physical characteristics
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Jelena Ivanović ◽  
Filip Kukić ◽  
Gianpiero Greco ◽  
Nenad Koropanovski ◽  
Saša Jakovljević ◽  

This study investigated the hierarchical structure of physical characteristics in elite young (i.e., U17-U19) basketball players according to playing positions. In addition, their predictive value of physical characteristics was determined for the evaluation of players’ physical preparedness. Sixty elite male basketball players performed 13 standardized specific field tests in order to assess the explosive power of lower limbs, speed, and change-of-direction speed. They were divided into three groups according to playing positions (guard [n = 28], forward [n = 22], center [n = 10]). The basic characteristics of the tested sample were: age = 17.36 ± 1.04 years, body height = 192.80 ± 4.49 cm, body mass = 79.83 ± 6.94 kg, and basketball experience = 9.38 ± 2.10 years for guards; age = 18.00 ± 1.00 years, body height = 201.48 ± 3.14 cm, body mass = 90.93 ± 9.85 kg, and basketball experience = 9.93 ± 2.28 years for forwards; and age = 17.60 ± 1.43 years; body height = 207.20 ± 3.29 cm, body mass = 104.00 ± 9.64 kg, and basketball experience = 9.20 ± 1.62 years for centers. For all playing positions factor analysis extracted three factors, which cumulatively explained 76.87, 88.12 and 87.63% of variance, respectively. The assessed performance measures were defined as significant (p < 0.001), with regression models of physical performance index (PPINDEX). PPINDEX of guards = −6.860 + (0.932 × t-test) − (1.656 × Acceleration 15 m) − (0.020 × Countermovement jump); PPINDEX of forwards = −3.436 − (0.046 × Countermovement jump with arm swing) − (1.295 × Acceleration 15 m) + (0.582 × Control of dribbling); PPINDEX of centers = −4.126 + (0.604 × Control of dribbling) − (1.315 × Acceleration 15 m) − (0.037 × Sargent jump). A model for the evaluation of physical performance of young basketball players has been defined. In addition, this model could be used as a reference model for selection procedures, as well as to monitor the efficacy of applied training programmes within the short, medium and long-term periodization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 128-132 ◽  
Manoj Kishor Patil

A 36-year-old man presented with Stage III accelerated hypertension and reluctance to start anti-hypertensive medication. This case is an attempt to demonstrate the importance of unconscious emotions and dreams with their psychodynamic correlations in essential hypertension through the portrait of disease. Mag carb was selected based on the totality of symptoms in view of the evolution of person, dispositions and adaptive patterns along with available physical characteristics through the psychodynamic study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Kunyu Teng ◽  
Hongke Cai ◽  
Xiubin Sun ◽  
Quanliang Chen

This paper examines the basic geometric and physical characteristics of precipitation clouds over the Tibetan Plateau, based on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) data from 1998 to 2015, using the minimum bounding rectangle (MBR) method. The results show that about 60% of the precipitation clouds occur with a scale of approximately 18 km (length) and 15 km (width), and the proportion of precipitation clouds with a length longer than 100 km and a width wider than 90 km is less than 1%. Most of the precipitation cloud exhibits a shape between square and long strips in the horizontal direction and lanky in the vertical direction. The average rainfall intensity of precipitation clouds is between 0.5 and 6 mm h−1. The average length and width of precipitation clouds show a logarithmic, linear relationship. The distribution of raindrops in precipitation clouds is relatively compact. With the expansion of the area, the precipitation clouds gradually become squatty. The relationship between physical and geometric parameters of precipitation clouds shows that with the precipitation cloud area expanding, the average rainfall rate of precipitation clouds also increases. Heavy convective rainfall is more likely to occur in larger precipitation clouds. For the precipitation clouds of the same size, the area fraction and contribution of convective precipitation are lower than that of stratiform precipitation.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 126
Guangwei Zhou ◽  
Changzhao Qian ◽  
Changping Chen

As a new type of composite bridge, the dynamic structural characteristics of a tensioned string bridge need to be deeply studied. In this paper, based on the structural characteristics of a tensioned string bridge, the Rayleigh method is used to derive formulas for calculating the frequencies of vertical, antisymmetric and lateral bending vibrations. The characteristics of the vertical and lateral bending vibration frequencies are summarized. The fundamental frequencies of the antisymmetric vertical bending and lateral bending of the tensioned string bridge are the same as that of the single-span beam under the corresponding constraint conditions. The shape and physical characteristics of the main cable have no effect on the frequency. The vertical bending symmetrical vibration frequency of the tensioned string bridge is greater than the corresponding symmetrical vibration frequency of the simply supported beam. The shape and physical characteristics of the main cable have a greater impact on the vertical bending symmetrical vibration frequency than the lateral bending frequency, and the vertical bending symmetrical vibration frequency increases with an increasing rise-to-span ratio. The tension force of the main cable has no influence on the frequency of tensioned string bridges. The first-order frequency of the tensioned string bridge is generally the vertical bending symmetrical vibration frequency. By adopting a tensioned string bridge structure, the fundamental frequency of a structure can be greatly increased, thereby increasing the overall rigidity of the structure. Finally, an engineering example is applied with the finite element parameter analysis method to study the vibration frequency characteristics of the tensioned string bridge, which verifies the correctness of the formula derived in this paper. The finite element analysis results show that the errors between the derived formula in this paper and the finite element calculation results are less than 2%, indicating that the formula derived in this paper has high calculation accuracy and can meet the calculation accuracy requirements of engineering applications.


