic cells without toxicity. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a constitutively activated and immunogenic mutation not expressed in normal tissues but widely expressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other neoplasms. Patients and Methods A phase II, multicenter trial was undertaken to assess the immunogenicity of an EGFRvIII-targeted peptide vaccine and to estimate the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of vaccinated patients with newly diagnosed EGFRvIII-expressing GBM with minimal residual disease. Intradermal vaccinations were given until toxicity or tumor progression was observed. Sample size was calculated to differentiate between PFS rates of 20% and 40% 6 months after vaccination. Results There were no symptomatic autoimmune reactions. The 6-month PFS rate after vaccination was 67% (95% CI, 40% to 83%) and after diagnosis was 94% (95% CI, 67% to 99%; n = 18). The median OS was 26.0 months (95% CI, 21.0 to 47.7 months). After adjustment for age and Karnofsky performance status, the OS of vaccinated patients was greater than that observed in a control group matched for eligibility criteria, prognostic factors, and temozolomide treatment (hazard ratio, 5.3; P = .0013; n = 17). The development of specific antibody (P = .025) or delayed-type hypersensitivity (P = .03) responses to EGFRvIII had a significant effect on OS. At recurrence, 82% (95% CI, 48% to 97%) of patients had lost EGFRvIII expression (P < .001). Conclusion EGFRvIII-targeted vaccination in patients with GBM warrants investigation in a phase III, randomized trial.

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