Modifiable Risk Factors
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Eman Khedr ◽  
Abeer A. Tony ◽  
Mohamed Habeel ◽  
Ahmed Nasreldein

Abstract Background Limited data are available on the frequency of carotid artery disease among cerebrovascular ischemic stroke (CVS) patients in south Egypt. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of extracranial atherosclerosis among stroke patients using extracranial duplex ultrasound. Results 142 patients (76.8%) were males and 43 (23.2%) were females. Their mean age was 63.3 ± 9.79 years with no significant difference between the mean age of the male and female groups. NIHSS score ranged from 3 to 25 (mean ± S.D; 11.89 ± 4.91). 66 patients (35.7%) had no atherosclerotic changes, 75 patient (40.5%) had stenosis < 70% and 44 patients (23.8%) had stenosis ≥ 70%. The most prevalent modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis were hypertension (74.8%), hyperlipidemia (70.6%), smoking (59.7%) and DM (45.4%). Conclusion Atherosclerosis among people in the south Egypt is relatively high in comparison to other regions in Egypt and Middle East. This is a call for performing further population-based epidemiological studies, to address the exact magnitude of the problem and invest into prevention.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Benoit Talbot ◽  
Beate Sander ◽  
Varsovia Cevallos ◽  
Camila González ◽  
Denisse Benítez ◽  

Abstract Background The global impact of Zika virus in Latin America has drawn renewed attention to circulating mosquito-borne viruses in this region, such as dengue and chikungunya. Our objective was to assess socio-ecological factors associated with Aedes mosquito vector density as a measure of arbovirus transmission risk in three cities of potentially recent Zika virus introduction: Ibagué, Colombia; Manta, Ecuador; and Posadas, Argentina, in order to inform disease mitigation strategies. Methods We sampled Aedes mosquito populations in a total of 1086 households, using indoor and peridomestic mosquito collection methods, including light traps, resting traps, traps equipped with chemical attractant and aspirators. For each sampled household, we collected socio-economic data using structured questionnaires and data on microenvironmental conditions using iButton data loggers. Results A total of 3230 female Aedes mosquitoes were collected, of which 99.8% were Aedes aegypti and 0.2% were Aedes albopictus. Mean female Aedes mosquito density per household was 1.71 (standard deviation: 2.84). We used mixed-effects generalized linear Poisson regression analyses to identify predictors of Aedes density, using month, neighborhood and country as random-effects variables. Across study sites, the number of household occupants [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01–1.14], presence of entry points for mosquitoes into the household (IRR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.30–1.76) and presence of decorative vegetation (IRR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.22–1.88) were associated with higher Aedes density; while being in the highest wealth tertile of household wealth (IRR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66–0.92), knowledge of how arboviruses are transmitted (IRR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89–1.00) and regular emptying of water containers by occupants (IRR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.67–0.92) were associated with lower Aedes density. Conclusions Our study addresses the complexities of arbovirus vectors of global significance at the interface between human and mosquito populations. Our results point to several predictors of Aedes mosquito vector density in countries with co-circulation of multiple Aedes-borne viruses, and point to modifiable risk factors that may be useful for disease prevention and control. Graphical Abstract

2021 ◽  
Mi Kyoung Son ◽  
Dae Sub Song ◽  
Kyoungho Lee ◽  
Hyun-Young Park

Abstract Background Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasing health burden worldwide, strategies for AF prevention are lacking. This study aimed to identify modifiable risk factors (MRF) for and estimate their impact on AF risk in the midlife general population. Methods We assessed 9,049 participants who were free of prevalent AF at baseline from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Cox models with time-varying assessment of risk factors were used to identify significant MRF for incident AF. The MRF burden was defined as the proportion of times presented MRF during follow-up, based on the number of visits. Results Over a median follow-up of 13.1 years, 182 (2.01%) participants developed AF. In time-updated multivariable models accounting for changes in risk factors, three MRF including systolic blood pressure (SBP) more than 140 mmHg, obesity with central obesity, and an inactive lifestyle were significantly associated with incident AF. Compared to subjects with three MRF, those with one or no MRF had a decreased risk of AF (hazard ratio [95% CI] for one MRF, 0.483 [0.256–0.914]; and for no MRF, 0.291 [0.145–0.583]). A decreasing MRF burden was associated with reduced AF risk (hazard ratio [95% CI] per 10% decrease in SBP more than 140 mmHg, 0.937 [0.880–0.997]; in obesity with central obesity, 0.942 [0.907–0.978]; in inactivity, 0.926 [0.882–0.973]). Conclusions Maintenance or achievement of optimal MRF control was associated with decreased AF risk, suggesting that minimizing the burden of MRF might help prevent AF.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 3201
Tetsuo Nishikawa ◽  
Yoshihiro Tanaka ◽  
Hayato Tada ◽  
Toyonobu Tsuda ◽  
Takeshi Kato ◽  

