chronic disease prevention
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2088 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 38-43 ◽  
Margo Orchard ◽  
Esther Green ◽  
Terrence Sullivan ◽  
Anna Greenberg ◽  
Verna Mai

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
Ying Wang ◽  
Bo Hu ◽  
Yuxue Zhao ◽  
Guofang Kuang ◽  
Yaling Zhao ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Sithara Wanni Arachchige Dona ◽  
Mary Rose Angeles ◽  
Natasha Hall ◽  
Jennifer J. Watts ◽  
Anna Peeters ◽  

Abstract Background Chronic diseases contribute to a significant proportion (71%) of all deaths each year worldwide. Governments and other stakeholders worldwide have taken various actions to tackle the key risk factors contributing to the prevalence and impact of chronic diseases. Private health insurers (PHI) are one key stakeholders, particularly in Australian health system, and their engagement in chronic disease prevention is growing. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of chronic disease prevention interventions implemented by PHI both in Australia and internationally. Method We searched multiple databases (Business Source Complete, CINAHL, Global Health, Health Business Elite, Medline, PsycINFO, and Scopus) and grey literature for studies/reports published in English until September 2020 using search terms on the impacts of chronic disease prevention interventions delivered by PHIs. Two reviewers assessed the risk of bias using a quality assessment tool developed by Effective Public Healthcare Panacea Project. After data extraction, the literature was synthesised thematically based on the types of the interventions reported across studies. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO, CRD42020145644. Results Of 7789 records, 29 studies were eligible for inclusion. There were predominantly four types of interventions implemented by PHIs: Financial incentives, health coaching, wellness programs, and group medical appointments. Outcome measures across studies were varied, making it challenging to compare the difference between the effectiveness of different intervention types. Most studies reported that the impacts of interventions, such as increase in healthy eating, physical activity, and lower hospital admissions, last for a shorter term if the length of the intervention is shorter. Interpretation Although it is challenging to conclude which intervention type was the most effective, it appeared that, regardless of the intervention types, PHI interventions of longer duration (at least 2 years) were more beneficial and outcomes were more sustained than those PHI interventions that lasted for a shorter period. Funding Primary source of funding was Geelong Medical and Hospital Benefits Association (GMHBA), an Australian private health insurer.

10.2196/27779 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. e27779
Harry Klimis ◽  
Joel Nothman ◽  
Di Lu ◽  
Chao Sun ◽  
N Wah Cheung ◽  

Background SMS text messages as a form of mobile health are increasingly being used to support individuals with chronic diseases in novel ways that leverage the mobility and capabilities of mobile phones. However, there are knowledge gaps in mobile health, including how to maximize engagement. Objective This study aims to categorize program SMS text messages and participant replies using machine learning (ML) and to examine whether message characteristics are associated with premature program stopping and engagement. Methods We assessed communication logs from SMS text message–based chronic disease prevention studies that encouraged 1-way (SupportMe/ITM) and 2-way (TEXTMEDS [Text Messages to Improve Medication Adherence and Secondary Prevention]) communication. Outgoing messages were manually categorized into 5 message intents (informative, instructional, motivational, supportive, and notification) and replies into 7 groups (stop, thanks, questions, reporting healthy, reporting struggle, general comment, and other). Grid search with 10-fold cross-validation was implemented to identify the best-performing ML models and evaluated using nested cross-validation. Regression models with interaction terms were used to compare the association of message intent with premature program stopping and engagement (replied at least 3 times and did not prematurely stop) in SupportMe/ITM and TEXTMEDS. Results We analyzed 1550 messages and 4071 participant replies. Approximately 5.49% (145/2642) of participants responded with stop, and 11.7% (309/2642) of participants were engaged. Our optimal ML model correctly classified program message intent with 76.6% (95% CI 63.5%-89.8%) and replies with 77.8% (95% CI 74.1%-81.4%) balanced accuracy (average area under the curve was 0.95 and 0.96, respectively). Overall, supportive (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, 95% CI 0.35-0.81) messages were associated with reduced chance of stopping, as were informative messages in SupportMe/ITM (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.20-0.60) but not in TEXTMEDS (for interaction, P<.001). Notification messages were associated with a higher chance of stopping in SupportMe/ITM (OR 5.76, 95% CI 3.66-9.06) but not TEXTMEDS (for interaction, P=.01). Overall, informative (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.46-2.12) and instructional (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.21-1.80) messages were associated with higher engagement but not motivational messages (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.82-1.70; P=.37). For supportive messages, the association with engagement was opposite with SupportMe/ITM (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.58) compared with TEXTMEDS (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.60-0.98; for interaction, P<.001). Notification messages were associated with reduced engagement in SupportMe/ITM (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.05-0.10) and TEXTMEDS (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.20-0.39); however, the strength of the association was greater in SupportMe/ITM (for interaction P<.001). Conclusions ML models enable monitoring and detailed characterization of program messages and participant replies. Outgoing message intent may influence premature program stopping and engagement, although the strength and direction of association appear to vary by program type. Future studies will need to examine whether modifying message characteristics can optimize engagement and whether this leads to behavior change.

