Face Validation
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2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (4) ◽  
pp. 236-244
Leila Keikavoosi-Arani ◽  
Leili Salehi ◽  

Introduction: Despite interest in improving performance management in universities, few studies have examined this topic. Because of the absence of validated tools in Iran for assessing behavior performance management, this study was conducted to validate the behavior performance management scale. Objective: This study aimed to assess the psychometric adequacy of the Performance Management Behavior Questionnaire (PMBQ) for the heads of university departments in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in four phases. The first and second phases included PMBQ translation and its modification in accordance with the educational setting. The third phase consisted of the content and face validation, and the fourth phase aimed to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of this scale. All 400 faculty members (200 for exploratory factor analysis and 200 for confirmatory factor analysis) were studied. After translation, the 27-item PMBQ was evaluated for validity and reliability. Content Validity Ratio (CVR) and Content Validity Index (CVI) were computed for content validity. For construct validation, the exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used. The PMBQ reliability was assessed by the Cronbach α coefficient. Results: Considering eigenvalues above one, five factors were identified that jointly explained 58.22% of the variance observed. Based on the arrangement of the factors, they labeled as monitoring performance management (9 items), coaching (6 items), goal setting (6 items), communication (3 items), and providing consequence (2 items). Results showed that the Average Variance Extracted (AVE) varied between 0.51 and 0.60; composite reliability was between 0.7 and 0.81, and the Cronbach α coefficient was between 0.70 and 0.82. Conclusion: PMBQ as a valid and reliable tool can be used for assessing the behavior of the heads of departments from the viewpoints of faculty members.

Nehad J. Ahmed

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate physicians' opinions on the required information about biosimilars and the need for biosimilars related education. Methodology: The study included a survey that was prepared using a survey from a previous study and after face validation and content validation, it was prepared as an online form using the SurveyMonkey platform. Results: The majority of physicians stated that the most important information about biosimilars are studies that provide clinical immunogenicity data for the biosimilar and reference product (93.33%) in addition to studies that directly compare clinical efficacy and safety between reference products and biosimilars (88.89%). The majority of physicians stated that tracking safety events with biosimilars (94.45%) and access to information on studies comparing biosimilars with reference biologics (91.11%) are important issues related to biosimilars in professional environments. Conclusion: The present study highlights the needs of physicians for biosimilar education. More efforts are needed to increase the awareness regarding biosimilars by different formats in order to integrate biosimilars into clinical practice and to counsel patients about biosimilars.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Hana Hasan Webair ◽  
Tengku Alina Tengku Ismail ◽  
Shaiful Bahari Ismail ◽  
Azza Jameel Khaffaji ◽  
Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain ◽  

Abstract Background Patient-centered care is an essential component of health care quality. To achieve patient-centered care, health care authorities should have a clear definition and an applicable tool to measure the extent of its application. The real concept of patient centeredness should be developed by the patients themselves. We aimed to demonstrate a way to develop a draft Arabic patient-centered infertility care (PCIC) questionnaire for females clients following practical steps that address women with infertility. Methods An iterative process of questionnaire development was undertaken by combining two approaches: the steps proposed by Robert F. DeVellis for scale development and the recommended practices for questionnaire development and testing in the European statistical system. We attempted to develop the draft questionnaire that involved conceptualization and operationalization, generation of an item pool, development of the questionnaire format, review of the initial item pool by experts, and consideration of validation items for inclusion. Results We generated an item pool from in-depth interviews with 14 women who sought infertility care within 6 months before the interview time. We then added more items from a literature review. The item pool contained 123 items distributed through 10 domains. Ten women with infertility were included for face validation. Then, experts with backgrounds in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Family Medicine, and Public Health reviewed the item pool using content validation (n = 10 professors and/or specialists). The item pool was finally reduced to 57 items. We developed the draft Arabic patient-centered infertility care questionnaire for female clients (PCIQ-F) with three sections, including 66 items: background variables, PCIC experience variables, and a general question about the quality of infertility care in the health facility. The draft questionnaire was further reviewed and edited last by experts in preparation for part 2, which will test the questionnaire and prepare the final version. Conclusion The PCIQ-F questionnaire development is a multi-step iterative process started and ended by the target users as experts. Experts’ participation in infertility care and in questionnaire format development had a great impact on questionnaire development and conflict resolution. We recommend this transparent and replicable approach for new instrument developers; it is likely to generate a questionnaire that is valid and acceptable to target users. The draft PCIQ-F questionnaire is ready for testing of its psychometric properties before the final version to measure the PCIC level in health facilities.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 1225
Sunitha Zechariah ◽  
Jennifer L. Waller ◽  
Gianluca De Leo ◽  
Judith Stallings ◽  
Ashley J. Gess ◽  

