poly ethylene
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 871
Xiong Xu ◽  
Yaming Chu ◽  
Yi Luo ◽  
Qiaoyun Wu ◽  
Xuyong Chen ◽  

Waste poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles and end-of-life scrap rubber tires are common municipal solid wastes discarded and produced every day, which are usually disposed of in landfills and stockpiles, occupying a great quantity of land and causing serious environmental issues. This study aims to first turn waste PET into two value-added derived additives under the chemical treatment of two amines, namely triethylenetetramine (TETA) and ethanolamine (EA), respectively, and then adopt them in association with crumb rubber (CR) to modify virgin bitumen for preparing various rubberized asphalt mixtures. Subsequently, the high- and low-temperature properties of the rubberized binder modified by PET additives (PET-TETA and PET-EA) were comparatively characterized through dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and bending beam rheometer (BBR) tests, while the rutting resistance, fatigue resistance, and dynamic modulus of the further fabricated mixtures were evaluated and validated through mixture tests. The results obtained indicate that 2 wt.% PET-TETA and PET-EA contribute to increase the rutting failure temperature of asphalt rubber from 82.2 °C to 85.5 °C and 84.2 °C, respectively, retaining the high grade of PG 82; the low-temperature grade of asphalt rubber slightly decreased from PG-28 to PG-22 as the additive was added; the rut depth slightly changed from 3.10 mm to nearly 3.70 mm; and PET-TETA exhibits the potential to be capable of extending the fatigue life of asphalt rubber in contrast with PET-EA at different stress levels within 450 kPa. Based on the findings of this study, the developed recycling approach is considered to be applicable to not only alleviate the environmental concerns caused by the landfills and stockpiles of those wastes but also make them valuable for building more durable pavement.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Dong Hyun Kim ◽  
Eun-Mi Kim ◽  
Gi-Seok Heo ◽  
Dong Wook Lee ◽  
Jin Young Oh ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 2100055
Wenxing Liu ◽  
Ekaterina M. Nestorovich

Narmin Suvarli ◽  
Lukas Wenger ◽  
Christophe Serra ◽  
Iris Perner-Nochta ◽  
Jürgen Hubbuch ◽  

Increasing the shelf life of enzymes and making them reusable is a prominent topic in biotechnology. The encapsulation inside hydrogel microparticles (HMPs) can enhance the enzyme’s stability by preserving its native conformation and facilitating continuous biocatalytic processes and enzyme recovery. In this study, we present a method to immobilize β-galactosidase by, first, conjugating the enzyme onto the surface of polymer nanoparticles, and then encapsulating these enzyme-conjugated nanoparticles (ENPs) inside HMPs using microfluidic device paired with UV-LEDs. Polymer nanoparticles act as anchors for enzyme molecules, potentially preventing their leaching through the hydrogel network especially during swelling. The affinity binding (through streptavidin-biotin interaction) was used as an immobilization technique of β-galactosidase on the surface of polymer nanoparticles. The hydrogel microparticles of roughly 400 μm in size (swollen state) containing unbound enzyme and ENPs were produced. The effects of encapsulation and storage in different conditions were evaluated. It was discovered that the encapsulation in acrylamide (AcAm) microparticles caused an almost complete loss of enzymatic activity. Encapsulation in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-diacrylate microparticles, on the other hand, showed a residual activity of 15–25%, presumably due to a protective effect of PEG during polymerization. One of the major factors that affected the enzyme activity was presence of photoinitiator exposed to UV-irradiation. Storage studies were carried out at room temperature, in the fridge and in the freezer throughout 1, 7 and 28 days. The polymer nanoparticles showcased excellent immobilization properties and preserved the activity of the conjugated enzyme at room temperature (115% residual activity after 28 days), while a slight decrease was observed for the unbound enzyme (94% after 28 days). Similar trends were observed for encapsulated ENPs and unbound enzyme. Nevertheless, storage at −26°C resulted in an almost complete loss of enzymatic activity for all samples.

2022 ◽  
Mehdi Hatami ◽  
Nima Rahnama ◽  
Hassan Karimi-Maleh ◽  
Nader Djafarzadeh ◽  
Mohammad Qandalee ◽  

Abstract In this research, a new generation of ternary nanocomposites based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), phosphorylated chitosan and surface modified alumina nanoparticles were fabricated in four steps. The phosphorylation process was targeted for the insertion of elemental phosphorus as a flame retardant agent in the final PET nanocomposite. Likewise, environmentally friendly nano-alumina was used for PET matrix to improve the flame retardant properties of PET in collaboration with elemental phosphorus. Alternatively, the presence of alumina nanoparticles in combination with phosphorylated chitosan improved the antibacterial activity of the PET matrix. Furthermore, the effects of the phosphorylated chitosan and alumina nanoparticles on the morphology and thermal properties of nanocomposites were inspected by different approaches. The structure and distribution of the nanoscale particles in PET were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses were used for the in-depth evaluation of the thermal properties of prepared nanocomposites.

2022 ◽  
Kan Hu ◽  
Aoyuan Cheng ◽  
Dingcheng Zhou ◽  
Yi Luo ◽  
Guoqing Zhang

Lipid nanovesicles (LNVs) and polymer nanovesicles (PNVs), also known as liposomes and polymersomes, are becoming increasingly vital in global health. One recent example is the widely distributed mRNA Covid-19 vaccines. However, the two major classes of nanovesicles both exhibit their own issues that significantly limit potential applications. Here, by covalently attaching a naturally occurring phosphate “lipid head” and a synthetic polylactide “polymer tail” via facile ring-opening polymerization on a 500-gram scale, a type of “chimeric” nanovesicles (CNVs) can be easily produced. Compared to LNVs, the reported CNVs exhibit reduced permeability for small and large molecules; on the other hand, the CNVs are less hydrophobic and exhibit enhanced tolerance toward proteins in buffer solutions without the need for hydrophilic polymeric corona such as poly(ethylene glycol), in contrast to conventional PNVs. The proof-of-concept in vitro delivery experiments using hydrophilic solutions of fluorescein-PEG, rhodamine-PEG, and anti-cancer drug doxorubicin demonstrate that these CNVs, as a structurally diverse class of nano-materials, are highly promising as alternative carriers for therapeutic molecules in translational nanomedicine.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 466
Vamshi K. Chidara ◽  
Yves Gnanou ◽  
Xiaoshuang Feng

The anionic ring-opening copolymerization (ROCOP) of epoxides, namely of ethylene oxide (EO), with anhydrides (AH) generally produces strictly alternating copolymers. With triethylborane (TEB)-assisted ROCOP of EO with AH, statistical copolymers of high molar mass including ether and ester units could be obtained. In the presence of TEB, the reactivity ratio of EO (rEO), which is normally equal to 0 in its absence, could be progressively raised to values lower than 1 or higher than 1. Conditions were even found to obtain rEO equal or close to 1. Samples of P(EO-co-ester) with minimal compositional drift could be synthesized; upon basic degradation of their ester linkages, these samples afforded poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) diol samples of narrow molar mass distribution. In other cases where rEO were lower or higher than 1, the PEO diol samples eventually isolated after degradation exhibited a broader distribution of molar masses because of the compositional drift of initial P(EO-co-ester) samples.

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