This study explores the association between lifestyle behavior and incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in the general Japanese population. Japanese residents aged ≥40 years undergoing a national health checkup in Kanazawa City were included. We hypothesized that better lifestyle behavior is associated with lower incidence of AF. Lifestyle behavior was evaluated by the total cardiovascular health (CVH) score (0 = poor to 14 = ideal), calculated as the sum of the individual scores on seven modifiable risk factors: smoking status, physical activity, obesity, patterns of eating schedule, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and blood glucose. The association between CVH and incident AF was assessed, adjusting for other factors. A total of 37,523 participants (mean age 72.3 ± 9.6 years, 36.8% men, and mean total CVH score 9 ± 1) were analyzed. During the median follow-up period of 5 years, 703 cases of incident AF were observed. Using a low CVH score as a reference, the upper group (ideal CVH group) had a significantly lower risk of incident AF (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.65–0.96, p = 0.02), especially among those aged <75 years (HR = 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.49–0.94, p = 0.02). Thus, ideal CVH is independently associated with a lower risk for incident AF, particularly in younger Japanese individuals (<75 years).

2021 ◽  
Vol 01 ◽  
Syeda Marriam Bakhtiar ◽  
Syeda Eeman Zahra Bokhari ◽  
Iqra Riasat ◽  
Erum Dilshad

: COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCov is a pandemic disease that occurred in December 2019 from Wuhan, Hubei Province of China. It was first transmitted from the animal host to a human source, after which it followed human-human transmission and spread exponentially worldwide. Various countries have fallen prey to this virus, but there are certain countries or populations, which have been more affected by this than others. Moreover, the demographics of transmission and affected individuals are also variable from country-country. The purpose of this article is to highlight the non-modifiable risk factors for COVID-19 and their analysis in various populations affecting their susceptibility. Besides age, gender, and blood group, two major genetic factors associated with this disease are discussed here including the potential of IL-6, in causing chronic disease conditions and the rs1800795 G/C-174 IL-6 polymorphism in the IL-6 gene and with the potential role of ACE-2 receptor in viral transmission and pathogenicity with its protective and disease-causing variants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Kun Xie ◽  
Xiufang Gao ◽  
Liwen Bao ◽  
Ying Shan ◽  
Haiming Shi ◽  

Abstract Background Hypertension is highly prevalent and is one of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes. Isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), however, tends to be ignored due to insufficient recognition. We sought to depict the clinical manifestation of IDH and isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) to find a more efficient way to improve the management. Methods Patients with primary hypertension aged over 18 years were investigated from all over the country using convenience sampling during 2017–2019. IDH was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg. ISH was defined as SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and DBP < 90 mmHg. Results A total of 8548 patients were screened, and 8475 participants were included. The average age was 63.67 ± 12.78 years, and males accounted for 54.4%. Among them, 361 (4.3%) had IDH, and 2096 had ISH (24.7%). Patients with IDH (54.84 ± 13.21 years) were much younger. Aging turned out to be negatively associated with IDH but positively associated with ISH. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed BMI was a significant risk factor for IDH (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.05–1.61, p = 0.018), but not for ISH (OR 1.05, 95%CI 0.95–1.16, p = 0.358). Moreover, smoking was significantly associated with IDH (OR 1.36, 95%CI 1.04–1.78, p = 0.026) but not with ISH (OR 1.04, 95%CI 0.90–1.21, p = 0.653). Conclusions Patients with IDH were much younger, and the prevalence decreased with aging. BMI and smoking were remarkably associated with IDH rather than ISH. Keeping fit and giving up smoking might be particularly efficient in the management of young patients with IDH. Trial registration NCT03862183, retrospectively registered on March 5, 2019.

2021 ◽  
Xiaofeng Zhu ◽  
Luke Zhu ◽  
Heming Wang ◽  
Richard S. Cooper ◽  
Aravinda Chakravarti

Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (S/DBP) are highly correlated modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We report here a bidirectional Mendelian Randomization (MR) and pleiotropy analysis of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) summary statistics from the UKB-ICBP BP genome-wide association study (GWAS) and construct a composite genetic risk score (GRS) by including pleiotropic variants. The composite GRS captures greater (1.11-3.26 fold) heritability for BP traits and increases (1.09- and 2.01-fold) Nagelkerke's R2 for hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We replicated 118 novel BP pleiotropic variants including 18 novel BP loci using summary statistics from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) study. An additional 219 novel BP signals and 40 novel loci were identified after meta-analysis of the UKB-ICBP and MVP summary statistics but without further independent replication. Our study provides further insight into BP regulation and provides a novel way to construct a GRS by including pleiotropic variants for other complex diseases.