The nutrition-focused physical examination (NFPE) is an integral component of nutrition assessment performed by registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) to determine signs of malnutrition and other nutrition-related complications. Increased use of this essential skill among RDNs and the transformation of dietetics education to a competency-based model in the near future calls for appropriately validated tools to measure RDNs’ NFPE competence. To fill the need for a validated competency tool, this study developed an Interactive Nutrition-Specific Physical Exam Competency Tool (INSPECT) utilizing the initial 70 items identified in the first phase of the study. The second phase of this study aimed to test the preliminary version of the INSPECT for content and face validity. An expert panel of 17 members provided consensus recommendations through the Delphi process. Internal consistency of the consensus was measured with Cronbach’s alpha (α) and α of ≥0.70 was defined as acceptable a priori. Inter-rater agreement among the expert panel was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and an a priori ICC of 0.75 to 0.9 was established as good and >0.9 as excellent agreement. The results showed acceptable face validity (α = 0.71) and excellent content validity for the INSPECT, with an internal consistency of α = 0.97 in the first round and α = 0.96 in the second round. The inter-rater agreement was also excellent with ICC = 0.95 for each of the Delphi rounds. A total of 52 items were retained from the preliminary version of the INSPECT. Open feedback from the experts allowed for the consolidation of 11 similar items for better scoring and evaluation and thus, a total of 41 items were included in the final version of the INSPECT. The final version of the INSPECT is currently being studied in real-life, multi-site clinical settings among practicing RDNs to examine construct validity, reliability, and item-level psychometric properties. Ultimately, the validated INSPECT will be available for the competency evaluation of RDNs practicing in clinical settings.

2021 ◽  
Keiko Shikako-Thomas ◽  
Reem El Sherif ◽  
Roberta Cardoso ◽  
Hao Zhang ◽  
Jonathan Lai ◽  

Abstract BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Policymakers’ Information Use Questionnaire (POLIQ) to capture the intention of individuals in decision-making position, such as health policymakers, to act on research-based evidence, in order to inform theory and the application of behaviour change models to decision-making. MethodsThe development and validation comprised three steps: item generation, qualitative face validation, and factorial construct validation. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to estimate item-domain correlations for five pre-defined constructs relating to content, beliefs, behaviour, control and intent. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to assess overall consistency of questionnaire items with the pre-defined constructs. Participants in the item generation and face validation were health and policy researchers and two former decision-makers (former assistant deputy ministries) from Canadian provincial level. Participants in the construct validation were 39 Canadian decision-makers at various positions of municipal, provincial, and federal jurisdiction who participated in a series of policy dialogues focused on childhood disability research. ResultsInternal consistency of items belonging to the respective questionnaire domains was moderate to high with estimated Cronbach’s α values ranging from 0.67 to 0.84. Estimated item-domain correlations indicated moderate to high measurement performance for the domains norm, control and beliefs, whereas weak to moderate correlations resulted for the constructs content and intent. Estimate imprecisions of factor loadings (95% confidence interval widths) were considerable for the questionnaire domains content and intent. ConclusionThe study findings provide initial evidence on face validity and appropriate measurement properties of the POLIQ based on a convenient sample of decision-makers in social and health policy. Larger validation studies in relevant populations are needed to further establish psychometric properties and utility of the POLIQ.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 10060
Emad Mohamed ◽  
Parinaz Jafari ◽  
Adam Chehouri ◽  
Simaan AbouRizk

