influenza a
Recently Published Documents





Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 148
Aleksandra Woźniak ◽  
Piotr Cybulski ◽  
Lilla Denes ◽  
Gyula Balka ◽  
Tomasz Stadejek

Porcine respirovirus 1 (PRV1) is also known as porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (PPIV1). The prevalence and the role of PRV1 infections for pig health is largely unknown. In order to assess the PRV1 prevalence in Poland, nasal swabs and oral fluids collected from pigs from 30 farms were examined with RT real-time PCR. Additionally, IAV and PRRSV infection statuses of PRV1-positive samples were examined. The results showed that the virus is highly prevalent (76.7% farms positive) and different patterns of PRV1 circulation in herds with mild–moderate respiratory disease were observed. Co-infections with IAV and PRRSV were infrequent and detected in 8 (23.5%) and 4 (11.8%) out of 34 PRV1-positive nasal swab pools from diseased pens, respectively. In one pen PRV1, IAV, and PRRSV were detected at the same time. Interestingly, PRV1 mean Ct value in samples with co-infections was significantly lower (29.8 ± 3.1) than in samples with a single PRV1 infection (32.5 ± 3.6) (p < 0.05), which suggested higher virus replication in these populations. On the other hand, the virus detection in pig populations exhibiting respiratory clinical signs, negative for PRRSV and IAV, suggests that PRV1 should be involved in differential diagnosis of respiratory problems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Elnaz Aledavood ◽  
Beatrice Selmi ◽  
Carolina Estarellas ◽  
Matteo Masetti ◽  
F. Javier Luque

With an estimated 1 billion people affected across the globe, influenza is one of the most serious health concerns worldwide. Therapeutic treatments have encompassed a number of key functional viral proteins, mainly focused on the M2 proton channel and neuraminidase. This review highlights the efforts spent in targeting the M2 proton channel, which mediates the proton transport toward the interior of the viral particle as a preliminary step leading to the release of the fusion peptide in hemagglutinin and the fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes. Besides the structural and mechanistic aspects of the M2 proton channel, attention is paid to the challenges posed by the development of efficient small molecule inhibitors and the evolution toward novel ligands and scaffolds motivated by the emergence of resistant strains.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010219
Aaqib Sohail ◽  
Azeem A. Iqbal ◽  
Nishika Sahini ◽  
Fangfang Chen ◽  
Mohamed Tantawy ◽  

Excessive inflammation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many viral infections including influenza. Therefore, there is a need for therapeutic interventions that dampen and redirect inflammatory responses and, ideally, exert antiviral effects. Itaconate is an immunomodulatory metabolite which also reprograms cell metabolism and inflammatory responses when applied exogenously. We evaluated effects of endogenous itaconate and exogenous application of itaconate and its variants dimethyl- and 4-octyl-itaconate (DI, 4OI) on host responses to influenza A virus (IAV). Infection induced expression of ACOD1, the enzyme catalyzing itaconate synthesis, in monocytes and macrophages, which correlated with viral replication and was abrogated by DI and 4OI treatment. In IAV-infected mice, pulmonary inflammation and weight loss were greater in Acod1-/- than in wild-type mice, and DI treatment reduced pulmonary inflammation and mortality. The compounds reversed infection-triggered interferon responses and modulated inflammation in human cells supporting non-productive and productive infection, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in human lung tissue. Itaconates reduced ROS levels and STAT1 phosphorylation, whereas AKT phosphorylation was reduced by 4OI and DI but increased by itaconate. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified monocytes as the main target of infection and the exclusive source of ACOD1 mRNA in peripheral blood. DI treatment silenced IFN-responses predominantly in monocytes, but also in lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Ectopic synthesis of itaconate in A549 cells, which do not physiologically express ACOD1, reduced infection-driven inflammation, and DI reduced IAV- and IFNγ-induced CXCL10 expression in murine macrophages independent of the presence of endogenous ACOD1. The compounds differed greatly in their effects on cellular gene homeostasis and released cytokines/chemokines, but all three markedly reduced release of the pro-inflammatory chemokines CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL2 (MCP-1). Viral replication did not increase under treatment despite the dramatically repressed IFN responses. In fact, 4OI strongly inhibited viral transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the compounds reduced viral titers (4OI>Ita>DI) in A549 cells whereas viral transcription was unaffected. Taken together, these results reveal itaconates as immunomodulatory and antiviral interventions for influenza virus infection.

mSphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Aditi Sharma ◽  
Michael A. Zeller ◽  
Carine K. Souza ◽  
Tavis K. Anderson ◽  
Amy L. Vincent ◽  

H3.2010.2 is a new phylogenetic clade of H3N2 circulating in swine that became established after the spillover of a human seasonal H3N2 from the 2016–2017 influenza season. The novel H3.2010.2 transmitted and adapted to the swine host and demonstrated reassortment with internal genes from strains endemic to pigs, but it maintained human-like HA and NA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 01-03
Uday Jain

World Health Organization estimates that worldwide annually there are about one billion infections, 3-5 million severe illnesses, and 300,000-500,000 deaths (10.1038/s41572-018-0002-y). Influenza is caused primarily by influenza A and influenza B viruses. Influenza A is the cause of pandemics.

