genetic alterations
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. M. S. Shah ◽  
F. Ullah

Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential nonprotein-coding genes. In a range of organisms, miRNAs has been reported to play an essential role in regulating gene expressions at post-transcriptional level. They participate in most of the stress responsive processes in plants. Drought is an ultimate abiotic stress that affects the crop production. Therefore understanding drought stress responses are essential to improve the production of agricultural crops. Throughout evolution, plants have developed their own defense systems to cope with the adversities of environmental stresses. Among defensive mechanisms include the regulations of gene expression by miRNAs. Drought stress regulates the expression of some of the functionally conserved miRNAs in different plants. The given properties of miRNAs provide an insight to genetic alterations and enhancing drought resistance in cereal crops. The current review gives a summary to regulatory mechanisms in plants as well as miRNAs response to drought stresses in cereal crops. Some possible approaches and guidelines for the exploitation of drought stress miRNA responses to improve cereal crops are also described.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Noah Isakov

Reproduction in certain deep-sea anglerfishes involves the permanent attachment of dwarf males to much larger females and fusion of their tissues leading to the establishment of a shared circulatory system. This unusual phenomenon of sexual parasitism enables anglerfishes to maximize reproductive success in the vast and deep oceans, where females and males otherwise rarely meet. An even more surprising phenomenon relates to the observation that joining of genetically disparate male and female anglerfishes does not evoke a strong anti-graft immune rejection response, which occurs in vertebrates following allogeneic parabiosis. Recent studies demonstrated that the evolutionary processes that led to the unique mating strategy of anglerfishes coevolved with genetic changes that resulted in loss of functional genes encoding critical components of the adaptive immune system. These genetic alterations enabled anglerfishes to tolerate the histoincompatible tissue antigens of their mate and prevent the occurrence of reciprocal graft rejection responses. While the exact mechanisms by which anglerfishes defend themselves against pathogens have not yet been deciphered, it is speculated that during evolution, anglerfishes adopted new immune strategies that compensate for the loss of B and T lymphocyte functions and enable them to resist infection by pathogens.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12750
Supharada Tessiri ◽  
Anchalee Techasen ◽  
Sarinya Kongpetch ◽  
Achira Namjan ◽  
Watcharin Loilome ◽  

Background Genetic alterations in ARID1A were detected at a high frequency in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Growing evidence indicates that the loss of ARID1A expression leads to activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and increasing sensitivity of ARID1A-deficient cells for treatment with the PI3K/AKT inhibitor. Therefore, we investigated the association between genetic alterations of ARID1A and the PI3K/AKT pathway and evaluated the effect of AKT inhibition on ARID1A-deficient CCA cells. Methods Alterations of ARID1A, PI3K/AKT pathway-related genes, clinicopathological data and overall survival of 795 CCA patients were retrieved from cBio Cancer Genomics Portal (cBioPortal) databases. The association between genetic alterations and clinical data were analyzed. The effect of the AKT inhibitor (MK-2206) on ARID1A-deficient CCA cell lines and stable ARID1A-knockdown cell lines was investigated. Cell viability, apoptosis, and expression of AKT signaling were analyzed using an MTT assay, flow cytometry, and Western blots, respectively. Results The analysis of a total of 795 CCA samples revealed that ARID1A alterations significantly co-occurred with mutations of EPHA2 (p < 0.001), PIK3CA (p = 0.047), and LAMA1 (p = 0.024). Among the EPHA2 mutant CCA tumors, 82% of EPHA2 mutant tumors co-occurred with ARID1A truncating mutations. CCA tumors with ARID1A and EPHA2 mutations correlated with better survival compared to tumors with ARID1A mutations alone. We detected that 30% of patients with PIK3CA driver missense mutations harbored ARID1A-truncated mutations and 60% of LAMA1-mutated CCA co-occurred with truncating mutations of ARID1A. Interestingly, ARID1A-deficient CCA cell lines and ARID1A-knockdown CCA cells led to increased sensitivity to treatment with MK-2206 compared to the control. Treatment with MK-2206 induced apoptosis in ARID1A-knockdown KKU-213A and HUCCT1 cell lines and decreased the expression of pAKTS473 and mTOR. Conclusion These findings suggest a dependency of ARID1A-deficient CCA tumors with the activation of the PI3K/AKT-pathway, and that they may be more vulnerable to selective AKT pathway inhibitors which can be used therapeutically.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Markus Schick ◽  
Le Zhang ◽  
Sabine Maurer ◽  
Hans Carlo Maurer ◽  
Konstandina Isaakaidis ◽  