Objective: The aim of this research is to formulate and evaluate the wound healing gel of Leucaena leucocephala leaves extract. Methods: In this research, the extract of Leucaena leaves was formulated into wound healing gel by using a variation of the concentration of Carbopol as a gelling agent and Propylene glycol as a humectant. Afterward, the gel's physical properties (pH, viscosity, spreadability), stability, and sterility were tested. The wound healing activity was evaluated by making excision wounds on the Wistar Albino rat's back, and then the gels were applied to the wound every day. The wound's size was measured and counted as the percentage of wound closure. Results: The result showed that Formula 4 (contains 1.5% of Carbopol and 12% of Propylene glycol) has the best physical characteristics and wound healing activity. Formula 4 showed 100% wound closure on the 11th day of the treatment, while the negative control only reached 49.12%. The statistical parameter with the p-value<0.05 stated that they are significantly different. Conclusion: This research demonstrated that gel with Leucaena leaf extract has good physical characteristics, and it can significantly improve the wound healing process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 49
Huimin Liu

This article is going to explore the reasons leading the figures grotesque and the way out of such world, with the help of Bakhtin&rsquo;s theory of grotesque realism, via linking the duality of physical part with the grotesque to analyze the three main characters&rsquo; physical characteristics, social relationships and mental world. Singer, Mick and Biff are the distinct characters in Carson McCullers&rsquo;s novel The Heart is a Lonely Hunter. Their lives are shot through with frustration and discouragement and the intense privacy of their inner lives gives the reader the impression that they are isolated, lonely beings. They try to build connections with others but eventually they fail. The following are the reasons: Firstly, they cannot identify themselves with the majority due to their physical problems, which further lead to their mental crisis. Secondly, they are alienated from the majority in society while they communicate with the ones who cannot end their isolation, which enforces their alienation. Finally, loneliness grips them so powerfully that they cannot come out of their grotesque dreaming world centering on the truth or idea or purpose they have created for themselves. Therefore the way out is to experience the social reality, to express ideas, share care and love with others. Through the interpretation of this novel, the point of this article is to explain the reasons and the ways out of alienation, the keyword in the grotesque world.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-13
Susi Hariyani ◽  
Wattini Wattini ◽  
Ida Zuraida ◽  
Pramudya Kurniawan ◽  
Lelly Marini ◽  

Bauxite waste sludge is quite dangerous when polluted into the surrounding environment. The number is increasing with the higher mining production. The utilization is still not maximized hence it is unbalanced to the increasing number, and it is necessary to use on a large scale. Sub-grade soil could use a lot of bauxite waste sludge but in reality, this waste is unsafe to use and its characteristics are mud the requirements of bearing capacity according to the AASHTO and USCS Classification unfulfilled. This study aims to determine the effect of the use of probiotic bacteria in bauxite waste on its physical characteristics and pH value. This experimental research method develops test objects according to ASTM standards with the same weight of bauxite waste and variations in the number of probiotic bacteria, namely 25 ml, 50 ml, 75 ml, and 100 ml and the incubation time of bacteria is 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, 28 days, 35 days, and 42 days. The results showed that the test specimens with more bacteria and longer incubation times resulted in lower pH values and physical characteristics that fulfilled the requirements for sub-grade soil.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
pp. 90-99
Lusmeilia Afriani ◽  
Nursyirwan Nursyirwan ◽  
Ryzal Perdana ◽  
Rina Febrina ◽  
Yan Juansyah

It is widely accepted that soil is a mixture of mineral constituents that have accumulated over time. The physical characteristics of soil vary according to the mineral and organic matter content and the process of formation. The soil`s unique characteristics have been the subject of research in the field of civil engineering, which has continued to evolve to the present day due to the land`s requirement for civil engineering construction, such as road paving. As a result, the current study sought to determine the similarity of soil samples based on their physical properties and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values, as well as the relationship between the soil`s physical properties and CBR values. To our knowledge, there is hardly little research in the literature investigating the topic under our investigation. Furthermore, we also mapped the physical characteristics and CBR values of numerous distinct soil samples using a Geographical Information System (GIS). This study concentrated on the West Lampung Regency, specifically the area between Bukit Kemuning in Central Lampung and Liwa in West Lampung, along the lines of Bukit Kemuning, Liwa, and Krui, all the way to the Lampung – Bengkulu province border. The soil samples from the area were taken for two tests: the unsoaked CBR test and the soaked CBR test. The results of the tests show that a 31-kilometre distance does not result in a significant difference in soil properties, which are generally similar except in clay-rich areas. Furthermore, the results of the laboratory analysis show that the amount of water in the soil sample affects the Liquid Limit (LL), Plastic Limit (PL), Maximum Dry Density (MDD), and CBR values; the lower the plastic limit value, and thus the lower the CBR value, the less water in the soil. The implications of the current findings are also discussed.

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