Specific Structure
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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Siqin Yang ◽  
Yeyi Cai ◽  
Wen Xie ◽  
Minghu Jiang

Previous studies used BA and BEI structures as stimuli to infer that syntax-first models seemed not applicable in Chinese. However, there were inconsistent results of both within same structures and between different structures. Since sentence structures of stimuli were non-canonical as well as lacking wide representativeness in Chinese, we examined the processing mechanism of a more representative structure in Chinese, QING (QING + NP1 + V + NP2) structure in the current study. Four conditions, including correct sentences (CORRECT), semantic-violated sentences (SEMANTIC), syntactic-violated sentences (SYNTACTIC), and combined violated sentences (COMBINED), were composed by manipulating the V between NP1 and NP2. Results with respect to three types of violation were as follows. In the initial phrase (100–300 ms), there existed an interaction between SEMANTIC consistency and the SYNTACTIC category. In the intermediate phrase (300–500 ms), the interaction continued with similar negative waves evoked by three types of violated sentences. In the final phrase (500–700 ms), both SYNTACTIC or COMBINED evoked obvious negative waves. The current research of Qing structure provided new evidence for the processing mechanism of Chinese sentence patterns. Specifically, we found that the interactive model rather than the syntax-first model may apply to the processing of this specific structure of Chinese sentences and compared the results with those reported in previous studies that examined other types of sentence structures.

2021 ◽  
pp. 43-71
Emiliano Grossman ◽  
Isabelle Guinaudeau

This chapter presents the five cases. They are all wealthy Western European democracies. They feature quite a few similarities, concerning the evolution of turnout, electoral volatility, or the growing success of far-right parties. Yet, they also allow for some variation regarding their electoral systems, ranging from very majoritarian to very proportional and a resulting variety of party systems. Each country’s institutional setup and contemporary politics is briefly presented in turn. For each of the five countries, the chapter briefly discusses data availability and sources. For the five countries, we present the legislative agenda and the party agenda from the early 1980s to the late 2000s at least. Finally, we explain the choice of fixed-effects negative binomial regression, given the specific structure of the data and the goals of the study.

2021 ◽  
pp. svn-2021-001091
Deepthi Rajashekar ◽  
Matthias Wilms ◽  
M Ethan MacDonald ◽  
Serena Schimert ◽  
Michael D Hill ◽  

BackgroundLesion-symptom mapping (LSM) is a statistical technique to investigate the population-specific relationship between structural integrity and post-stroke clinical outcome. In clinical practice, patients are commonly evaluated using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), an 11-domain clinical score to quantitate neurological deficits due to stroke. So far, LSM studies have mostly used the total NIHSS score for analysis, which might not uncover subtle structure–function relationships associated with the specific sub-domains of the NIHSS evaluation. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility to perform LSM analyses with sub-score information to reveal category-specific structure–function relationships that a total score may not reveal.MethodsEmploying a multivariate technique, LSM analyses were conducted using a sample of 180 patients with NIHSS assessment at 48-hour post-stroke from the ESCAPE trial. The NIHSS domains were grouped into six categories using two schemes. LSM was conducted for each category of the two groupings and the total NIHSS score.ResultsSub-score LSMs not only identify most of the brain regions that are identified as critical by the total NIHSS score but also reveal additional brain regions critical to each function category of the NIHSS assessment without requiring extensive, specialised assessments.ConclusionThese findings show that widely available sub-scores of clinical outcome assessments can be used to investigate more specific structure–function relationships, which may improve predictive modelling of stroke outcomes in the context of modern clinical stroke assessments and neuroimaging.Trial registration numberNCT01778335.

2021 ◽  
Vol 35 (5) ◽  
pp. 38-44
Byoungjik Park ◽  
Yangkyun Kim ◽  
Ohk Kun Lim

The Korean government has announced the construction of more than 310 hydrogen refueling stations by 2022 to establish a hydrogen infrastructure, which is crucial for realizing hydrogen economy. According to the fire act in Korea, most hydrogen refueling stations are not included in the specific structure for fire protection. Therefore, in this study, the fire protection facilities in hydrogen refueling stations and the amendment methods for those facilities were investigated using the Delphi method. A total of six fire protection facilities, including an automatic fire alarm system and sprinkler, were drawn. It is the conclusion of the paper, however the current fire act does not classified the hydrogen refueling station as the specific structure for fire protection. I think the following is better: Furthermore, hydrogen refueling stations needed to be included in the specific structure for fire protection by modifying the hydrogen storage tank volume. High-pressure gas act and relevant technical codes were further required to connect with fire regulations. Quantitative analysis of fire protection facilities and design codes for hydrogen refueling stations could provide information for the hydrogen infrastructure development.

Algorithms ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (11) ◽  
pp. 309
Aleksandr Cariow ◽  
Janusz P. Paplinski

The article presents a parallel hardware-oriented algorithm designed to speed up the division of two octonions. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that the number of real multiplications is halved as compared to the naive method for implementing this operation. In the synthesis of the discussed algorithm, the matrix representation of this operation was used, which allows us to present the division of octonions by means of a vector–matrix product. Taking into account a specific structure of the matrix multiplicand allows for reducing the number of real multiplications necessary for the execution of the octonion division procedure.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (10) ◽  
pp. 115-118
E. Mammadov ◽  
G. Novruzov

In the article presents the results of carpological and helminthological dissect of sheep of different areas of Nakhchivan. In the 7 districts 6 species of anoplocephalates were detected. The specific structure and a degree of contamination of sheep with anoplocephalates (intestinal cestodes) in local climatic conditions are established. As a result of the researches extensiveneness and intensity invasion were revealed. In the territory of these regions anoplocephalates are spread as high, EI of sheep % 50.9, II — 2.5 specimens. Six anoplocephalates species, namely Moniezia expansa, M. benedeni, M. alba, Avitellina centripunctata, Thysanezia giardi and Stilezia globipunctata were identified in sheep.

2021 ◽  
pp. 101245
Marta Soszynska-Jozwiak ◽  
Maciej Pszczola ◽  
Julita Piasecka ◽  
Jake M. Peterson ◽  
Walter N. Moss ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (3) ◽  
pp. 79-86
E.N. Mysnik ◽  

The purpose of the study was to identify the species composition of weed plants and its features on ruderal habitats on the territory of Vyborg city (Leningrad region, Vyborg district). Materials collected during the route survey of ruderal habitats on the territory of the settlement. Systemati-zation of monitoring data, floristic analysis of species composition, calculation of species occur-rence and assessment of its persistence were carried out. The specific structure is presented by 58 species, 48 genus, 18 families. Groups of 21 dominant and 15 concomitant in occurrence species are allocated. Brought species of weeds were revealed. The interrelation of species compositions of weed plants of segetal habitats of the region and ruderal habitats in the territory of the settlement is shown (17 species, identified on ruderal habitats of the city, are dominant in the fields of the region).

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