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Author(s):  
Celso Maran de Oliveira

This research aims to promote a discussion on how to characterize an ecologically dysfunctional municipality, in terms directly linked to environmental legal noncompliance, and how it can impact the axes of Environmental Democracy, based on the identification of institutionalized environmental conflicts by governmental agencies that have a duty to conduct investigations and punish its offenders. The methodology used was a documental analysis of works published on the subject in books, specialized magazines, scientific articles available in libraries or on the internet; and the analysis of a case study, which took place in a medium-sized municipality in the state of São Paulo. Using the methodology, we were able to characterize ecologically dysfunctional municipalities, and their impacts on the structural axes of Environmental Democracy, in order to provide access to information, increase citizen participation, and resolve environmental conflicts.


Urbanisation ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 245574712110408
Author(s):  
Devesh Kapur ◽  
Neelanjan Sircar ◽  
Milan Vaishnav

Urbanisation in India is reshaping established social and economic patterns of behaviour in ways that scholars are struggling to analyse. This article introduces this special issue presenting new empirical research on the interconnections between gender, social change and urbanisation in India. It does so by relying on a unique dataset drawn from nearly 15,000 households across four consequential urban clusters—Dhanbad, Indore, Patna and Varanasi—in North India. The collection of articles in this issue informs new inquiries into women’s employment, women’s agency and the construction and shaping of social attitudes. Specifically, the articles disentangle the practical barriers to women’s economic empowerment, measure how employment and household dynamics shape women’s agency and explore ways in which status hierarchies and variation in access to information colour women’s social attitudes and political preferences. Collectively, they demonstrate the uneven nature of gender empowerment in the shadow of an urbanising, but highly stratified economy and society.


Author(s):  
Ana Muñoz-Miquel

The wider access to information and the tendency toward patient education have increased the demand for medical texts aimed at a wide, non-specialized, heterogeneous audience. In this context, it is essential to know what procedures are required to make specialized knowledge accessible to non-experts. This paper presents a corpus-based exploratory study that describes the procedures employed to reformulate, intralingually, medical knowledge from a highly specialized genre, the original article (OA), into a genre derived directly from it but addressed to laymen, namely, the summary for patients (SP). The linguistic and textual changes that take place when translating an OA into an SP are taken as the basis for explaining the reformulation procedures used. The results of the study contribute to the characterization of the SP from a text genre perspective, and provide keys to writing and reformulating for both medical translators and experts in the field, who are often called upon to carry out these intralingual translations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ting-Chun Kuo ◽  
Quan-Yang Duh ◽  
Yi-Chia Wang ◽  
Chieh-Wen Lai ◽  
Kuen-Yuan Chen ◽  
...  

ObjectivesIntraoperative neuromonitoring has not been routinely applied in early experience with the transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA). Because the preparation and surgical interventions are much different from conventional thyroidectomies, most endocrine surgeons willing to adapt to TOETVA lack access to information regarding the practice pattern and proficiency in the learning curve. We aimed to investigate the outcomes and to define the learning curve for TOETVA in this study.MethodsA retrospective analysis was used on patients who underwent TOETVA at our hospital between December 2016 and July 2019. The cumulative sum graphic model was used to implement the learning curve as a surrogate for procedural proficiency.ResultsThe 119 patients had a mean age of 44.65 years and a mean body mass index of 22.49 k/m2, including 107 women, 20 thyroiditis, and 106 hemithyroidectomy. The learning curve revealed two phases, an initial (35 cases) and a mature (84 cases) phase, for surgeons based on operation time (144.2 vs. 114.2 min, p = 0.0001). There were more bilateral thyroidectomies (15.5% vs. 0, p = 0.0100), larger indicated nodules (6.06 cm3vs. 3.32 cm3, p = 0.0468), or larger thyroids to resect (16.38 cm3vs. 8.75 cm3, p = 0.0001) in the mature phase. Procedure-related complications decreased significantly in the mature phase in comparison to the initial phase (3.57% vs. 31.43%, p = 0.0001).ConclusionsThe learning curve of TOETVA with neuromonitoring is 35 cases. With the accumulation of proficiency, the indications will expand. Step-by-step improvements from the experience of each case can reduce procedure-related complications.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258865
Author(s):  
Carmen Vives-Cases ◽  
Daniel La Parra-Casado ◽  
Erica Briones-Vozmediano ◽  
Sebastià March ◽  
Ana María García-Navas ◽  
...  

Socioeconomic crisis and humanitarian disasters can cause increased stress for women who experience inter-partner violence (IPV). This study analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on this important issue, their related health and social services and working conditions from the perspectives of professionals in different sectors. Forty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with 47 professionals (44 women and 3 men) from 40 different entities (September 2020—April 2021). This content analysis suggests that the pandemic and its associated prevention measures have had a negative impact on women exposed to IPV and their children, which affected their social wellbeing. Professionals described burnout, difficult and slow administrative processes, and problems with coordination and access to information. These negative impacts were mitigated, in part, by the work of professionals, but this suggests that a series of key strategies are needed to improve the response capacity of the service sector to IPV in situations of crisis. These improvements are related to the availability of human and material resources; an efficient coordination network between the professionals from different sectors; existence of informal support networks in the community; protocols/procedures and prior training for better implementation; and greater flexibility and accessibility of basic services that benefit women who experience IPV.


