Late Life
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2021 ◽  
Date Claudius van der Veen

2021 ◽  
Vol 152 ◽  
pp. 106735
Diego De Leo ◽  
Andrea Viecelli Giannotti

2021 ◽  
Adriana Boettcher ◽  
Alexis Zarucha ◽  
Theresa Koebe ◽  
Malo Gaubert ◽  
Angela Hoeppner ◽  

Regular musical activity as a highly-stimulating lifestyle activity is proposed to be protective against age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated associations between lifelong regular musical instrument playing, late-life cognitive abilities and brain morphology in older adults. We show that musical activity over the life course is associated with better global cognition, working memory, executive functions, language, and visuospatial abilities accounting for reserve proxies. Playing music is not significantly associated with gray matter volume in regions most affected by aging and AD. Selectively in the musically active participants, multi-domain cognitive abilities were enhanced with preserved gray matter volume in frontal and temporal regions. Our correlational findings suggest that playing a musical instrument may improve the recruitment of existing brain resources to facilitate late-life cognitive capacities. We propose that engaging in regular musical activity could serve as a low-threshold multimodal enrichment strategy that may promote cognitive resilience in advanced age.

2021 ◽  
Merit P. Ekeregbe

Abstract Accurate prediction of gas critical rate is critical to the successful management of gas wells. This paper covers the prediction of gas critical rate and presents limitations of old models with gas condensate wells with water-cut reversal. Comparison of prediction methods or models with this new method will be explained using field data of condensate wells. The effect and relation of water-cut with critical gas rate determination will be presented and the best method that universally meets changing conditions of the well will be tested with field data. Any method that must be acceptable must meet the dynamics of the well. No static model can predict accurately a dynamic well and reservoir performance. The old models of critical gas rate prediction show a static outlook, probably see the beginning of the well-life and cannot predict correctly when the fluid phases change in gravity. The late life prediction of the well performance is much more critical than the early life when the well has sufficient energy. The production envelope is more critical at depletion than at when the reservoir energy just kick. Therefore, any model prediction must be dynamic. The results from the old models show that they fail the dynamic test of the well performance. This limitation makes those model unusable in a late life of the well when water cut increases. This study has revealed a method or a model for critical rate prediction that is accurate throughout the life of the well. The effect of water cut reversal is well tracked with this new model whereas the static nature of other models predicts a wrong minimum rate at a liquid load up rate. The field data reveals that the dynamic nature of well and reservoir performance can only be understood dynamically.

Manik Gopinath ◽  
Vikki Entwistle ◽  
Tim Kelly ◽  
Barbara Illsley

Policy discourse favours the idea of “ageing in place” but many older people move home and into different kinds of residential settings. This article extends the understanding of how relocation can promote as well as diminish older people’s well-being. Using relational understandings of place and capabilities (people’s freedoms and opportunities to be and to do what they value) we explored well-being across the relocation trajectories of 21 people aged 65–91 years living in diverse residential settings in Scotland. We found that a diverse array of capabilities mattered for well-being and that relocation was often motivated by concerns to secure “at-risk” capabilities for valued activities and relationships. Moving residence impacted several other capabilities, in addition to these, both, positively and negatively. We suggest that a capability approach offers a valuable lens for understanding and supporting well-being through behavioural models of late-life relocation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Gwenn S. Smith ◽  
Clifford I. Workman ◽  
Hillary Protas ◽  
Yi Su ◽  
Alena Savonenko ◽  

AbstractDepression in late-life is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline and development of all-cause dementia. The neurobiology of late-life depression (LLD) may involve both neurochemical and neurodegenerative mechanisms that are common to depression and dementia. Transgenic amyloid mouse models show evidence of early degeneration of monoamine systems. Informed by these preclinical data, the hypotheses were tested that a spatial covariance pattern of higher beta-amyloid (Aβ) and lower serotonin transporter availability (5-HTT) in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortical regions would distinguish LLD patients from healthy controls and the expression of this pattern would be associated with greater depressive symptoms. Twenty un-medicated LLD patients who met DSM-V criteria for major depression and 20 healthy controls underwent PET imaging with radiotracers for Aβ ([11C]-PiB) and 5-HTT ([11C]-DASB). A voxel-based multi-modal partial least squares (mmPLS) algorithm was applied to the parametric PET images to determine the spatial covariance pattern between the two radiotracers. A spatial covariance pattern was identified, including higher Aβ in temporal, parietal and occipital cortices associated with lower 5-HTT in putamen, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus and raphe nuclei (dorsal, medial and pontine), which distinguished LLD patients from controls. Greater expression of this pattern, reflected in summary 5-HTT/Aβ mmPLS subject scores, was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The mmPLS method is a powerful approach to evaluate the synaptic changes associated with AD pathology. This spatial covariance pattern should be evaluated further to determine whether it represents a biological marker of antidepressant treatment response and/or cognitive decline in LLD patients.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 1200
Da Sol Park ◽  
Hae Yean Park

