feeding habits
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. A. F. Khan ◽  
M. Sohaib ◽  
S. Iqbal ◽  
M. S. Haider ◽  
M. Chaudhry

Abstract The present study was carried out to determine incidence of overweight and obesity in Pakistani servicemen with reference to their area of duty, feeding habits and also to identify risk factors. Accordingly, 2,501 servicemen selected from all over Pakistan using multiple stage stratified sampling protocol. Nutrition assessment performed using body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and dietary assessment using food frequency questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed using the SPSS version 25. Regression was used to find risk factors of obesity and WHR. Results indicated that about 1/4th of servicemen were smokers. Approximately, 1/5th of them were overweight and about one quarter were eating fruits and vegetables for <3 days/ week and <4 days/week, respectively. Only 1/3rd of them were physically active for at least <40 minutes per day. Age and fruits intake were significantly predicting BMI with a direct relation and vegetable intake was negatively correlated to BMI of the servicemen. Age and rank were significant predictors of WHR while, physical activity was negatively correlated to WHR. It is concluded and suggested from our study that there is a need to modify eating patterns and habits as well as improving physical activity on daily basis for healthy and long life of the servicemen.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Anita Devi ◽  
Syed Ainul Hussain ◽  
Monika Sharma ◽  
Govindan Veeraswami Gopi ◽  
Ruchi Badola

AbstractJarman–Bell (1974) hypothesized that in the dry savanna of Africa, small-bodied herbivores tend to browse more on forage with high protein and low fibre content. This implies browsing on high nutritive forage by meso-herbivores, and grazing and mixed feeding on coarse forage by mega-herbivores. We tested this hypothesis in the riverine alluvial grasslands of the Kaziranga National Park (KNP), where seasonal flood and fire play an important role in shaping the vegetation structure. We analyzed the feeding habits and quality of major forage species consumed by three mega-herbivores, viz. greater one-horned rhino, Asian elephant, and Asiatic wild buffalo, and three meso-herbivores, viz. swamp deer, hog deer, and sambar. We found that both mega and meso-herbivores were grazers and mixed feeders. Overall, 25 forage plants constituted more than 70% of their diet. Among monocots, family Poaceae with Saccharum spp. (contributing > 9% of the diet), and, among dicots, family Rhamnaceae with Ziziphus jujuba (contributing > 4% of the diet) fulfilled the dietary needs. In the dry season, the concentration of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, calcium, sodium, and phosphorous varied significantly between monocots and dicots, whereas only calcium and sodium concentrations varied significantly in the wet season. Dicots were found to be more nutritious throughout the year. Compared to the dry season, the monocots, viz. Alpinia nigra, Carex vesicaria, Cynodon dactylon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Hemarthria compressa, Imperata cylindrica, and Saccharum spp., with their significantly high crude protein, were more nutritious during the wet season. Possibly due to the availability of higher quality monocots in the wet season, both mega and meso-herbivores consume it in high proportion. We concluded that the Jarman–Bell principle does not apply to riverine alluvial grasslands as body size did not explain the interspecific dietary patterns of the mega and meso-herbivores. This can be attributed to seasonal floods, habitat and forage availability, predation risk, and management practices such as controlled burning of the grasslands. The ongoing succession and invasion processes, anthropogenic pressures, and lack of grassland conservation policy are expected to affect the availability of the principal forage and suitable habitat of large herbivores in the Brahmaputra floodplains, which necessitates wet grassland-based management interventions for the continued co-existence of large herbivores in such habitats.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuange Chen ◽  
Weilong Wang ◽  
Wei Zhou ◽  
Fen Hu ◽  
Meiqin Wu

The small yellow croaker, Larimichthys polyactis, is a keystone species in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, with significant impacts on the regional ecosystem, but has experienced decades of population decline as a result of environmental changes and overfishing. The settlement of post-larval L. polyactis is a period of high mortality, with impacts on population recruitment and survival. This study examines the feeding habits of 49 post-larval and early juvenile L. polyactis in the Yangtze River estuary, in order to reveal diet composition before and after the settlement period. DNA barcoding methods (MiSeq and TA cloning) were used to examine gastrointestinal contents in detail. Both methods revealed that dietary breadth increased with increasing body length, while the dominance of copepods in the diet decreased as the body length increased. Post-larva (body length &lt; 17 mm in this study) primarily fed on copepods. At the beginning of settlement (body length between 17 and 19 mm), L. polyactis began to ingest larger organisms, such as fishes and mysids, along with copepods. Larger early juveniles (body length &gt; 20 mm) demonstrated a much wider dietary breadth, implying that successful settlement had occurred. Diet species richness in the MiSeq group was significantly greater than species richness in the TA cloning group, making the trend more pronounced within the MiSeq group. This indicates that the MiSeq method was more efficient than TA cloning in this study. We recommend that future research to investigate the feeding habits of fish larvae should combine MiSeq and visual examination methods.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 104-109
Author(s):  
Kalpana Patni ◽  
Anu Gupta