AbstractSUMOylation is a post-translational modification of proteins that regulates these proteins’ localization, turnover or function. Aberrant SUMOylation is frequently found in cancers but its origin remains elusive. Using a genome-wide transposon mutagenesis screen in a MYC-driven B-cell lymphoma model, we here identify the SUMO isopeptidase (or deconjugase) SENP6 as a tumor suppressor that links unrestricted SUMOylation to tumor development and progression. Notably, SENP6 is recurrently deleted in human lymphomas and SENP6 deficiency results in unrestricted SUMOylation. Mechanistically, SENP6 loss triggers release of DNA repair- and genome maintenance-associated protein complexes from chromatin thereby impairing DNA repair in response to DNA damages and ultimately promoting genomic instability. In line with this hypothesis, SENP6 deficiency drives synthetic lethality to Poly-ADP-Ribose-Polymerase (PARP) inhibition. Together, our results link SENP6 loss to defective genome maintenance and reveal the potential therapeutic application of PARP inhibitors in B-cell lymphoma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Warunya Chakritbudsabong ◽  
Ladawan Sariya ◽  
Phakhin Jantahiran ◽  
Nattarun Chaisilp ◽  
Somjit Chaiwattanarungruengpaisan ◽  

The reprogramming of cells into induced neural stem cells (iNSCs), which are faster and safer to generate than induced pluripotent stem cells, holds tremendous promise for fundamental and frontier research, as well as personalized cell-based therapies for neurological diseases. However, reprogramming cells with viral vectors increases the risk of tumor development due to vector and transgene integration in the host cell genome. To circumvent this issue, the Sendai virus (SeV) provides an alternative integration-free reprogramming method that removes the danger of genetic alterations and enhances the prospects of iNSCs from bench to bedside. Since pigs are among the most successful large animal models in biomedical research, porcine iNSCs (piNSCs) may serve as a disease model for both veterinary and human medicine. Here, we report the successful generation of piNSC lines from pig fibroblasts by employing the SeV. These piNSCs can be expanded for up to 40 passages in a monolayer culture and produce neurospheres in a suspension culture. These piNSCs express high levels of NSC markers (PAX6, SOX2, NESTIN, and VIMENTIN) and proliferation markers (KI67) using quantitative immunostaining and western blot analysis. Furthermore, piNSCs are multipotent, as they are capable of producing neurons and glia, as demonstrated by their expressions of TUJ1, MAP2, TH, MBP, and GFAP proteins. During the reprogramming of piNSCs with the SeV, no induced pluripotent stem cells developed, and the established piNSCs did not express OCT4, NANOG, and SSEA1. Hence, the use of the SeV can reprogram porcine somatic cells without first going through an intermediate pluripotent state. Our research produced piNSCs using SeV methods in novel, easily accessible large animal cell culture models for evaluating the efficacy of iNSC-based clinical translation in human medicine. Additionally, our piNSCs are potentially applicable in disease modeling in pigs and regenerative therapies in veterinary medicine.

Stamatina Tzanoulinou ◽  
Stefano Musardo ◽  
Alessandro Contestabile ◽  
Sebastiano Bariselli ◽  
Giulia Casarotto ◽  

AbstractMutations in the SHANK3 gene have been recognized as a genetic risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by social deficits and repetitive behaviors. While heterozygous SHANK3 mutations are usually the types of mutations associated with idiopathic autism in patients, heterozygous deletion of Shank3 gene in mice does not commonly induce ASD-related behavioral deficit. Here, we used in-vivo and ex-vivo approaches to demonstrate that region-specific neonatal downregulation of Shank3 in the Nucleus Accumbens promotes D1R-medium spiny neurons (D1R-MSNs) hyperexcitability and upregulates Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (Trpv4) to impair social behavior. Interestingly, genetically vulnerable Shank3+/− mice, when challenged with Lipopolysaccharide to induce an acute inflammatory response, showed similar circuit and behavioral alterations that were rescued by acute Trpv4 inhibition. Altogether our data demonstrate shared molecular and circuit mechanisms between ASD-relevant genetic alterations and environmental insults, which ultimately lead to sociability dysfunctions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
Muhammad Usman ◽  
Yasir Hameed ◽  
Mukhtiar Ahmad ◽  
Muhammad Junaid Iqbal ◽  
Aghna Maryam ◽  

Aims: This study was launched to identify the SHMT2 associated Human Cancer subtypes. Background: Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death worldwide. Previous reports revealed the limited involvement of SHMT2 in human cancer. In the current study, we comprehensively analyzed the role of SHMT2 in 24 major subtypes of human cancers using in silico approach and identified a few subtypes that are mainly associated with SHMT2. Objective:: We aim to comprehensively analyze the role of SHMT2 in 24 major subtypes of human cancers using in silico approach and identified a few subtypes that are mainly associated with SHMT2. Earlier, limited knowledge exists in the medical literature regarding the involvement of Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2) in human cancer. Methods: In the current study, we comprehensively analyzed the role of SHMT2 in 24 major subtypes of human cancers using in silico approach and identified a few subtypes that are mainly associated with SHMT2. Pan-cancer transcriptional expression profiling of SHMT2 was done using UALCAN while further validation was performed using GENT2. For translational profiling of SHMT2, we utilized Human Protein Atlas (HPA) platform. Promoter methylation, genetic alteration, and copy number variations (CNVs) profiles were analyzed through MEXPRESS and cBioPortal. Survival analysis was carried out through Kaplan–Meier (KM) plotter platform. Pathway enrichment analysis of SHMT2 was performed using DAVID, while the gene-drug network was drawn through CTD and Cytoscape. Furthermore, in the tumor microenvironment, a correlation between tumor purity, CD8+ T immune cells infiltration, and SHMT2 expression was accessed using TIMER. Results: SHMT2 was found overexpressed in 24 different subtypes of human cancers and its overexpression was significantly associated with the reduced Overall survival (OS) and Relapse-free survival durations of Breast cancer (BRCA), Kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP), Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC), and Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients. This implies that SHMT2 plays a significant role in the development and progression of these cancers. We further noticed that SHMT2 was also up-regulated in BRCA, KIRP, LIHC, and LUAD patients of different clinicopathological features. Pathways enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of SHMT2 enriched genes in five diverse pathways. Furthermore, we also explored some interesting correlations between SHMT2 expression and promoter methylation, genetic alterations, CNVs, tumor purity, and CD8+ T immune cell infiltrates. Conclusion: Our results suggested that overexpressed SHMT2 is correlated with the reduced OS and RFS of the BRCA, KIRP, LIHC, and LUAD patients and can be a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for these cancers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Rui Dou ◽  
Xiong Wang ◽  
Jin Zhang