Dalila Scaturro ◽  
Fabio Vitagliani ◽  
Pietro Terrana ◽  
Sofia Tomasello ◽  
Lawrence Camarda ◽  

Abstract Background Fracture of the proximal femur is the most feared complication of osteoporosis. Given the numerous physiological functions that magnesium performs in our body, in the literature there is a correlation between osteoporosis and low serum levels of magnesium. Aim Evaluate the incidence of hypomagnesemia in patients with lateral fragility fracture of the proximal femur, the possible correlation between serum magnesium levels and fractures, and the effectiveness of supplementing Sucrosomial® magnesium associated with therapeutic exercise on the outcome of these patients. Methods We divided the study into two parts. In the first part, we assessed the preoperative incidence of hypomagnesemia in patients using a blood test. In the second part, patients with hypomagnesemia were divided, in the post-operative period, into two groups, who received, respectively, only therapeutic exercise or oral supplementation with sucrosomial magnesium associated with therapeutic exercise. Results Half of the patients with fragility femoral fracture had hypomagnesemia, with a higher incidence of the subclinical form. From the comparison between the two groups, the T1 treatment group showed a significant improvement in blood levels of magnesium (2.11 ± 0.15 vs. 1.94 ± 0.11; p < 0.05), on the NRS scale (5.7 ± 0.81 vs. 6.6 ± 1.18; p < 0.05), the Tinetti scale (17.3 ± 1.15 vs. 15.2 ± 2.98; p < 0.05) and the SarQoL questionnaire (47.3 ± 5.21 vs. 44.9 ± 5.54; p < 0.05). Conclusions More attention would be needed in the diagnosis and correction of subclinical hypomagnesemia and not just the simple and clinically evident one, including hypomagnesemia among the modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis.

Nutan Bedi ◽  
Archana Omprakash Gulati ◽  
Gauri V. Devasthali

Background: Diabetes is a disease, which if not controlled, affects every cell of the body from head to toe. No wonder it is often referred to as the “SILENT KILLER”. So through our study, we aim to study the correlation between (haemoglobin A1c) HbA1c levels, duration of diabetes and modifiable risk factors with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: This study was conducted in 100 patients (200 eyes) who were diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A detailed history of the duration of diabetes, alcohol intake and smoking and HbA1c levels was taken. Complete ocular examination was done. BMI was also calculated.Results: 2/3rd of the eyes with grade 3 DR were of>10 years duration while 2/3rd of the eyes with grade 2 DR were of 5-10 years duration. Of the eyes with grade 3 DR, all the patients had HbA1c of more than 8. Significant p value shows strong correlation between DR and obesity. No significant correlation of DR was found with alcohol and smoking.Conclusions: The findings in our study endorse the view that duration and HbA1c are important risk factors for occurrence and severity of DR and therefore a regular follow up and good glycemic control is highly essential for the prevention of occurrence and progression of DR. Strong correlation between BMI and DR suggest that lifestyle changes play a pivotal role.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Katherine A. Joltikov ◽  
Ann-Marie Lobo-Chan

Purpose: Non-infectious uveitis is a leading cause of vision loss in the developed world. The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of non-infectious uveitis over the last 50 years.Methods: A systematic literature search of Pubmed/MEDLINE database was performed in the 50-year period from January 1971 to January 2021, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Studies that assessed the epidemiology and risk factors for non-infectious uveitis were included.Results: Few epidemiologic studies focus specifically on non-infectious uveitis. In the Unites States, the estimated prevalence of non-infectious uveitis is 121/100,000. The incidence and prevalence varies considerably worldwide. Females and the working age group (20–50 years) appear to be the most affected. Smoking and vitamin D deficiency are the biggest risk factors for non-infectious uveitis, while pregnancy appears to be protective. Additional risk factors include presence of other autoimmune diseases (thyroid disease, diabetes, celiac), pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, psychological stress, and certain medications (bisphosphonates, immune checkpoint inhibitors, female hormone therapy, and etanercept).Discussion: Our systematic review summarizes the incidence and prevalence of non-infectious uveitis and associated modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors.

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