oil in water
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 552
Liandra G. Teixeira ◽  
Stephany Rezende ◽  
Ângela Fernandes ◽  
Isabel P. Fernandes ◽  
Lillian Barros ◽  

The use of natural colorants is needed to overcome consumer concerns regarding synthetic food colorants′ safety. However, natural pigments have, in general, poor stability against environmental stresses such as temperature, ionic strength, moisture, light, and pH, among others. In this work, water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) emulsions were used as protective carriers to improve color stability of a hydrophilic Sambucus nigra L. extract against pH changes. The chemical system comprised water and corn oil as the aqueous and oil phases, respectively, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), Tween 80, and gum Arabic as stabilizers. The primary emulsion was prepared using a W1/O ratio of 40/60 (v/v). For the secondary emulsion, W1/O/W2, different (W1/O)/W2 ratios were tested with the 50/50 (v/v) formulation presenting the best stability, being selected as the coloring system to test in food matrices of different pH: natural yogurt (pH 4.65), rice drink (pH 6.01), cow milk (pH 6.47), and soy drink (pH 7.92). Compared to the direct use of the extract, the double emulsion solution gave rise to higher color stability with pH change and storage time, as corroborated by visual and statistical analysis.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 327
Wiphada Mitbumrung ◽  
Numphung Rungraung ◽  
Niramol Muangpracha ◽  
Ploypailin Akanitkul ◽  
Thunnalin Winuprasith

The pretreatment process is an essential step for nanofibrillated cellulose production as it enhances size reduction efficiency, reduces production cost, and decreases energy consumption. In this study, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was prepared using various pretreatment processes, either chemical (i.e., acid, basic, and bleach) or hydrothermal (i.e., microwave and autoclave), followed by disintegration using high pressure homogenization from oat bran fibers. The obtained NFC were used as an emulsifier to prepare 10% oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsion containing chemically pretreated NFC exhibited the smallest oil droplet diameter (d32) at 3.76 μm, while those containing NFC using other pretreatments exhibited d32 values > 5 μm. The colors of the emulsions were mainly influenced by oil droplet size rather than the color of the fiber itself. Both NFC suspensions and NFC emulsions showed a storage modulus (G′) higher than the loss modulus (G″) without crossing over, indicating gel-like behavior. For emulsion stability, microwave pretreatment effectively minimized gravitational separation, and the creaming indices of all NFC-emulsions were lower than 6% for the entire storage period. In conclusion, chemical pretreatment was an effective method for nanofiber extraction with good emulsion capacity. However, the microwave with bleaching pretreatment was an alternative method for extracting nanofibers and needs further study to improve the efficiency.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
Diaa Al-Domi ◽  
Ayat Bozeya ◽  
Mohamed Al-Fandi

Aim: To develop a new nano-delivery system for insulin buccal administration. Background: Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) had viewed countless breakthroughs in drug delivery systems. The main objective of PNPs application in delivering and carrying different promising drugs is to make sure that the drugs being delivered to their action sites. As a result maximizing the desired effect and overcoming their limitations and drawbacks. Objectives: The main goals of this study were to produce an insulin consumable nano-delivery system for buccal administration and enhance the mucoadhesive effect in sustaining insulin release. Methods: Water in oil in water (W-O-W) microemulsion solvent evaporation technique was used for the preparation of nanoparticles consisting from positively charged poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) coated with chitosan and loaded with insulin. Later, a consumable buccal film was prepared by the spin coating method and loaded with the previously prepared nanoparticles. Results: The newly prepared nanoparticle was assessed in terms of size, charge and surface morphology using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), zeta potential, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. An in-vitro investigation of the insulin release, from nanoparticles and buccal film, demonstrated controlled as well as sustained delivery over 6 hrs. The cumulative insulin release decreased to about (28.9%) with buccal film in comparing with the nanoparticle (50 %). Conclusion: The buccal film added another barrier for insulin release. Therefore, the release was sustained.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 394
Esra Kocaman ◽  
Davide Rabiti ◽  
Juan Sebastian Murillo Moreno ◽  
Asli Can Karaca ◽  
Paul Van der Meeren

The permeation of amino acids and di-peptides with different hydrophobicities across the oil phase in W/O/W double emulsions was investigated at different concentrations, considering the pH of the aqueous phase. Moreover, the particle size, yield of entrapped water and release kinetics of the double emulsions was evaluated as a function of time. Regarding the release of the entrapped amino acids and di-peptides, their hydrophobicity and the pH had a significant effect, whereas the concentration of the dissolved compound did not lead to different release kinetics. The release of the amino acids and di-peptides was faster at neutral pH as compared to acidic pH values due to the increased solute solubility in the oil phase for more hydrophobic molecules at neutral pH. Regarding the effect of the type of oil, much faster amino acid transport was observed through MCT oil as compared to LCT oil, which might be due to its higher solubility and/or higher diffusivity. As di-peptides released faster than amino acids, it follows that the increased solubility overruled the effect from the decreased diffusion coefficient of the dissolved compound in the oil phase.

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