Inflammatory Markers
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2021 ◽  
Vol 93 ◽  
pp. 92-95
Author(s):  
Vanessa G. Fraga ◽  
Cláudia N. Ferreira ◽  
Flávia R. Oliveira ◽  
Ana Lúcia Cândido ◽  
Maria das Graças Carvalho ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Angela R. Hillman ◽  
Bryna C. R. Chrismas

Tart cherries possess properties that may reduce inflammation and improve glycemic control, however human data on supplementation and the gut microbiota is equivocal. Processing (i.e., juice concentrate, dried, frozen) may affect the properties of tart cherries, and therefore alter their efficacious health benefits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 30 days of supplementation with Montmorency tart cherry (MTC) in concentrate or freeze-dried form on the gut microbiome and markers of inflammation and glycemic control. Healthy participants with no known disease (n = 58, age: 28 ± 10 y, height: 169.76 ± 8.55 cm, body mass: 72.2 ± 12.9 kg) were randomly allocated to four groups and consumed either concentrate or freeze-dried capsules or their corresponding placebos for 30 days. Venous blood samples were drawn at baseline, day 7, 14, and 30 and analyzed for inflammatory markers TNF-alpha, uric acid, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and glycemic control markers glycated albumin, glucose and insulin. A fecal sample was provided at baseline, day 14 and 30 for microbiome analysis. TNF-alpha was significantly lower at 30 vs. 14 days (p = 0.01), however there was no other significant change in the inflammatory markers. Insulin was not changed over time (p = 0.16) or between groups (p = 0.24), nor was glycated albumin different over time (p = 0.08) or between groups (p = 0.56), however glucose levels increased (p < 0.001) from baseline (4.79 ± 1.00 mmol·L−1) to 14 days (5.21 ± 1.02 mmol·L−1) and 30 days (5.61 ± 1.22 mmol·L−1) but this was no different between groups (p = 0.33). There was no significant change in composition of bacterial phyla, families, or subfamilies for the duration of this study nor was there a change in species richness. These data suggest that 30 days of MTC supplementation does not modulate the gut microbiome, inflammation, or improve glycemic control in a healthy, diverse group of adults.Clinical Trail Registration:https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04467372, identifier: NCT04467372.


Author(s):  
Gulsum Alkan ◽  
Ahmet Sert ◽  
Melike Emiroglu ◽  
Sadiye Kubra Tuter Oz ◽  
Husamettin Vatansev

Author(s):  
Jaafer Zaino ◽  
Abdullah Bakri ◽  
Amani Al Sayed Ahmad ◽  
Ghadeer Hadba

AbstractMultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare and critical condition that affects children following exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, leading to multiorgan dysfunction and shock. MIS-C has been reported from different parts of the world but rarely from Arab countries. In this report, we describe a 15-year-old Arab boy who was admitted to the ICU during the surge of Coronavirus transmission in Syria with a clinical picture consistent with MIS-C, including high-grade fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, multiorgan dysfunction, and shock. Laboratory profile showed significant elevation of inflammatory markers, negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing but positive serologic testing for SARS-CoV-2. The patient received intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and glucocorticoids with remarkable cardiac improvement and significant alleviation in inflammatory markers. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MIS-C from Syria, which adds to the epidemiological data about this new syndrome.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sathyaseelan Arumugam ◽  
Emily Leivers ◽  
Ishmael Chasi

There is no clear guidance about the use of intraluminal rectal contrast combined with computerised tomography (CT) scan when assessing for anastomotic leak (AL) following colorectal resections. ALs most commonly manifest after post-operative day 5, presenting with fevers, abdominal pain, tachycardia and rising inflammatory markers. However, some patients with AL also present with subtle symptoms and failure to progress. CT with or without luminal contrast is the most commonly used investigation for diagnosis; however, there is no consensus on the best protocol. This case report highlights a need for having criteria, which include intra- and post-operative pointers when having a luminal contrast may aid diagnosis, in difficult cases. Studies show that routine contrast enema is not recommended, and furthermore, no gold standard investigation is available. This case report explores the need for a low threshold to use rectal contrast in CT in cases of prolonged ileus. Summary points There are no set criteria for the use of luminal contrast during CT scans in suspected colonic anastomotic leaks. Luminal contrasts increase the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of CT scans in detecting anastomotic leaks. In persistent post-operative ileus, with persistent high inflammatory markers, there should be a low threshold of using luminal contrast with CT scans.   Citation: Journal of Global Medicine 2021, 1: 31 - http://dx.doi.org/10.51496/jogm.v1.31  


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Isil Cakir ◽  
Serkan Dogan

Abstract Objectives The systemic immune inflammation index (SII) is a novel biomarker based on platelet, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. SII serum levels have diagnostic, prognostic degrees and correlations with various immune, inflammatory diseases. Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated chronic enteropathy with inflammatory situations. Here we aimed to evaluate clinical significance of SII and to compare SII with other inflammatory markers in CD. Methods 161 pathologically confirmed CD and 75 dyspeptic patients were enrolled. Hemogram, biochemical markers, SII, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), mean platelet volume-to-platelet ratio (MPR) and monocyte-to-high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) were evaluated. Results There was a statistically significant difference between groups for SII (p<0.001). SII was statistically correlated with and superior to inflammatory markers in relation with CD. There were also statistically significant differences between groups for hsCRP, PLR, NLR, MPR, haemoglobin, platelet count, platelet volume distribution width, plateletcrit, ferritin, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol (p=0.034; 0.015; 0.032; <0.001; <0.001; <0.001; 0.030; 0.001; <0.001; <0.001; 0.048, respectively). Correlations between SII and NLR, PLR, MHR, hsCRP were statistically significant (p≤0.001; <0.001; 0.033; 0.030, respectively). ROC analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off value for CD by SII. A baseline SII level >560.0 was associated with CD with 64% specificity, 78% sensitivity (p<0.001). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study analyzed the diagnostic value of SII in CD. SII may serve as a beneficial marker for the diagnosis of inflammatory state superior to that of hsCRP, PLR, NLR, MHR, MPR and WBC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tatjana Welzel ◽  
Anna L. Wildermuth ◽  
Norbert Deschner ◽  
Susanne M. Benseler ◽  
Jasmin B. Kuemmerle-Deschner