The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean version of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (K-LLFDI) and verify its reliability and validity. Fifty community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and above with independent mobility were surveyed. The reliability and validity of the instrument were verified. The overall cultural validity of 48 items was evaluated as very high (0.95), and only one item that was not appropriate was revised. The reliability of the remaining six domains was either high or very high. Internal consistency was high (α = 0.859) in the Disability component of the instrument and very high (α = 0.914) in the Function component. The factor loading for 42 out of 48 items was above 0.04. Overall, each component was well reflected by the sub-items. The K-LLFDI is expected to be instrumental in solving the rapidly growing problems of community-dwelling older adults.

Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000012728
Xuerui Li ◽  
Ruixue Song ◽  
Xiuying Qi ◽  
Hui Xu ◽  
Wenzhe Yang ◽  

Background and Objectives:Evidence on the association of the cognitive reserve (CR) with the cognitive trajectories is limited. We aimed to examine the influence of CR indicator on domain-specific cognitive trajectories taking brain pathologies into account.Methods:Within the Rush Memory and Aging Project, 1,697 dementia-free participants (mean age: 79.6 years) were followed up to 21 years. CR indicator encompassing education, early-life, mid-life, and late-life cognitive activities, and late-life social activity was ascertained at baseline and categorized as tertiles (the lowest, middle, and highest). Global cognition, episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, visuospatial ability, and perceptual speed were assessed annually with 19 tests, from which composite scores were derived. During the follow-up, 648 died and underwent autopsies to evaluate brain pathologies. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effect models.Results:Among the participants, the score of the CR indicator ranged from -8.00 to 5.74 (mean: 0.00±2.23). In multi-adjusted mixed-effect models, compared to the lowest CR, the highest was related to a slower decline in global cognition (β=0.028, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.012 to 0.043), episodic memory (β=0.028, 95% CI: 0.010 to 0.047) and working memory (β=0.019, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.033) during the follow-up. In brain pathological data analysis, the association of the highest CR with cognitive function changes remained significant among participants with high Alzheimer’s disease pathology or gross infarcts.Discussion:High CR indicator is associated with preserved global cognitive function, episodic memory, and working memory, even in the presence of brain pathologies. Our findings highlight the important role of high CR accumulation in the prevention of cognitive decline.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (37) ◽  
pp. e2024265118
Lisanne M. Jenkins ◽  
Alexandr Kogan ◽  
Matthew Malinab ◽  
Carson Ingo ◽  
Sanaz Sedaghat ◽  

Midlife blood pressure is associated with structural brain changes, cognitive decline, and dementia in late life. However, the relationship between early adulthood blood pressure exposure, brain structure and function, and cognitive performance in midlife is not known. A better understanding of these relationships in the preclinical stage may advance our mechanistic understanding of vascular contributions to late-life cognitive decline and dementia and may provide early therapeutic targets. To identify resting-state functional connectivity of executive control networks (ECNs), a group independent components analysis was performed of functional MRI scans of 600 individuals from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults longitudinal cohort study, with cumulative systolic blood pressure (cSBP) measured at nine visits over the preceding 30 y. Dual regression analysis investigated performance-related connectivity of ECNs in 578 individuals (mean age 55.5 ± 3.6 y, 323 female, 243 Black) with data from the Stroop color–word task of executive function. Greater connectivity of a left ECN to the bilateral anterior gyrus rectus, right posterior orbitofrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens was associated with better executive control performance on the Stroop. Mediation analyses showed that while the relationship between cSBP and Stroop performance was mediated by white matter hyperintensities (WMH), resting-state connectivity of the ECN mediated the relationship between WMH and executive function. Increased connectivity of the left ECN to regions involved in reward processing appears to compensate for the deleterious effects of WMH on executive function in individuals across the burden of cumulative systolic blood pressure exposure in midlife.

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