Malaria control requires local action. Assessing the vector diversity and abundance provides information on the local malariogenic potential or risk of transmission. This study aimed to determine the Anopheles species composition, habitats, seasonal occurrence, and distribution in areas with autochthonous and imported malaria cases in Roraima State.
A longitudinal study was conducted from January 2017 to October 2018, sampling larvae and adult mosquitoes in three municipalities of Roraima State: Boa Vista, Pacaraima and São João da Baliza. These areas have different risks of malaria importation. Four to six mosquito larval habitats were selected for larval sampling at each municipality, along with two additional sites for adult mosquito collection. All larval habitats were surveyed every two months using a standardized larval sampling methodology and MosqTent for adult mosquitoes.
A total of 544 Anopheles larvae and 1488 adult mosquitoes were collected from the three municipalities studied. Although the species abundance differed between municipalities, the larvae of Anopheles albitarsis s.l., Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. and Anopheles triannulatus s.l. were collected from all larval habitats studied while Anopheles darlingi were collected only from Boa Vista and São João da Baliza. Adults of 11 species of the genus Anopheles were collected, and the predominant species in Boa Vista was An. albitarsis (88.2%) followed by An. darlingi (6.9%), while in São João da Baliza, An. darlingi (85.6%) was the most predominant species followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (9.2%). In contrast, the most abundant species in Pacaraima was Anopheles braziliensis (62%), followed by Anopheles peryassui (18%). Overall, the majority of anophelines exhibited greater extradomicile than peridomicile-biting preference. Anopheles darlingi was the only species found indoors. Variability in biting times was observed among species and municipalities.
This study revealed the composition of anopheline species and habitats in Boa Vista, Pacaraima and São João da Baliza. The species sampled differed in their behaviour with only An. darlingi being found indoors. Anopheles darlingi appeared to be the most important vector in São João da Baliza, an area of autochthonous malaria, and An. albitarsis s.l. and An. braziliensis in areas of low transmission, although there were increasing reports of imported malaria. Understanding the diversity of vector species and their ecology is essential for designing effective vector control strategies for these municipalities.
We investigated the use of eDNA metabarcoding for supplementing traditional diver-based monitoring of biodiversity of marine boulder reefs within the photic zone. The applied sampling design made it possible to evaluate the usefulness of eDNA monitoring as a supplement for traditional monitoring. Specifically, this study aimed to (1) assess the local influence of boulder reefs on biodiversity across the North Sea to Baltic Sea transition zone and (2) investigate the importance of environmental gradients for patterns in community structure. On samples collected during August 2020, we compared the composition and abundance of species associated with nine reefs, representing an environmental gradient of salinity (16–33 psu), water temperature (16–21°C) and water depth (6–29 m). At each reef site, water was sampled near the bottom just above the reef and on average 2.6 km upstream and downstream (location) and sequenced with metabarcoding using COI, 18S and 12S rDNA primers. eDNA identified 400 species, diver-based observations identified 184 with an overlap of 70 species (12%) and 81 genera (18%). While eDNA identified many infaunal species, it did not detect several macroalgal species which dominated in the diver-based observations. Multivariate analysis of eDNA and diver-based community structure both distinguished between reef communities, with a significant match between patterns observed by the two methods (r = 0.37, p = 0.02). Furthermore, the eDNA approach made it possible to identify significant differences in species composition between upstream, above-reef and downstream locations, suggesting that eDNA leaves a local footprint in benthic habitats. Patterns in both eDNA and diver-based species composition and richness were significantly related to geographical distance, salinity, water temperature and water depth. Despite of low detection of macroalgae, the eDNA sampling provided a substantial supplement to traditional diver-based monitoring of biodiversity around benthic hotspots in the Danish marine waters and therefore we recommend to add eDNA methods to conventional monitoring programs in the future.
Maintaining a diverse urban forest that provides ecosystem services can promote urban sustainability and resilience to environmental change. Around the world, cities have taken to inventorying their urban trees and quantifying their ecosystem services but more so in industrialized counties than in Latin America. Here we describe the results of an i-Tree inventory that established 206 survey plots in the National Municipal District of Santo Domingo (NMDSD). We used social-ecological theory to evaluate potential factors that may influence urban forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services diversity across three wards with distinct social and urban characteristics. Rarefaction curves showed a diverse urban forest dominated by non-native trees that have ornamental and medicinal uses. Wards differed in species composition with palms being particularly dominant in Wards 1 and 2 where the proportion of low-income houses is smaller. Ward 1 supports high-income residential areas and Ward 3 is the area with higher population and housing densities and lower income residents. On average, we found no significant differences among wards in tree species richness, average dbh, leaf area, and percent tree cover per plot. Trees in Ward 2 were taller, on average, than those in Ward 1 but were comparable to those in Ward 3. Likewise, tree density per plot was highest in Ward 2, followed by Ward 1 and Ward 3. Despite these significant differences in stem densities, average values in four ecosystem services involving measures of carbon, rainfall, and contaminants (C-sequestration, C-storage, avoided runoff, and removal of air pollutants) were non-significant across wards. We found disproportionately more street trees in Ward 1 relative to Wards 2 and 3 and more trees in public spaces in Wards 1 and 2 relative to Ward 3. Evidence for the luxury effect on tree distribution in the NMDSD was subtle and manifested mostly through differences in species composition and tree distribution across public and private domains as well as the amount of planting space. Overall results point to inequalities in the potential of reforestation among NMDS wards and an overabundance of non-native species, which should guide urban forest management with ecosystem services and conservation goals.
