Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) by endobronchial valve (EBV) implantation has been shown to improve dyspnea, pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in highly selected patients with severe emphysema and hyperinflation. The most frequent adverse event is a pneumothorax (PTX), occurring in approximately one-fifth of the cases due to intrathoracic volume shifts. The majority of these incidents are observed within 48 h post-procedure. However, the delayed occurrence of PTX after hospital discharge is a matter of concern. There is currently no approved concept for its prevention. Particularly, it is unknown whether and when respiratory manoeuvers such as spirometry post EBV treatment are feasible and safe. As per standard operating procedure at the University Hospital Zurich, early spirometry is scheduled after BLVR and prior to the discharge of the patient in order to monitor treatment success. The aim of our retrospective study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of early spirometry. In addition, we hypothesized that early spirometry could be useful to identify patients at risk for late PTX, which may occur after hospital discharge. All patients who underwent BLVR using EBVs between January 2018 and January 2020 at our hospital were enrolled in this study. After excluding 16 patients diagnosed post-procedure with PTX and four patients for other reasons, early spirometry was performed in 61 cases. There was neither a clinically relevant PTX during or after early spirometry nor a late PTX following hospital discharge. In conclusion, we found early spirometry, conducted not sooner than three days following EBV treatment, to be feasible and safe. Furthermore, early spirometry seems to be a useful predictor for successful BLVR, and it may help to decide whether a patient can be discharged. Given the small sample size and the retrospective design of our study, a prospective study that includes routine chest imaging after early spirometry to definitively exclude PTX is needed to recommend early spirometry as part of the standard protocol following EBV treatment.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been widely employed in the medical field in recent years in such areas as image segmentation, medical image registration, and computer-aided detection. This study explores one application of using AI in adaptive radiation therapy treatment planning by predicting the tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR). Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of twenty rectal cancer patients were collected to observe the change in tumor volume over the course of a standard five-week radiotherapy treatment. In addition to treatment volume, patient data including patient age, gender, weight, number of treatment fractions, and dose per fraction were also collected. Application of a stepwise regression model showed that age, dose per fraction and weight were the best predictors for tumor volume reduction rate.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of polycystic kidney embolization, performed to reduce kidney volume before heterotopic kidney transplantation, as this technique could be an alternative to pretransplant nephrectomy. Materials and Methods: All patients who underwent pretransplant embolization of polycystic kidneys were included in a prospective register from June 2014 to February 2020. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scan with volumetric reconstruction (OsiriX, Bernex, Switzerland) before embolization and were then followed up at 3 and 6 months after embolization. Primary outcome was percentage of kidney volume reduction. Secondary outcomes were 30 day mortality and morbidity. Results: Thirty-one embolizations performed on 29 patients (medium age = 55.6; 62.1% male) were included between June 2014 and February 2020. All patients were under dialysis before embolization (9 peritoneal dialysis and 20 hemodialysis). Technical success was observed in 96.8% of cases. Mean procedural time was 65 minutes (range = 35–106 minutes) and mean length of in-hospital stay was 3.8 days (range = 3–6 days). A volume reduction allowing a kidney transplant was obtained for 28 patients (96.5%). The mean volume reduction was 39.9% (range = 6.01–68.2). The main observed complication was postembolization pain in 10 cases (32.2%). One patient needed complementary nephrectomy due to insufficient volume reduction. Twenty-three patients (79.3%) received renal transplant during follow-up with a mean delay of 19.5 month (range = 4–54). Conclusion: Polycystic kidney embolization is an effective and safe minimally invasive technique. It can be proposed as the first-choice technique for kidney transplant recipients as an alternative to pretransplantation nephrectomy.
Volume reduction has been suggested as a novel method to tackle the various challenges associated with produced water. The present solution offers an economical and environmentally friendly solution to treat a large bulk of produced water that may overwhelm conventional water treatment methods. The current study provides a review of the various volume reduction technologies including freeze concentration, reverse osmosis, and humidification and dehumidification desalination systems. Focus is concentrated on the general HDH technologies in addition to its integration with refrigeration cycles for conditioned air production, and the power cycles for power generation. The GOR, freshwater yield, and efficiencies of the integrated HDH systems were reviewed. Lastly, innovation in the HDH desalination technology is discussed with emphasis on its incorporation with the MVC process.
<b><i>Background:</i></b> Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) using 1-way endobronchial valves (EBV) has become a guideline treatment in patients with advanced emphysema. Evidence from this minimally invasive treatment derives mainly from well-designed controlled trials conducted in high-volume specialized intervention centres. Little is known about real-life outcome data in hospitals setting up this novel treatment and which favourable conditions are required for a continuous successful program. <b><i>Objectives:</i></b> In this study, we aim to evaluate the eligibility rate for BLVR and whether the implementation of BLVR in our academic hospital is feasible and yields clinically significant outcomes. <b><i>Method:</i></b> A retrospective evaluation of patients treated with EBV between January 2016 and August 2019 was conducted. COPD assessment test (CAT), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV<sub>1</sub>), residual volume (RV), and 6-min walking test (6MWT) were measured at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Paired sample <i>t</i> tests were performed to compare means before and after intervention. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Of 350 subjects screened, 283 (81%) were not suitable for intervention mostly due to lack of a target lobe. The remaining 67 subjects (19%) underwent bronchoscopic assessment, and if suitable, valves were placed in the same session. In total, 55 subjects (16%) were treated with EBV of which 10 did not have complete follow-up: 6 subjects had their valves removed because of severe pneumothorax (<i>n</i> = 2) or lack of benefit (<i>n</i> = 4) and the remaining 4 had missing follow-up data. Finally, 45 patients had complete follow-up at 3 months and showed an average change ± SD in CAT −4 ± 6 points, FEV<sub>1</sub> +190 ± 140 mL, RV −770 ± 790 mL, and +37 ± 65 m on the 6MWT (all <i>p</i> < 0.001). After 1-year follow-up, 34 (76%) subjects had their EBV in situ. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Implementing BLVR with EBV is feasible and effective. Only 16% of screened patients were eligible, indicating that this intervention is only applicable in a small subset of highly selected subjects with advanced emphysema, and therefore a high volume of COPD patients is essential for a sustainable BLVR program.