Executed outdoors in high-wind areas, adverse weather conditions represent a significant risk to onshore wind farm construction activities. While methods for considering historical weather data during pre-construction scheduling are available, approaches capable of quantitatively assessing how short-term weather fluctuations may impact upcoming construction activities have yet to be developed. This study is proposing a hybrid simulation-based approach that uses short-term precipitation, wind speed, and temperature forecasts together with planned and as-built activity durations to develop lookahead (e.g., upcoming 14-day) schedules for improved project planning and control. Functionality and applicability of the method was demonstrated on a case study of a 40 MW onshore wind project, and the method was validated using event validity, face validation, and sensitivity analysis. As expected, favorable weather conditions experienced during the tested lookahead periods resulted in a negligible impact (less than 10% reduction) on the productivity of weather-sensitive activities, which translated into a project delay of one day. The responsiveness of the framework was confirmed through sensitivity analysis, which demonstrated a 50% reduction in productivity resulting from poor weather conditions. The ability of the method to provide decision-support not currently offered by commercially-available scheduling systems was confirmed by subject experts, who endorsed the ability of the method to enhance lookahead scheduling and to facilitate the monitoring and control of weather impact uncertainty on project durations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ismael A. Contreras-Guillén ◽  
Sara Leeson ◽  
Rocio V. Gili ◽  
Belén Carlino ◽  
Daniel Xutuc ◽  

Background: Latin American countries show a fast-growing rate of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and diet is a critical risk factor that must be properly assessed. Automated dietary assessment tools to collect 24-h dietary recalls (24HR) are lacking in Argentina.Objective: This study aimed to develop an open-access automated tool (MAR24) for collecting 24HR using a multiple pass method and a database containing foods and recipes commonly consumed in Argentina.Methods: MAR24 was developed based on data from 1,285 24HR provided by male and female participants aged 18 to 68 years from the six Argentinian geographical regions. The main structure and interface of the tool were designed using Visual Basic for Applications programming language in Excel Microsoft Office 365, integrating the five steps of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) for the application of 24HR in Spanish. The tool underwent alpha testing and expert assessment to address structural and usability issues. Critical feedback and face validation from researchers and experienced dietitians, and repeated testing to collect 24HR were used to adjust and improve the tool.Results: A total of 968 food items and 100 standard Argentinian recipes were added to its database. MAR24 allows the estimation of the nutrient profile of dietary intake. The analytic food composition includes energy and 50 nutrients including water, macronutrients, total dietary fiber, total sugar, 10 minerals, 19 vitamins, eight fatty acids, cholesterol, ethyl alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine. MAR24 includes a user manual and technical manual to guide users to apply changes (e.g., add foods or recipes, or change food designation according to local terms) to fit different research and clinical applications.Conclusions: MAR24 is the first tool that uses the AMPM methodology for 24HR applications in Argentina. The tool may be used in clinical practice and clinical trials for monitoring purposes, and in validation of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) for nutritional epidemiology studies addressing dietary-associated risk factors for NCDs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (3) ◽  
pp. 97-104
Azlina Wati Nikmat ◽  
Zahir Izuan Azhar ◽  
Norley Shuib ◽  
Nurul Azreen Hashim

Background: Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) has been widely used in assessing depression in elderly population. Using the Ministry of Health Malaysia definition for elderly, this study aimed to examine the construct validity and reliability of the GDS (Malay version) in elderly with cognitive impairment in Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional validation study involving 219 elderlies with cognitive impairment was conducted using universal sampling method. Participants aged 60 years old and above, scored less than 11 for the short mini mental state examination (SMMSE), have sufficient command of the Malay or English language, residing in the government nursing homes and attending memory clinics in government hospitals in Klang Valley were sampled. The GDS-15 English version underwent adaptation, translation, face validation and field testing to produce the Malay version. Psychometric analysis was performed using the exploratory factor analysis and its internal consistency was examined. Results: Mean age of participants were 72.61 ± 7.79. Majority were male (50.7%), Malay (50.2%), studied at least until primary school (71.7%) and stayed at nursing homes (50.2%). Construct validity showed significant Bartlett’s test of sphericity (Chi-square = 1,340.058, P < 0.001) and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test of 0.90. Factor loadings for each item in the depression domain were satisfactory ranging from 0.42 to 0.83. Factor loadings for each item in the psychosocial activities’ domain were satisfactory ranging from 0.53 to 0.76. For the questionnaire reliability analysis, the total Cronbach’s alpha for the final model was satisfactory, with and overall Cronbach’s alpha of 0.89. Cronbach’s alpha value for the depression and psychosocial activities domain was 0.861 and 0.80, respectively. Conclusion: The GDS (Malay version) is a valid and reliable tool to screen for depression in elderly with cognitive impairment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (40) ◽  
pp. 180-192
Mohammad Azri Amatan ◽  
Crispina Gregory K Han ◽  
Vincent Pang