Yi-Ching Lynn Ho ◽  
Vivian Shu Yi Lee ◽  
Moon-Ho Ringo Ho ◽  
Gladis Jing Lin ◽  
Julian Thumboo

Modifiable risk factors are of interest for chronic disease prevention. Few studies have assessed the system of modifiable and mediating pathways leading to diabetes mellitus. We aimed to develop a pathway model for Diabetes Risk with modifiable Lifestyle Risk factors as the start point and Physiological Load as the mediator. As there are no standardised risk thresholds for lifestyle behaviour, we derived a weighted composite for Lifestyle Risk. Physiological Load was based on an index using clinical thresholds. Sociodemographics are non-modifiable risk factors and were specified as covariates. We used structural equation modeling to test the model, first using 2014/2015 data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey. Next, we fitted a smaller model with longitudinal data (2007/2008 to 2014/2015), given limited earlier data. Both models showed the indirect effects of Lifestyle Risk on Diabetes Risk via the mediator of Physiological Load, whereas the direct effect was only supported in the cross-sectional analysis. Specifying Lifestyle Risk as an observable, composite variable incorporates the cumulative effect of risk behaviour and differentiates this study from previous studies assessing it as a latent construct. The parsimonious model groups the multifarious risk factors and illustrates modifiable pathways that could be applied in chronic disease prevention efforts.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Juliano Schwartz ◽  
Paul Oh ◽  
Maira B. Perotto ◽  
Ryan E. Rhodes ◽  
Wanda Firth ◽  

In light of new evidence on the prevention of chronic diseases and the elevated rates of overweight and obesity in Brazil and Canada, this critical review aims to interpret and synthesize current aspects regarding dietary and physical activity initiatives in both countries and make future recommendations. The pioneering work presented in the last Brazilian dietary guidelines has been called a model that can be applied globally, given its conceptualization of healthy eating that translates easily to practical guidance. The new Canadian Food Guide has incorporated similar aspects, also putting the country as a leader in dietary guidance. With these new recommendations, citizens in both Brazil and Canada have access to impactful evidence-informed nutritional guidelines. Both documents propose eating patterns that focus not only on health benefits, such as chronic disease prevention, but also incorporate well-being concerning cultural, economic, sociodemographic, biological, and ecological dimensions. A similar approach is required for physical activity to allow individuals to have attainable health and life goals and thereby fully enjoy their lives, regardless of geographical location, health status, and socioeconomic condition, a concept recently described as physical activity security. The wholistic dietary guidelines from both countries represent a change in paradigm in public health. Likewise, national evidence-based policies are warranted to reduce disparities in physical activity, allowing healthier and more active lifestyles for everyone.

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