Ovarian cancer (OC) often presents at an advanced stage and is still one of the most frequent causes of gynecological cancer-related mortality worldwide. The nuclear factor erythroid-2 (NFE2) transcription factors include nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 1 (NFE2L1), NFE2L2, and NFE2L3. NFE2 members bind to the antioxidant-response element (ARE) region and activate the expression of targeted genes. The distinct functions of NFE2 members in OC remain poorly elucidated. Several online bioinformatics databases were applied to determine gene expression, prognosis, mutations, and immune infiltration correlation in OC patients. NFE2L1 and NFE2L2 were decreased in OC, whereas NFE2L3 was increased. NFE2L2 and NFE2L3 were significantly correlated with the clinical stages of OC. High NFE2L1 level was significantly associated with short progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with OC ( HR = 1.18 , P = 0.021 ), while high NFE2L2 expression strongly correlated with long PFS ( HR = 0.77 , P = 0.00067 ). High NFE2L3 expression was associated with better overall survival and postprogression survival in OC. Functional analysis showed that NFE2 members mainly focused on transcription coactivator activities. Genetic alterations of NFE2 members were found in 13% of OC patients, and amplification ranked the top. The expression of NFE2 members was significantly correlated with immune infiltration of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, macrophages, and neutrophils in OC. Our study provides novel insights into the roles and prognostic potential of NFE2 family members in OC.

2022 ◽  
Amarinder Singh Thind ◽  
Bruce Ashford ◽  
Dario Strbenac ◽  
Ruta Gupta ◽  
Jonathan R Clark ◽  

Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is associated with a high risk of recurrence and poor prognosis. There is limited published data exploring whole genome sequencing (WGS). The aim of this project was to provide the first comprehensive genomic understanding of the state of metastatic cSCC. In this study, we used WGS on matched tumor and blood DNA to detect somatic genetic alterations from 25 patients with regional metastases of head and neck cSCC. Our computational analyses interrogate clinical impacts of these genetic alterations on metastatic cSCC across the cohort for both the coding and non-coding genome. In the non-coding genome, 3UTR regions of EVC (48%), PPP1R1A (48%) and LUM (16%) were significantly functionally altered (Q-value < 0.05). Further, significant functional alterations are observed in the tumor suppressing lncRNA LINC01003 ( 68% of specimens, Q-value: 0.0158). In addition, significant recurrent copy number loss in tumor suppressor genes KANSL1 and PTPRD and gain in CALR, CCND1 and FGF3 was observed for coding regions. SNVs driver analyses predicted TP53, CDKN2A, as potential drivers of the metastasis cSCC (using 3 different tools). Indel signature analysis highlight dominance of ID signature 13 followed by ID8 & ID9. Interestingly, ID 9 has previously been shown to have no association with skin melanoma, unlike ID 13 and 8, suggesting some point of difference between these two skin-based diseases. The overall landscape of variation in metastatic cSCC is dominated by cell cycle and DNA repair disruption.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 764
Carlos García-Padilla ◽  
Ángel Dueñas ◽  
Virginio García-López ◽  
Amelia Aránega ◽  
Diego Franco ◽  

Deep whole genome and transcriptome sequencing have highlighted the importance of an emerging class of non-coding RNA longer than 200 nucleotides (i.e., long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)) that are involved in multiple cellular processes such as cell differentiation, embryonic development, and tissue homeostasis. Cancer is a prime example derived from a loss of homeostasis, primarily caused by genetic alterations both in the genomic and epigenetic landscape, which results in deregulation of the gene networks. Deregulation of the expression of many lncRNAs in samples, tissues or patients has been pointed out as a molecular regulator in carcinogenesis, with them acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Herein, we summarize the distinct molecular regulatory mechanisms described in literature in which lncRNAs modulate carcinogenesis, emphasizing epigenetic and genetic alterations in particular. Furthermore, we also reviewed the current strategies used to block lncRNA oncogenic functions and their usefulness as potential therapeutic targets in several carcinomas.

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