The absence of a context factor evaluation study instrument for the implementation of STEM education elements led to this study being implemented. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Contextual Factors Questionnaire for the Implementation of STEM Education Elements in teacher teaching and learning. Based on the literature reviewed and analysis of the existing relevant questionnaires, the constructs and items identified contributing to the context of the implementation of STEM elements in teacher teaching and learning were successfully developed. The Context Factor Questionnaire went through face validation and content validity involving 13 experts, meanwhile, the construct validity and reliability of the instrument were checked by analyzing the questionnaire items using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) Version 25.0. A total of 825 secondary school teachers were involved in this study. The factor loading for each item was in the range of 0.538 to 0.819, while the reliability value (alpha) of each item was, a = 0.965. The validity and reliability results indicate the instrument is suitable to be administered for the actual study.

Reem D. Montesur

This study entitled coping with the challenges in teaching MAPEH subjects among the non-specialized teachers of District 4 in Laguna was conducted to specifically answer the following questions; What is the demographic profile of the Teachers in MAPEH in terms of; Age; Gender; Years in Service; Educational Attainment and Specialization? What is the coping mechanism of the Teachers in MAPEH in terms of: Time Management; Academic Advice and Mentoring; Appraisal Focused; Emotional-Focused; Occupation- focused coping? Do the coping mechanism used by teachers significantly affect the performance of non-specialized teachers teaching MAPEH of District 4 in Laguna? The study utilized a descriptive design to determine the coping mechanism of the non-specialized teachers in MAPEH. The main source data of this study was the survey questionnaire which was prepared by the researcher and statistically treated by the use of simple descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and the mean to determine the significant effect on the performance of the non-specialized teachers in MAPEH of the District of 4 in Laguna. In order to conduct this study, letters were sent to the Schools Divisions Superintendent Dr. Marites A. Ibanez, asking permission and approval to conduct the study, and to the School Principals of the selected schools, asking to distribute questionnaires to the ones teaching MAPEH. Preparation of self-made questionnaire by the researcher followed. The researcher-made questionnaire was checked by the thesis adviser. Face validation of the contents of the questionnaire was done by the adviser of the researcher and other persons with specialization in the field. They were vital members of the education team. Researchers use purposive sampling when they want to access a particular subset of people, as all participants of a study are selected because they fit a particular profile. Each individual was chosen entirely by chance and each member of the population had an equal chance of being included in the sample. The respondents of the study consisted of fifty non-major or non-specialized in MAPEH inn District 4 in Laguna. The purpose of the study may offer literature and findings that may be useful in the conduct of future studies more particularly in the context of communication considering the stressor and how to cope with the challenges of the teachers in teaching a non-major subject. Copies of the questionnaire were multiplied based on the number of the respondents. Then it was administered. With confidentiality, the gathered information was transferred in a tally sheet. Subsequently, codes were assigned to each indicator. The encoded data were given to the researcher’s statistician for the descriptive analysis. The gathered data were interpreted and presented in textual and tabular forms and appropriate interpretation was made. The methods used was statistical to analyze and interpret the data gathered, the weighted mean and the F-test formula which is the statistical test in which the test statistic has an F-distribution under the null hypothesis. It is most often used when comparing statistical models that have been fitted to a data set, in order to identify the model that best fits the population from which the data were sampled. The implication of this research is to find out the importance of how teachers of MAPEH especially the non-majors become aware of learning and dealing with teaching challenges. Have an important mechanism for handling situations related to MAPEH teaching. The result showed that the coping challenges in teaching MAPEH subjects had no significant effect on the performance of the non-specialize Teachers teaching MAPEH subjects of District 4 in Laguna, and therefore the hypothesis was also rejected. KEYWORDS: Coping Challenges, Coping mechanism, Non-Specialized, MAPEH, Stressor

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