gas chromatography mass spectrometry
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Albratty ◽  
H. A. Alhazmi ◽  
A. M. Meraya ◽  
A. Najmi ◽  
M. S. Alam ◽  

Abstract Seaweeds are a major marine resource that can be explored to develop novel pharmaceutical molecules. The present study showed the presence of unique bioactive components in the petroleum ether extract (PEE) and methanolic extract (ME) of Sargassum tenerrimum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the PEE of S. tenerrimum contained antibacterial biomolecules: hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 17-pentatriacontene, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, and acetate (ester). However, the ME of S. tenerrimum exhibited better antibacterial effect than the PEE due to the presence of the bioactive compounds 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester, tetratetracontane, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzenediol, and benzoic acid. Thus, promising antibacterial molecules can be isolated from S. tenerrimum for better therapeutic use.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
B. W. Debiasi ◽  
A. L. Raiser ◽  
S. H. A. Dourado ◽  
M. de P. R. Torres ◽  
C. R. Andrighetti ◽  

Abstract Species of the genus Cordia have shown biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, and antifungal activities. The species Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC. Has no information concerning its phytochemical profile and possible biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this profile in ethanolic extracts of young, adult and senescent leaves, as well as their antioxidant, photoprotective, antimicrobial, and virucidal potentials. Phytochemical analysis was performed by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The evaluation by UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer) evidenced the presence of caffeic (3.89 mgL-1), p-cumaric (6.13 mgL-1), and ferulic (0.58 mgL-1) acids, whilst, in GC/MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) analysis there was a greater amount of palmitic (51.17%), stearic (20.34%), linoleic (9.62%), and miristic (8.16%) fatty acids. The DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radicals were used to verify the potential antioxidant activity, observing a better activity for the leaf extract in the adult phenological stage: 54.63 ± 1.06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) and 44.21 ± 1.69 mM (ABTS). The potential photoprotective activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the in vitro values of SPF (Sun Protection Factor) in young and adult leaves (5.47 and 5.41, respectively) showed values close to the minimum SPF of 6.0 required by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency). It was not observed an antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2000 μgmL-1, however the anti-herpetic assay against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) showed a potent virucidal activity at the tested concentrations with CV50 value <0.195 μgmL-1 and a Selectivity Index (SI = CC50 / CV50) greater than 448. The results obtained in this study suggest that extracts of leaves of C. glabrata in their adult phenological stage have potential antioxidant, photoprotective and virucidal activity, considering in vitro test results.

Zahir Shah ◽  
Syed Lal Badshah ◽  
Arshad Iqbal ◽  
Zamarud Shah ◽  
Abdul-Hamid Emwas ◽  

Abstract Background Freshwater macroalgae possess a number of important secondary metabolites. They are an unexplored source of medicinal compounds. In this study, three freshwater macroalgae—Chara vulgaris, Cladophora glomerata and Spirogyra crassa—were collected from the river Swat and the river Kabul in the Charsadda district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To assess the role of freshwater macroalgae in agriculture, various experiments were performed on their extracts. Methanolic extract of the three macroalgae were first analyzed through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for the presence of important medicinal secondary metabolites. The methanol based macroalgae extracts were tested for antibacterial, insecticidal, cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities. Results Initially, the algae were dried, crushed and treated with methanol for the extraction of secondary metabolites. The GC–MS results contained several important long chain fatty acids and other related long-chain hydrocarbons, such as alkanes and alkenes. Several benzene derivatives were also detected during the course of the investigation. Several of these compounds have established roles in the treatment of human ailments and can be supplied to farm animals. For example, phenylephrine is a decongestant, dilates pupils, increases blood pressure and helps in relieving hemorrhoids. Hexahydropseudoionone has uses in perfumes and other cosmetics. Several essential oils were also detected in the methanolic extract of the three macroalgae that can be utilized in various industrial products. Bioassays showed that these algal extracts—especially the Spirogyra sp. extract—contain moderate to maximum bioactivity. Conclusions Macroalgae possess important secondary metabolites with medicinal properties. These secondary metabolites can be used as biopesticides, plant growth enhancers, and remedies for various diseases in farm animals and for the control of weeds. They can be further explored for isolation and purification of useful biochemical compounds. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Ye Xiao ◽  
Xiang Lin ◽  
Zhong-Qun Liu ◽  
Mei-Lan Zhou ◽  
Tian-Yu Ren ◽  

