gelling agent
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 58-76
Yuska Noviyanty ◽  
Hepiyansori Hepiyansori ◽  
Annis Annis

Salah satu tanaman obat yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber obat alami adalah buah mangga (Mangifera indica L var. arum manis) karena mengandung senyawa metabolit sekunder. Kulit mangga mengandung senyawa aktif penting seperti senyawa fenolik, karotenoid, flavonoid dan antosianin yang diketahui memiliki aktifitas sebagai  antibakteri. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui  variasi kosentrasi berapakah yang berpontensi sebagai antibakteri . Pembuatan extrak etanol kulit buah mannga arum manis (Mangifera indica L var. arum manis) menggunakan  metode maserasi dengan pelarut etanol 96%. Formulasi sediaan dibuat menggunakan Na.CMC sebagai gelling agent dengan konsentrasi 2%, 4%, 8%. Pengujian evaluasi sediaan hand sanitazer ekstrak kulit  mangga meliputi uji organoleptis, uji homogenitas, uji pH, uji daya sebar, uji lekat, uji iritasi dan uji aktifitas antibakteri. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sifat fisik dari sediaan gel memberikan pengaruh terhadap sifat fisik gel ekstrak kulit mangga (Mangifera indica L var. arum manis). Berdasarkan uji aktivitas antibakteri kosentrasi  2%, 4%, 8% yang paling kuat menujukan aktifitas antibakteri  pada kosentrasi  8% dengan nilai rata-rata 18,28 mm.

2022 ◽  
Rajendra A. Kalgaonkar ◽  
Qasim Sahu ◽  
Nour Baqader

Abstract Gelled acid systems based upon gelation of hydrochloric acid (HCl) are widely used in in both matrix acidizing and fracture acidizing treatments to prevent acidizing fluid leak-off into high permeable zones of a reservoir. The gelled up fluid system helps retard the acid reaction to allow deeper acid penetration for hydrocarbon productivity enhancement. The in-situ gelation is typically achieved by using crosslinked polymers with the acid. Conventional in-situ crosslinked gelled acid systems are made up of polyacrylamide gelling agent, iron based crosslinker and a breaker chemical in addition to other additives, with the acid as the base fluid. However, the polymer-based systems can lead to damaging the formation due to a variety of reasons including unbroken polymer residue. Additionally, the iron-based crosslinker systems can lead to scaling, precipitation and or sludge formation after the acid reacts with the formation, resulting in formation damage and lowering of hydrocarbon productivity. In this paper we showcase a new nanoparticles based gelled acid system that overcomes the inherent challenges faced by conventional in-situ crosslinked gelled acid systems. The new system can work in 5 to 20 % HCl up to 300°F. The new system does not contain any polymer or iron based crosslinker that can potentially damage the formation. It comprises nanoparticles, a gelation activator, acidizing treatment additives along with HCl. The new in-situ gelled acid system has low viscosity at surface making it easy to pump. It gels up at elevated temperatures and pH of 1 to 4, which helps with diverting the tail end acid to tighter or damaged zones of the formation. We demonstrate that the viscosification and eventual gelation of the new system can be achieved as the acid reacts with a carbonate formation and the pH rises above 1. As the acid further reacts and continues to spend there by increasing the pH beyond 4, the gel demonstrates reduction of viscosity. This assists in a better cleanup post the acidizing treatment. Various experimental techniques were used to showcase the development of the nanoparticle based acid diversion fluid. Static and dynamic gelation studies as a function of time, temperature and pH are reported. The gelation performance of the new system was evaluated at temperatures up to 300°F and discussed in the paper. Comparative performance of different types of gelation activators on the gelation profile of the nanoparticles is evaluated. It is also shown that the gelation and viscosity reduction is entirely a pH dependent phenomenon and does not require any additional breaker chemistry, and therefore provides more control over the system performance. The novelty of the new gelled acid system is that it is based upon nanoparticles making it less prone to formation damage as compared to a crosslinked polymer based system.


