active pharmaceutical ingredient
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Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 197
Chuanqi Wang ◽  
Manting Wang ◽  
Peng Chen ◽  
Jiexin Wang ◽  
Yuan Le

In this work, dasatinib (DAS) nanoemulsion and nanocrystal are produced by high-gravity technology that approaches to practical mass production. The drug nanoformulations were systematically characterized and evaluated. At a low high-gravity level (β) = 47, nanoemulsion droplets were 16.15 ± 0.42 nm with a PDI of 0.122 ± 0.021. The nanoemulsion’s size and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content remained stable at long-term (4 months) freeze–thaw and dilution experiments. At a high β = 188, the as-prepared nanocrystal was lamellar with a short diameter of about 200 nm and a long diameter of about 750 nm. In vitro performances demonstrated the nanoemulsion displayed higher cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 tumor cells, Caco-2 cell permeability and drug release than that of the nanocrystal, indicating that nanoemulsion should be an ideal alternative for dasatinib oral administration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Adrian Chrastina ◽  
John Welsh ◽  
Per Borgström ◽  
Veronique T. Baron

Plumbagin, a bioactive naphthoquinone, has demonstrated potent antitumor potential. However, plumbagin is a sparingly water-soluble compound; therefore, clinical translation requires and will be facilitated by the development of a new pharmaceutical formulation. We have generated an oil-in-water nanoemulsion formulation of plumbagin using a low-energy spontaneous emulsification process with propylene glycol caprylate (Capryol 90) as an oil phase and Labrasol/Kolliphor RH40 as surfactant and cosurfactant excipients. Formulation studies using Capryol 90/Labrasol/Kolliphor RH40 components, based on pseudoternary diagram and analysis of particle size distribution and polydispersity determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), identified an optimized composition of excipients for nanoparticle formulation. The nanoemulsion loaded with plumbagin as an active pharmaceutical ingredient had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 30.9 nm with narrow polydispersity. The nanoemulsion exhibited long-term stability, as well as good retention of particle size in simulated physiological environments. Furthermore, plumbagin-loaded nanoemulsion showed an augmented cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells PTEN-P2 in comparison to free drug. In conclusion, we generated a formulation of plumbagin with high loading drug capacity, robust stability, and scalable production. Novel Capryol 90-based nanoemulsion formulation of plumbagin demonstrated antiproliferative activity against prostate cancer cells, warranting thus further pharmaceutical development.


Objective: This method is focused on developing a precisely simplified and more accurate Reverse Phase–High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of Dapagliflozin in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form as per guidelines of International Council for Harmonization (ICH). Methods: Evaluation and validation carried out using the RP-HPLC ZORBAX (C18) column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) with a mobile phase consisting of Phosphate Buffer: Acetonitrile: Methanol in a ratio of 55:40:05 (v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min with an injection volume of 10 μl. Results: Dapagliflozin was eluted at 2.12±0.05 min and detected at 225 nm. The regression equation y = 55762 x-29679 found to be linear with correlation coefficient r2 value of 0.9997. The developed RP-HPLC method was conveniently validated as per the ICH guidelines and found method was robust, sensitive, accurate, selective, specific, precise and linear. Conclusion: The proposed method was found to be accurate, precise, and robust for API and pharmaceutical dosage form as per experimentation analysis. The above developed method was found to be satisfied for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and pharmaceutical formulation of Dapagliflozin to study its degradation products.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 145-159
Rezkia Azka Kamila