Abstract Although diquat is a widely used water-soluble herbicide in the world, its toxicity to freshwater fish has not been well characterized. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological examination and biochemical assays was applied to comprehensively assess the hepatotoxicity in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) after diquat exposure at two dosages of 0.34 and 1.69 mg·L−1 for 35 days. The results indicated that 1.69 mg·L−1 diquat exposure cause serious cellular swell and vacuolization with increased nuclear abnormality, and lead to obvious disturbance of antioxidative system and dysfunction in liver; while no obvious pathological injury could be detected, and changes in liver biochemistry were less pronounced at the dose level of 0.34 mg·L−1. Multivariate statistical analysis and pattern recognition showed different GC-MS profiles of zebrafish liver following exposure to diquat, the cluster of the treated groups were both clearly separated from the control samples. The differentially abundant metabolites mainly include carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, nucleotides, and their derivatives. In the exposure group of 1.69 mg·L−1 diquat, severe disturbances of amino acid metabolism played important biological roles associated with inhibition of energy metabolism, reduced immunity, and disorders in neurotransmitters as pathway analysis revealed. Additionally, fluctuation of inositol, creatine, and pantothenic acid, substances associated with stress regulation and signal transduction, participating in metabolic abnormalities in zebrafish with diquat-triggered hepatic damage. Energy metabolism of zebrafish exposed on 0.34 mg·L−1 diquat more inclined to rely on anaerobic glycolysis than the normal ones. Amino acid metabolism responses were less affected, but obvious interference effects on lipid metabolism were observed with 0.34 mg·L−1 diquat exposure. These results imply increased sensitivity of metabolomics versus histopathology and clinical chemistry in recognizing liver toxicity of diquat. This study will contribute to explore possible mechanism of hepatic damages on nontarget freshwater fish induced by diquat and provide important basis for its environmental risk assessment.

Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 76
Kellie J. Walters ◽  
Roberto G. Lopez

Altering the growing temperature during controlled-environment production not only influences crop growth and development, but can also influence volatile organic compound (VOC) production and, subsequently, sensory attributes of culinary herbs. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the influence of mean daily temperature (MDT) and daily light integral (DLI) on key basil phenylpropanoid and terpenoid concentrations, (2) determine if differences in sensory characteristics due to MDT and DLI influence consumer preference, and (3) identify the sweet basil attributes consumers prefer. Thus, 2-week-old sweet basil ‘Nufar’ seedlings were transplanted into deep-flow hydroponic systems in greenhouses with target MDTs of 23, 26, 29, 32, or 35 °C and DLIs of 7, 9, or 12 mol·m−2·d−1. After three weeks, the two most recently mature leaves were harvested for gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and consumer sensory analysis. Panel evaluations were conducted through a sliding door with samples served individually while panelists answered Likert scale and open-ended quality attribute and sensory questions. The DLI did not influence VOC concentrations. Increasing MDT from 23 to 36 °C during production increased 1,8 cineole, eugenol, and methyl chavicol concentrations linearly and did not affect linalool concentration. The increases in phenylpropanoid (eugenol and methyl chavicol) were greater than increases in terpenoid (1,8 cineole) concentrations. However, these increases did not impact overall consumer or flavor preference. The MDT during basil production influenced appearance, texture, and color preference of panelists. Taken together, MDT during production influenced both VOC concentrations and textural and visual attribute preference of basil but did not influence overall consumer preference. Therefore, changing the MDT during production can be used to alter plant growth and development without significantly affecting consumer preference.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 198
Dragana Stojičić ◽  
Svetlana Tošić ◽  
Gordana Stojanović ◽  
Bojan Zlatković ◽  
Snežana Jovanović ◽  