Objective: The aim of this research is to formulate and evaluate the wound healing gel of Leucaena leucocephala leaves extract. Methods: In this research, the extract of Leucaena leaves was formulated into wound healing gel by using a variation of the concentration of Carbopol as a gelling agent and Propylene glycol as a humectant. Afterward, the gel's physical properties (pH, viscosity, spreadability), stability, and sterility were tested. The wound healing activity was evaluated by making excision wounds on the Wistar Albino rat's back, and then the gels were applied to the wound every day. The wound's size was measured and counted as the percentage of wound closure. Results: The result showed that Formula 4 (contains 1.5% of Carbopol and 12% of Propylene glycol) has the best physical characteristics and wound healing activity. Formula 4 showed 100% wound closure on the 11th day of the treatment, while the negative control only reached 49.12%. The statistical parameter with the p-value<0.05 stated that they are significantly different. Conclusion: This research demonstrated that gel with Leucaena leaf extract has good physical characteristics, and it can significantly improve the wound healing process.

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 35
Nebojša Pavlović ◽  
Isidora Anastasija Bogićević ◽  
Dragana Zaklan ◽  
Maja Đanić ◽  
Svetlana Goločorbin-Kon ◽  

Clindamycin hydrochloride is a widely used antibiotic for topical use, but its main disadvantage is poor skin penetration. Therefore, new approaches in the development of clindamycin topical formulations are of great importance. We aimed to investigate the effects of the type of gelling agent (carbomer and sodium carmellose), and the type and concentration of bile acids as penetration enhancers (0.1% and 0.5% of cholic and deoxycholic acid), on clindamycin release rate and permeation in a cellulose membrane in vitro model. Eight clindamycin hydrogel formulations were prepared using a 23 full factorial design, and they were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, drug content, drug release, and permeability parameters. Although formulations with carbomer as the gelling agent exerted optimal sensory properties, carmellose sodium hydrogels had significantly higher release rates and permeation of clindamycin hydrochloride. The bile acid enhancement factors were higher in carbomer gels, and cholic acid exerted more pronounced permeation-enhancing effects. Since the differences in the permeation parameters of hydrogels containing cholic acid in different concentrations were insignificant, its addition in a lower concentration is more favorable. The hydrogel containing carmellose sodium as a gelling agent and 0.1% cholic acid as a penetration enhancer can be considered as the formulation of choice.

Tuti Sri Suhesti ◽  
M. Mudrik H. Rohman ◽  
Sunarto Sunarto

Nagasari (Mesua ferrea L.) is one of the biodiversity to be developed as an antiseptic preparation. These plants are known to contain flavonoid compounds, tannins, and terpenoids that act as antibacterial. Hand sanitizer gel preparations can increase the effectiveness of topically. The physical properties of a good gel depend on a gelling agent, one of which is HPMC. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of variations in HPMC levels on physical properties and antibacterial activity. Gels were prepared with various HPMC levels of 1%, 2%, and 3%. The gel was tested for physical properties and stability. All formulas produced preparations that met the requirements for good physical properties and stability. Testing of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus showed that an increase in HPMC levels could decrease the ability to release the active substance of the preparation. The diameter of the inhibition zone obtained was 10.0 mm (HPMC 1%); 9.5 mm (2% HPMC) and 8.0 mm (3% HPMC). Increasing the concentration of HPMC will increase the viscosity and adhesion but decrease the spreadability. The three formulas had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with moderate criteria.Keywords: Extract of nagasari leaf, Gel, HPMC, Staphylococcus aureus

Melysa Putri ◽  
Hafnimardiyanti Hafnimardiyanti ◽  
Dian Savitri

Hand sanitizer is an antiseptic in gel form. The gel texture in hand sanitizers is caused by the carbomer which acts as a gelling agent. Therefore, this research was done to observe the effect of carbomer on the value of pH, viscosity, and microbial activity in hand sanitizers. As for testing pH using pH meters, testing viscosity was carried out using the viscometer method, while microbial activity was carried out using the Total Plate Number, Yeast Mold Number and microbial pathogen tests. Based on the data obtained, the carbomer greatly influences the increase in the viscosity of the hand sanitizer gel, the pH value was obtained at 6.0 - 7.06, while in the microbial activity test none of the microbes grew in each medium. Therefore, it can be concluded that the hand sanitizer with code P3 is the best sample

Roslim Ramli ◽  
Ai Bao Chai ◽  
Jee Hou Ho ◽  
Shamsul Kamaruddin ◽  
Fatimah Rubaizah Mohd Rasdi ◽  

