propylene glycol
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (3) ◽  
Danai Velliadou ◽  
Konstantinos D. Antoniadis ◽  
Marc J. Assael ◽  
Marcia L. Huber

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Adrian Chrastina ◽  
John Welsh ◽  
Per Borgström ◽  
Veronique T. Baron

Plumbagin, a bioactive naphthoquinone, has demonstrated potent antitumor potential. However, plumbagin is a sparingly water-soluble compound; therefore, clinical translation requires and will be facilitated by the development of a new pharmaceutical formulation. We have generated an oil-in-water nanoemulsion formulation of plumbagin using a low-energy spontaneous emulsification process with propylene glycol caprylate (Capryol 90) as an oil phase and Labrasol/Kolliphor RH40 as surfactant and cosurfactant excipients. Formulation studies using Capryol 90/Labrasol/Kolliphor RH40 components, based on pseudoternary diagram and analysis of particle size distribution and polydispersity determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), identified an optimized composition of excipients for nanoparticle formulation. The nanoemulsion loaded with plumbagin as an active pharmaceutical ingredient had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 30.9 nm with narrow polydispersity. The nanoemulsion exhibited long-term stability, as well as good retention of particle size in simulated physiological environments. Furthermore, plumbagin-loaded nanoemulsion showed an augmented cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells PTEN-P2 in comparison to free drug. In conclusion, we generated a formulation of plumbagin with high loading drug capacity, robust stability, and scalable production. Novel Capryol 90-based nanoemulsion formulation of plumbagin demonstrated antiproliferative activity against prostate cancer cells, warranting thus further pharmaceutical development.


Objective: The aim of this research is to formulate and evaluate the wound healing gel of Leucaena leucocephala leaves extract. Methods: In this research, the extract of Leucaena leaves was formulated into wound healing gel by using a variation of the concentration of Carbopol as a gelling agent and Propylene glycol as a humectant. Afterward, the gel's physical properties (pH, viscosity, spreadability), stability, and sterility were tested. The wound healing activity was evaluated by making excision wounds on the Wistar Albino rat's back, and then the gels were applied to the wound every day. The wound's size was measured and counted as the percentage of wound closure. Results: The result showed that Formula 4 (contains 1.5% of Carbopol and 12% of Propylene glycol) has the best physical characteristics and wound healing activity. Formula 4 showed 100% wound closure on the 11th day of the treatment, while the negative control only reached 49.12%. The statistical parameter with the p-value<0.05 stated that they are significantly different. Conclusion: This research demonstrated that gel with Leucaena leaf extract has good physical characteristics, and it can significantly improve the wound healing process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 933 ◽  
J. Charlier ◽  
A.Y. Rednikov ◽  
S. Dehaeck ◽  
P. Colinet ◽  
D. Terwagne

New light is shed on morphological features of water–propylene glycol sessile droplets evaporating into ambient air at not too high relative humidity. Such droplets adopt a Marangoni-contracted shape even on perfectly wetting substrates, an effect well known since Cira et al. (Nature, 519, 2015). We here highlight a strong separation of scales normally occurring for such droplets. Namely, there is a narrow high-curvature zone localized at the foot of the droplet, where the apparent contact angle is formed, while the core of the droplet merely adheres to the classical (capillary–gravity) static shape. Experimentally, we rely upon interferometry to discern such fine key details. We detect a maximum of the droplet slope profile in the foot region, which amounts to the apparent contact angle. Theoretically, a local description of the foot region is devised. We indicate a crucial role of convective mixing by the solutal Marangoni flow, here accounted for by the Taylor dispersion, which proves to underlie the separation of scales and ensure self-consistency of the local model. Migration of such droplets in a humidity gradient is also approached within the same experimental and theoretical framework. It is considered that the resulting back–front asymmetry of the apparent contact angles drives the motion similarly to a wettability gradient, although the drag (‘Cox–Voinov’) factor is here found to be different. The predictions, comparing well with the measurements (our own and from the literature), are based on rigorous models, isothermal and as reduced as possible, without any fitting parameters or microphysics effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Anatolii Bahtin ◽  
Utku Kale ◽  
András Nagy ◽  
Iryna Shkilniuk ◽  
Sergii Boichenko ◽  

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