2022 ◽  
Bo Tang ◽  
En-Ze Sun ◽  
Zhi-Ling Zhang ◽  
Shu-Lin Liu ◽  
Jia Liu ◽  

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a global health threat. The cellular endocytic machineries harnessed by IAV remain elusive. Here, by tracking single IAV particles and quantifying the internalized IAV, we found that the sphingomyelin (SM)-sequestered cholesterol, but not the accessible cholesterol, is essential for the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) of IAV. The clathrin-independent endocytosis of IAV is cholesterol-independent. Whereas, the CME of transferrin depends on SM-sequestered cholesterol and accessible cholesterol. Furthermore, three-color single-virus tracking and electron microscopy showed that the SM-cholesterol complex nanodomain is recruited to the IAV-containing clathrin-coated structure (CCS) and facilitates neck constriction of the IAV-containing CCS. Meanwhile, formin-binding protein 17 (FBP17), a membrane-bending protein which activates actin nucleation, is recruited to IAV-CCS complex in a manner dependent on the SM-cholesterol complex. We propose that the SM-cholesterol nanodomain at the neck of CCS recruits FBP17 to induce neck constriction by activating actin assembly. These results unequivocally show the physiological importance of the SM-cholesterol complex in IAV entry. Importance: IAV infects the cells by harnessing cellular endocytic machineries. Better understanding of the cellular machineries used for its entry might lead to the development of antiviral strategies, and would also provide important insights into physiological endocytic processes. This work demonstrated that a special pool of cholesterol in plasma membrane, SM-sequestered cholesterol, recruits FBP17 for the constriction of clathrin-coated pits in IAV entry. Meanwhile, the clathrin-independent cell entry of IAV is cholesterol-independent. The internalization of transferrin, the gold-standard cargo endocytosed solely via CME, is much less dependent on the SM-cholesterol complex. These results would provide new insights into IAV infection and pathway/cargo-specific involvement of cholesterol pool(s).

2022 ◽  
Zhenyu Li ◽  
Tian Li ◽  
Meisui Liu ◽  
Tijana Ivanovic

Understanding mechanisms of resistance to antiviral inhibitors can reveal nuanced features of targeted viral mechanisms and, in turn, lead to improved strategies for inhibitor design. Arbidol is a broad-spectrum antiviral which binds to and prevents the fusion-associated conformational changes in the trimeric influenza hemagglutinin (HA). The rate-limiting step during HA-mediated membrane fusion is the release of the hydrophobic fusion peptides from a conserved pocket on HA. Here, we investigated how destabilizing or stabilizing mutations in or near the fusion peptide affect viral sensitivity to Arbidol. The degree of sensitivity was proportional to the extent of fusion peptide stability on the pre-fusion HA: stabilized mutants were more sensitive, and destabilized ones resistant to Arbidol. Single-virion membrane fusion experiments for representative Wild Type and mutant viruses demonstrated that resistance is a direct consequence of fusion-peptide destabilization not dependent on reduced Arbidol binding to HA at neutral pH. Our results support the model whereby the probability of individual HAs extending to engage the target membrane is determined by the composite of two critical forces: a "tug" on the fusion peptide by the extension of the central coiled-coil on HA, and the key interactions stabilizing fusion peptide in the pre-fusion pocket. Arbidol increases the free-energy penalty for coiled-coil extension, but destabilizing mutations decrease the free-energy cost for fusion peptide release, accounting for the observed resistance. Our findings have broad implications for fusion-inhibitor design, viral mechanisms of resistance, and our basic understanding of HA-mediated membrane fusion.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Min Kang ◽  
Mark Zanin ◽  
Sook-San Wong

Subtype H3N2 influenza A viruses (A(H3N2)) have been the dominant strain in some countries in the Western Pacific region since the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza; however, low vaccine effectiveness has been reported in some influenza seasons, especially for A(H3N2). Antigenic mismatch introduced by egg-adaptation during vaccine production between the vaccine and circulating viral stains is one of the reasons for low vaccine effectiveness. Here we review the extent of this phenomenon, the underlying molecular mechanisms and discuss recent strategies to ameliorate this, including new vaccine platforms that may provide better protection and should be considered to reduce the impact of A(H3N2) in the Western Pacific region.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document