Clinopodium pulegium (Rochel) Bräuchler (Lamiaceae) is an endangered species endemic to the Southern Carpathians. It is characterized by the production of high amounts of essential oils, which emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have an essential role in biotic and abiotic stress responses and in plant–plant and plant–insect interactions. The present study was initiated to phytochemically examine the influence of different carbon sources in the nutrition medium on VOC emissions of micropropagated C. pulegium plants, using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of headspace VOCs. The volatile profiles were subjected to multivariate analysis with respect to the presence, concentration and type of carbon source in the nutrient medium. In addition, the effect of different carbohydrates on the density and size of the leaf glandular trichomes, the main structures involved in the emission of VOCs, was determined. A total of 19 VOCs, primarily belonging to mono- and sesquiterpenes previously described in plants, were tentatively identified. Six VOCs were produced at levels higher than 2% of the total VOC emission, dominated by pulegone, ß-pinene and menthone. Inclusion of the carbohydrates in the culture media affected the production of the main leaf trichome-associated volatile allelochemicals although the qualitative composition of the volatiles changed only slightly. Multivariate analysis showed that the concentration, rather than the carbohydrate type, influenced the VOC profile.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jie Yang ◽  
Tengqi Gao ◽  
Feng Ge ◽  
Hao Sun ◽  
Zihang Cui ◽  

The demand for roasted seaweed sandwich (Porphyra yezoensis) product has risen in recent years. The product slicing process has created a huge number of scraps that are not utilized effectively. Three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were used to ferment P. yezoensis sauces in this study, including Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and the mixed strains (1:1:1, v/v). The fermentation characteristics, antioxidant capacity in vitro, sensory properties, and flavoring substances of fermented P. yezoensis sauces were analyzed. After 21 days of fermentation, all LAB strains grew well in the P. yezoensis sauces, with protease activity increased to 6.6, 9.24, 5.06, and 5.5 U/mL, respectively. Also, the flavors of P. yezoensis sauces fermented with L. casei and L. fermentum were satisfactory. On this premise, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to investigate the changes in gustatory compounds in P. yezoensis sauces fermented with L. casei and L. fermentum. In general, 42 and 41 volatile flavor chemicals were identified after the fermentation of L. casei and L. fermentum. Furthermore, the fermented P. yezoensis sauce possessed greater DPPH scavenging activity and ferric-reducing ability power than the unfermented P. yezoensis. Overall, the flavor and taste of P. yezoensis sauce fermented by L. casei was superior.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 483
Sofia Zazouli ◽  
Mohammed Chigr ◽  
Patrícia A. B. Ramos ◽  
Daniela Rosa ◽  
Maria M. Castro ◽  

Zizyphus lotus L. is a perennial shrub particularly used in Algerian folk medicine, but little is known concerning the lipophilic compounds in the most frequently used parts, namely, root bark, pulp, leaves and seeds, which are associated with health benefits. In this vein, the lipophilic fractions of these morphological parts of Z. lotus from Morocco were studied by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and their antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. GC–MS analysis allowed the identification and quantification of 99 lipophilic compounds, including fatty acids, long-chain aliphatic alcohols, pentacyclic triterpenic compounds, sterols, monoglycerides, aromatic compounds and other minor components. Lipophilic extracts of pulp, leaves and seeds were revealed to be mainly composed of fatty acids, representing 54.3–88.6% of the total compounds detected. The leaves and seeds were particularly rich in unsaturated fatty acids, namely, (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (2431 mg kg−1 of dry weight) and (9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid (6255 mg kg−1 of dry weight). In contrast, root bark contained a high content of pentacyclic triterpenic compounds, particularly betulinic acid, accounting for 9838 mg kg−1 of dry weight. Root bark extract showed promising antiproliferative activity against a triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 4.23 ± 0.18 µg mL−1 of extract. Leaf extract displayed interesting antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis, presenting minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from 1024 to 2048 µg mL−1 of extract. Our results demonstrate that Zizyphus lotus L. is a source of promising bioactive components, which can be exploited as natural ingredients in pharmaceutical formulations.

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