Littoral macroinvertebrates in acidified waterbodies are affected by the interaction of acidification and local environmental conditions. Understanding the interplay of these factors in the structuring of communities is essential for interpreting responses to and/or recovery from acidification. Here, we analyse the species composition and richness of littoral macroinvertebrates in a range of acidified montane standing waters in relation to water chemistry, littoral characteristics and fish stock. The main species composition gradients were related to pH and conductivity; however, considerable variation along these gradients was associated with local habitat characteristics (changing water levels and littoral structure) and concentration of ionic aluminium and dissolved organic carbon. Although fish stock effects were confounded by correlated acidity, we observed a significant decline in abundance of macroinvertebrates vulnerable to fish predation at sites with fish stock. Overall, littoral macroinvertebrates of acidic waterbodies were diverse due to the heterogeneity of local habitat properties, despite they were dominated by acid-tolerant species. Acidic humic sites with dense, heterogeneous littoral vegetation were species-rich, hosting numerous habitat specialists and rare species, while chronically acidified lakes with high aluminium concentrations and sparse littoral vegetation had species-poor assemblages, characteristic of strong acid-stress. Water level manipulation resulted in serious assemblage impoverishment, overriding the effects of more favourable water chemistry. This study shows that the littoral fauna of acidic waterbodies is structured by complex effects induced by local factors in addition to acidity, resulting in acid-stressed assemblages with relatively high variability, emphasising a need to analyse local habitat factors when evaluating the impact of acidification on macroinvertebrates.
Storage mites, especially several species in the families Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, and Chortoglyphidae are commonly found in farming and occupational environments. They are a source of clinically important allergens, and may also have a significant impact on forensic analyses. They may be of use in forensic situations, particularly as allergenic taxa, in relation to workers who are occupationally exposed to mites. Additionally, because many of them are present through all stages of vertebrate decomposition, they may provide valuable information as indicators of time and circumstances of death. This study aimed to investigate the possible occurrence and abundance of allergenic mites in farm buildings, as well as to examine and analyse collected material samples in relation to forensic medicine. A total of 58 samples from 15 farms in the Żywiecki district (Silesian Province, Poland) were examined as potential sources of allergenic mites in farm buildings with a special reference to forensic acarology. Mites were found in all the examined samples. A total of 4,473 specimens were isolated and 22 mite species were identified. Most of them were found in barns and pigsties. The species composition of the acarofauna was varied across the particular types of farm buildings examined. Generally, the dominant species were representatives of families Acaridae and Glycyphagidae (Astigmatina). This knowledge may be useful in a variety of cases or situations in the field of forensic medicine.
Soil seed banks may offer great potential for maintaining and restoring desert ecosystems that have been degraded by climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. However, few studies have explored the year-to-year dynamics in the species composition (richness and abundance) of these desert soil seed banks. Thus, we conducted a 4-year study to assess the effects of environmental factors (meteorology and microtopography) and aboveground vegetation on the soil seed bank of the Tengger Desert, China.
We found the seed bank was dominated by annual herb species both in species richness and abundance. More rainfall in the growing season increased the number of seeds in the soil seed bank, and quadrat micro-elevation had a negative effect on soil seed bank size. The species composition in the seed bank had significantly larger between-year similarity than that in the aboveground vegetation due to the dominance of annual herb species. For different life forms, the species composition of annual herbs showed distinctly larger temporal similarity between the aboveground vegetation and the seed bank compared with perennial herbs and shrubs.
Our findings highlight that the combined effects of environmental factors and plant life forms determine the species composition (especially the abundance) of soil seed banks in deserts. However, if degraded desert ecosystems are left to regenerate naturally, the lack of shrub and perennial herb seeds could crucially limit their restoration. Human intervention and management may have to be applied to enhance the seed abundance of perennial lifeforms in degraded deserts.
Protection of natural areas by restricting human activities aims to preserve plant and animal populations and whole communities, ensuring the conservation of biological diversity and enhancement of ecosystem services. Therefore, it is expected that the longer the protection, the stronger the desired effects. We evaluated the responses of small mammals at the population and community levels under protection in the southern Carpathian Mountains. We surveyed small mammals for five years in sites with long- and short-term protection and non-protected. Besides protection status, we included elevation, habitat heterogeneity, and the month of survey as predictors in our models. As response variables, we considered abundance, presence, species composition and species richness. Community abundance responded to all four predictors and species composition was influenced by protection status and month of study. The shrews Sorex araneus and S. minutus had positive responses to protection, both in terms of abundance and relative abundance (their ratio within the community). Our results suggest that overall, montane small mammal communities respond positively to long-term protection, especially S. araneus and S. minutus. These shrew species are considered habitat generalists, but they appear to be in fact sensitive to the habitat quality enhanced through protection.