Abstract Background Autoinflammatory diseases (AID) are rare chronic conditions with high disease burden, affecting children and adults. Clinically and genetically confirmed, AID can be effectively treated with targeted cytokine inhibition. In contrast, for patients with clinical AID symptoms without pathogenic gene variants, no treatment recommendations are available. Colchicine is approved and established as effective, safe and low-cost first-line therapy in Familial Mediterranean Fever. Up to now, efficacy data for colchicine in children with a clinical AID diagnosis without pathogenic gene variants are rare. This pilot study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of colchicine in children with a clinical diagnosis of AID without pathogenic gene variants. Methods A pilot cohort study of consecutive children with active clinical AID without pathogenic gene variants treated with colchicine monotherapy was performed between 01/2009 and 12/2018. Demographics, clinical and laboratory characteristics were determined serially. Colchicine dosing and safety were documented. Physician estimate of disease activity was captured on visual analogue scales (VAS). Primary outcome: Complete response (PGA ≤2 plus CRP ≤0.5 mg/dL and/or SAA ≤10 mg/L) at last follow-up. Secondary outcomes: partial/no response, flare characteristics and requirement for rescue therapies. Analysis: Nonparametric comparison of disease activity measures. Results A total of 33 children were included; 39% were female. Median age at colchicine start was 3.8 years, median follow-up was 14.1 months. Clinical AID diagnoses included CAPS (24%), FMF (27%), PFAPA (43%) and unclassified AID (6%). At baseline, overall disease activity was moderate (PGA 4), inflammatory markers were elevated (CRP 12.1 mg/dL; SAA 289.2 mg/L), and 97% reported febrile flares. Outcome: 55% achieved complete response, 35% showed partial response and 58% had no febrile flares at last follow-up. Inflammatory markers (SAA: p < 0.0001, CRP: p < 0.005) and disease activity (p < 0.0001) decreased significantly. Overall, 93% of children experienced improvement of flare characteristics. Conclusion Colchicine was found to be effective and safe in children with a clinical AID diagnosis in the absence of pathogenic gene variants. Colchicine is a low-cost treatment option for non-organ threatening AID.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Aulia Putri Wahyuningtyas ◽  
Diah Pitaloka Putri ◽  
Nani Maharani ◽  
Ahmad Ni'matullah Al-Baarri

Purpose This paper aims to study the effect of the flavonoid fraction of chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw) leaves (FFCL) on uric acid (UA) levels, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in hyperuricemia rats. Design/methodology/approach In total, 30 Sprague–Dawley rats were divided randomly into 5 groups. A healthy control group was established. Hyperuricemia was induced by the administration of block broth and potassium oxonate for three weeks. FFCL at dosages of 50 and 100 mg/200 g BW/d or allopurinol at a dosage of 1.8 mg/200 g BW/d was given orally for 2 weeks. Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate differences among groups before and after the intervention. Findings Treatment with two different doses FFCL (50 and 100 mg/200 g BW/d) and one dose of allopurinol (1.8 mg/200 g BW/d) for 2 weeks significantly reduced UA from 8.04 ± 0.23 to 3.88 ± 0.10; 8.03 ± 0.18 to 2.87 ± 0.10; 8.23 ± 0.21 to 2.53 ± 0.19 (p < 0.05), respectively. The oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde levels were reduced (p = 0.001) from 9.68 ± 0.28 to 4.06 ± 0.58; 10.01 ± 0.23 to 2.12 ± 0.09; 9.88 ± 0.21 to 2.02 ± 0.17 (p = 0.001). The inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were also reduced from 26.43 ± 0.87 to 12.20 ± 0.32; 27.38 ± 0.53 to 9.60 ± 0.53; 27.55 ± 0.68 to 8.83 ± 0.21 with p = 0.001. The 100 mg/200 g BW/d FFCL decreased UA levels, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers more extensively compared to 50 mg/200 g BW/d FFCL. Research limitations/implications This study includes some limitations that may affect the generalizability of its findings. First, the flavonoid levels of FFCL were not measured. Second, other oxidative stress biomarkers (e.g. superoxide dismutase) and inflammatory biomarkers (e.g. IL-6) were not investigated. Finally, the experiments were conducted on the model animals over a relatively short period of time. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect in humans at chronic use. Practical implications Chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw) leaves are rich in flavonoids, especially apigenin and luteolin, which can improve oxidative stress and inflammation conditions caused by hyperuricemia. Social implications Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for non-communicable diseases, mostly caused by oxidative stress and inflammation in the body due to high levels of UA, one of the treatment strategies is through diet modification. Originality/value The results of this investigation imply that the administration of the flavonoid fraction of chayote leaves has significant effects on UA and oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Further research is necessary to confirm the results.


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