ABSTRACT Specialty natural rubber (SpNR) latex, namely, deproteinized natural rubber (DPNR) latex and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) latex, has been produced to meet specific product's requirements. However, SpNR is normally used in the form of block rubber to manufacture dry rubber products such as tires and automotive parts. The applications of SpNR latex into latex foam products will be diversified. Findings indicate that foamability of SpNR latex is lower compared to normal latex (LATZ) but shows longer stability time after foamed. Findings also indicate that foam collapse and foam coagulate are two main challenges in the fabrication process of SpNR latex foam. Despite these challenges, SpNR latex foam can be fabricated at different density levels. During the foaming process, additional foaming agent is required to fabricate a SpNR latex foam, which is different from fabricating a normal NR latex foam, especially at low latex foam density. Consequently, a higher level of sodium silicofluoride, used as the gelling agent, is required to set the cell structure of the foam. Findings also indicate that foam density influenced the gelling time and volume shrinkage of the SpNR latex foam. An ideal compounding, foaming, and gelling formulation to fabricate SpNR latex foam via Dunlop batch foaming process has been developed. Morphological study showed that all latex foams are open-cell structure, with lower density foam exhibiting higher porosity and mean pore size. Comparison on hysteresis behavior between DPNR and ENR latex foam indicated that ENR latex foam exhibits higher hysteresis loss ratio compared to DPNR latex foam.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 69-78
U. V. Nogaeva ◽  
Ju. M. Kotsur ◽  
E. V. Flisyuk ◽  
D. Yu. Ivkin ◽  
E. D. Semivelichenko ◽  

Introduction. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease that affects more than 10 % of the world's population. More than 600 000 people are diagnosed for the first time each year, but these data do not reflect the true prevalence of the disease, since not all patients seek help from hospitals [1, 2].Aim. Pharmaceutical development of the composition and technology of a gel based on meloxicam, a purine derivative and an immunomodulating component for the treatment of OA with pharmacological substantiation of the content of active substances.Materials and methods. A combination of three active pharmaceutical substances was studied: a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug – meloxicam, a purine derivative and an original immunomodulator M. Sodium alginate, natrozole and xanthan gum were considered as gelling agents. Were identified two technological modes of obtaining a gel base. The concentrations of active substances were selected based on the results of preclinical studies. OA was modeled by the combined administration of 0.1 ml of a mixture of Freund's complete adjuvant with a 10 % talc suspension in isotonic sodium chloride solution in a ratio of 1 : 10 into the hock (tarsus) joint cavity. The criteria for choosing the optimal composition of the gel were the size of the damaged joint, exercise tolerance and the histological picture in comparison with intact and control animals. For quantitative data, sample mean values (M) and standard deviations (SD) were calculated. The results corresponded to the laws of normal distribution, statistical processing was carried out using one-way analysis of variance (One-Way ANOVA) using the GraphPad Prism 8.0.2 software, USA at the level of statistical significance of differences p < 0,05 и p < 0,001.Results and discussion. The composition was developed and the technology of the topical dosage form based on sodium alginate was proposed. Preclinical data indicate that the highest efficacy is achieved when using a formulation containing 3 % purine derivative, 5 % immunomodulator M and 0.5 % meloxicam. The developed composition for the effectiveness of suppressing the symptoms of OA showed results that exceeded the reference drug.Conclusion. An original combined agent for the treatment of OA has been developed. Due to the selected component composition, with greater efficiency, it was possible to reduce the dosage of meloxicam to 0.5 %, and the use of sodium alginate as a gelling agent contributed to the prolongation of the action of the gel and the subsequent reduction in the number of applications.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Hanna Steigerwald ◽  
Frank Blanco-Perez ◽  
Melanie Albrecht ◽  
Caroline Bender ◽  
Andrea Wangorsch ◽  

Pectin, a dietary fiber, is a polysaccharide that is widely used in food industry as a gelling agent. In addition, prebiotic and beneficial immunomodulatory effects of pectin have been demonstrated, leading to increased importance as food supplement. However, as cases of anaphylactic reactions after consumption of pectin-supplemented foods have been reported, the present study aims to evaluate the allergy risk of pectin. This is of particular importance since most of the pectin used in the food industry is extracted from citrus or apple pomace. Both contain several allergens such as non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs), known to induce severe allergic reactions, which could impair the use of pectins in nsLTP allergic patients. Therefore, the present study for the first time was performed to analyze residual nsLTP content in two commercial pectins using different detection methods. Results showed the analytical sensitivity was diminished by the pectin structure. Finally, spiking of pectin with allergenic peach nsLTP Pru p 3 led to the conclusion that the potential residual allergen content in both pectins is below the threshold to induce anaphylactic reactions in nsLTP-allergic patients. This data suggests that consumption of the investigated commercial pectin products provides no risk for inducing severe reactions in nsLTP-allergic patients.

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