Lifestyle Disorders (LSD) are common problems among upper-middle and higher society children. Lifestyle has long been associated with the development of many chronic diseases. It affects both genders. WHO has recognized Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), especially diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and chronic lung disease, have everyday lifestyle linked risk factors like lack of physical activity, unhealthy diet and feeding habits and harmful use of alcohol. Worldwide, the current scenario of NCDs is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality, even in young children. According to WHO Report 2004, these account for nearly 60% of deaths and 47% of the global burden of illness. The rise in NCDs is substantially accelerating in most developing countries like India. In India, 53% of the deaths in 2008 were due to NCDs, and cardiovascular disease (CVDs) alone accounted for 24% of deaths (WHO). In 2005 India experienced the highest loss in potentially productive years of life globally, and the leading cause of death was cardiovascular disease. The cumulative loss of national income for India due to NCDs mortality for 2006-2015 was around USD237 billion. By 2030, this productivity loss is estimated to double to 17.9 million years lost. These major NCDs are preventable through effective Ayurvedic interventions by judiciously treating lifestyle-related modifiable risk factors. This review confers the current scenario of NCDs in children and their Ayurvedic Management.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
CHONG DONG ◽  
GONG-LE SHI ◽  
ZI-XI WANG ◽  
DI-YING HUANG

Well-preserved coprolites (fossil faecal pellets) were found from lignite seams of the Lower Cretaceous Huolinhe Formation at the Huolinhe Basin in eastern Inner Mongolia, Northeast China. These coprolites provide a combination of following features: oval to cylindrical shaped with six longitudinal ridges, hexagonal to elliptical cross-sections, and one blunt end and the other pointed end. According to these distinct features and their size range, the producers of these coprolites are attributed to termites. Termites were estimated to have originated in the earliest Cretaceous with an evolutionary radiation in the Early Cretaceous. The presence of wood debris in the coprolites indicate that the Early Cretaceous termites from the Huolinhe Basin had wood-feeding habits; and anatomical features displaying on the wood debris further suggest their feeding preference was coniferous wood. Besides, the results of a k-means clustering analysis performed for these coprolites indicate that three clusters with different proportion were present, suggesting the division of labor in termites’ sociality existed as early as the Early Cretaceous.


Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Clemen J Oliveira ◽  
Lesley Schumacher ◽  
Natalia A. Peres ◽  
Janete A. Brito ◽  
Marco Suarez ◽  
...  

Aphelenchoides besseyi and A. pseudogoodeyi are foliar nematodes associated with commercial strawberry production in Florida, USA. The reproductive and feeding habits of these two nematode species were assessed on Florida isolates of the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Neopestalotiopsis spp. pathogenic to strawberry, and the non-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum and Monilinia fructicola grown on PDA in petri dishes. Each culture was inoculated with six specimens with mix life stages of either A. besseyi and A. pseudogoodeyi and incubated at 24°C under axenic and non-axenic conditions 23 and 31 days after inoculation, respectively. Aphelenchoides besseyi reproduction rates were significantly higher on strawberry pathogenic isolates of B. cinerea, C. gloeosporioides, and Neopestalotiopsis rosae than on the non-pathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum and M. fructicola. In contrast, reproductive rates of A. pseudogoodeyi did not significantly vary across the fungi cultures. For both nematode species, Macrophomina phaseolina was a poor host because it did not produce mycelium on the media used. Our findings indicate that A. besseyi is more selective in its fungal-feeding preference than A. pseudogoodeyi. Additionally, A. pseudogoodeyi eggs and juveniles were significantly higher than adults. Yet, for A. besseyi, adult stages were more common. Fungi aid in the maintenance of soil-dwelling populations of these two nematode species. Removing fungi-infected strawberry plant residues is both a desirable and effective management practice to limit A. besseyi in central Florida commercial strawberry fields.


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