Background: Kaolin is a clay mineral with Al2Si2O5(OH)4 structure which can be found in sedimentary rocks also known as clay stones. Kaolin consists of clay materials such as quartz, illite, smectite, and hematite, with the largest constituent component being kaolinite. Kaolin is one of the most common minerals with an abundant presence in the earth's crust compared to other minerals, especially in Indonesia. In the pharmaceutical sector, this clay mineral is widely used in Indonesia. Kaolin is known to be a good adsorbent and has good physical, chemical, and surface physicochemical properties. Objective: This review article aims to provide information about the uses of kaolin in the pharmaceutical industry. Methods: This review article was written by conducting a literature search study method in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases. Results: In the pharmaceutical field, kaolin is used as an excipient in various types of medicinal preparations, one of which is as a suspension agent because of its ability to stabilize suspensions in a deflocculated state as an emulsifying agent, crushing agent, filling agent, and drug carrier. As an active substance, kaolin is widely used because it has a therapeutic activity. In the cosmetic industry, kaolin can be administered in a variety of topical dosage forms which act as skin protective agents or sunscreens. Conclusion: Based on the results of the review, it was found that kaolin, with its abundant presence on earth and its great potential in the pharmaceutical field, is used as an active medicinal substance, excipient ingredient, and in the cosmetic field as a sunscreen. Keywords: Kaolin, excipient, active pharmaceutical ingredient, cosmetics

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 146-154
E. V. Flisyuk ◽  
Ju. M. Kotsur ◽  
I. A. Narkevich ◽  
I. E. Smekhova ◽  
D. Yu. Ivkin

Introduction. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common chronic diseases of this parenchymal organ among the adult population. The search and creation of supporting drugs is an urgent task of modern pharmacy. The malonic acid derivative, sodium 4,4'-(propanediamido) dibenzoate, synthesized by the employees of the Department of Organic Chemistry of the SPСPU, has antisteatous activity, is a potential agent for the treatment of liver diseases. Sustained release tablets were prepared based on sodium 4,4'-(propanediamido)dibenzoate. An integral part of the pharmaceutical development of a medicinal product is the development of a method for conducting the Dissolution test and the selection of optimal conditions, which became the purpose of this study.Aim. To develop the "Dissolution" test method for the sustained-release tablets based on sodium 4,4'-(propanediamido)dibenzoate.Materials and methods. The objects of research are the active pharmaceutical ingredient sodium 4,4'-(propanediamido)dibenzoate, as well as sustained-release tablets based on this substance. Equilibrium biopharmaceutical solubility was determined by UV-spectrophotometry. To establish the conditions for the "Dissolution" test, an ERWEKA DT-620 dissolution tester (ERWEKA GmbH, Germany) was used.Results and discussion. The suitability of the UV-spectrophotometry method for the quantitative determination of sodium 4,4'-(propanediamido) dibenzoate in solutions was determined. The established high biopharmaceutical solubility of sodium 4,4'-(propanediamido)dibenzoate in a buffer solution with a pH of 6,8, as well as in a 0,01 M solution of hydrochloric acid with a pH of 2,6, determined the choice of these media for the "Dissolution" test of the dosage form. The apparatus "Rotating basket" (rotation speed of 100 rpm in a dissolution medium with a volume of 1000 ml) was reasonably chosen for the test on the basis of the obtained linear dependence of the rate of release of the substance on time, as well as the best test results by the end of the experiment.Conclusion. A study of the biopharmaceutical properties of the original substance with antisteatous activity has been carried out. High biopharmaceutical solubility was established in media with pH 2,6 and pH 6,8. The conditions of the "Dissolution" test for sustained-release tablets based on the original sodium 4,4'-(propanediamido)dibenzoate were experimentally substantiated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Cixin Huang ◽  
Xiunian Chen ◽  
Chao Wei ◽  
Hongwei Wang ◽  
Hua Gao

Metabolic related diseases such as cancer, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis are major challenges for human health and safety worldwide due to their associations with high morbidity and mortality. It is of great significance to develop the effective active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) delivery systems for treatment of metabolic diseases. With their unique merits like easy preparation, high adjustability, low toxicity, low cost, satisfactory stability and biodegradation, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are unarguably green and sustainable API delivery systems that have been developed to improve drug solubility and treat metabolic related diseases including cancer, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Many reports about DESs as API delivery systems in the therapy of cancer, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis exist but no systematic overview of these results is available, which motivated the current work.

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