Idasanutlin, an MDM2 antagonist, showed clinical activity and rapid reduction in JAK2 V617F allele burden in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) in a phase 1 study. This open-label, phase 2 study evaluated idasanutlin in patients with hydroxyurea (HU)-resistant/intolerant PV, per the European LeukemiaNet criteria, and phlebotomy dependence; prior ruxolitinib exposure was permitted. Idasanutlin was administered once daily, days 1-5 of each 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint was composite response (hematocrit control and spleen volume reduction >35%) in patients with splenomegaly, and hematocrit control in patients without splenomegaly at week 32. Key secondary endpoints included safety, complete hematologic response (CHR), patient-reported outcomes, and molecular responses. All patients (n=27) received idasanutlin; 16 had response assessment (week 32). Among responders with baseline splenomegaly (n=13), 9 (69%) attained any spleen volume reduction and 1 achieved composite response. Nine patients (56%) achieved hematocrit control, and 8 patients (50%) achieved CHR. Overall, 43% of evaluable patients (n=6/14) showed a ≥50% reduction in the Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Symptom Assessment Form Total Symptom Score (week 32). Nausea (93%), diarrhea (78%), and vomiting (41%) were the most common adverse events, with grade ≥3 nausea and vomiting experienced in 3 patients (11%) and 1 patient (4%), respectively. Reduced JAK2 V617F allele burden occurred early (after 3 cycles), with a median reduction of 76%, and associated with achieving CHR and hematocrit control. Overall, the idasanutlin dosing regimen showed clinical activity and rapidly reduced JAK2 allele burden in patients with HU-resistant/intolerant PV but was associated with low-grade gastrointestinal toxicity, leading to poor long-term tolerability. Registration: NCT03287245.
Background and PurposeThe purpose of this study was to identify morphologic and dosimetric features associated with volume reduction velocity for arteriovenous malformation (AVM) after dose-stage stereotactic radiosurgery (DS-SRS).MethodsThirty patients with intracranial AVM were treated with DS fractionated SRS at Beijing Tiantan Hospital from 2011 to 2019. The AVM nidus was automatically segmented from DICOMRT files using the 3D Slicer software. The change in lesion volume was obtained from the decrease in the planning target volume (PTV) between the two treatment sessions. The volume reduction velocity was measured by the change in volume divided by the time interval between treatments. Fourteen morphologic features of AVM prior to treatment were extracted from the PTV using ‘Pyradiomics’ implemented in Python. Along with other dosimetric features, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to explore predictors of the volume reduction velocity.ResultsAmong the 15 male (50.0%) and 15 female (50.0%) patients enrolled in this study, 17 patients (56.7%) initially presented with hemorrhage. The mean treatment interval between the initial and second SRS was 35.73 months. In multivariate analysis, the SurfaceVolumeRatio was the only independent factor associated with the volume reduction velocity (p=0.010, odds ratio=0.720, 95% confidence interval: 0.560–0.925). The area under the curve of this feature for predicting the volume reduction velocity after the initial treatment of DS-SRS was 0.83. (p=0.0018).ConclusionsThe morphologic features correlated well with the volume reduction velocity in patients with intracranial AVM who underwent DS-SRS treatment. The SurfaceVolumeRatio could predict the rate of volume reduction of AVMs after DS-SRS.
Neuroinflammation and brain structural abnormalities are found in bipolar disorder (BD). Elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines have been detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with BD. This study investigated the association between peripheral inflammatory markers and brain subregion volumes in BD patients.
Euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) aged 20 to 45 years underwent whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging. Plasma levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, chitinase-3-like protein 1 (also known as YKL-40), fractalkine, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNF-R1), interleukin-1β, and transforming growth factor-β1 were measured on the day of neuroimaging. Clinical data were obtained from medical records and interviewing patients and reliable others.
We recruited 31 patients with a mean age of 29.5 years. In multivariate regression analysis, plasma level YKL-40, a chemokine, was the most common inflammatory marker among these measurements displaying significantly negative association with the volume of various brain subareas across the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Higher YKL-40 and sTNF-R1 levels were both significantly associated with lower volumes of the left anterior cingulum, left frontal lobe, right superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. A greater number of total lifetime mood episodes was also associated with smaller volumes of the right caudate nucleus and bilateral frontal lobes.
The volume of brain regions known to be relevant to BD-I may be diminished in relation to higher plasma level of YKL-40, sTNF-R1, and more lifetime mood episodes. Macrophage and macrophage-like cells may be involved in brain volume reduction among BD-I patients.