2021 ◽  
pp. 026666692110494
Author(s):  
Essam Mansour

The key purpose of this study is to look into Egyptian physicians' knowledge and use of coronavirus-related mHealth apps. The study used a quantitative approach in the form of a self-administered questionnaire in January 2021.The population of the study included 203 Egyptian physicians, 56% of whom were males and 43.8% of whom were females, ranging in age from 36 to 55 years and with work experience ranging from 11 to 25 years. Many Egyptian physicians were described as advanced mobile phone users who were aware of the use of coronavirus-related mHealth apps and had used them for one to two hours per day for seven to twelve months. Many physicians first learned about these apps through social media, family, and the media. Physicians' homes were discovered to be the most popular location for accessing these apps. The most popular platforms for physicians were those based on Android. According to many physicians, the most frequently recommended apps are “coronavirus symptoms apps” and “coronavirus health monitoring apps”. Accessing coronavirus-related services, communicating with peers, and sharing data were among the most important tasks for physicians. Many physicians agreed that these apps provide a lot of information about the coronavirus, increase access to information, and allow them to communicate with one another, but they also agreed that they take a long time, violate privacy, and may even lead to social isolation. Many physicians have expressed trust in these applications. More than half of the physicians stated that they “usually” recommend these apps to their patients. The most significant barriers to using coronavirus-related mHealth apps identified by Egyptian physicians surveyed in this study are a lack of time and concerns about personal data privacy and security.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sheila Frances Dunn ◽  
Sarah Munro ◽  
Courtney Devane ◽  
Edith Guilbert ◽  
Dahn Jeong ◽  
...  

BACKGROUND Virtual communities of practice (VCoPs) have been used to support innovation and quality in clinical care. The drug mifepristone was introduced into Canada in 2017 for medical abortion. We created a VCoP to support implementation of this medical abortion practice across Canada. OBJECTIVE To describe the development and utilization of the Canadian Abortion Providers Support-Communauté de pratique canadienne sur l’avortement (CAPS-CPCA) VCoP and explore physicians’ experience with CAPS-CPCA and their views on its value in supporting implementation. METHODS This was a mixed methods intrinsic case study of Canadian clinicians’ utilization and perceptions of the CAPS-CPCA VCoP during the first two years of a novel practice. We sampled both physicians who joined the CAPS-CPCA VCoP, and those who were interested to provide the novel practice but did not join the VCoP. We designed the VCoP features to address known barriers to implementation of medical abortion in primary care. Our secure on-line platform allowed asynchronous access to information, practice resources, clinical support, discussion forums and email notices. We collected data from the platform, surveys of physician members, and interviews with member and non-member physicians. We analyzed descriptive statistics for website metrics, physician characteristics and practices, and their use of the VCoP. We used qualitative methods to explore their experiences and perceptions of the VCoP. RESULTS From January 1, 2017 to June 30, 2019, 430 physicians representing all provinces and territories in Canada joined the VCoP. Of the 222 who completed a baseline survey, 70.3% were family physicians, 80.2% were female and 35% had no prior abortion experience. Twelve months after baseline, 77.9% of those surveyed had provided mifepristone abortion and one-third said the website was helpful or very helpful. Logging into the site was burdensome for some, but members valued downloadable resources (eg. patient information, consent forms, clinical checklists), and found email announcements helpful for keeping up to date with changing regulations. Few asked clinical questions to the VCoP experts, but members felt this feature was important for isolated or rural providers. Information collected through member polls about regulatory barriers to implementation was used in the project’s knowledge translation activities with policymakers to mitigate those barriers. CONCLUSIONS A VCoP developed to address known and discovered barriers to uptake of a novel medical abortion method was successful in engaging and supporting physicians from across Canada to implement this practice, including many with no prior abortion experience. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT RR2-doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028443


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3D) ◽  
pp. 655-668
Author(s):  
Elvira E. Samatova ◽  
Olha B. Nesterenko ◽  
Oleg A. Dvoryankin ◽  
Sergey M. Grigoriev ◽  
Irina V. Popovicheva

The study aims to assess the effectiveness of the current distance learning process in the higher education institutions, to identify the types of distance learning, negative and positive aspects of its implementation, to describe the prospects and approaches to solving the problems of distance education at universities. The study was based on the analysis of the questionnaire survey of lecturers throughout Ukraine and the Kyrgyz Republic results, which were received in the period from March to April 2020. The novelty of the research conducted in the article was to find solutions to the emerging difficulties in the pedagogical staff of Ukraine and the Kyrgyz Republic during the first periods of the pandemic outbreak. The proposed methods can be used to achieve long-term practical results in providing support to higher education institutions, their leaders, lecturers and students in organizing distance learning, as well as to overcome barriers to lecturers' access to information on the usage of digital tools for distance learning.


Author(s):  
Dionne Mitcham ◽  
Morgan Taylor ◽  
Curtis Harris

In today’s society, the use of social media has increased the public’s desire to receive information quickly and to be able to interact with communicators. During a disaster, the trend to turn to social media for information has risen in popularity. Society’s reliance on social media and quick access to information has led the field of emergency management and the role of a Public Information Officer to adapt to include social media as a crisis communication channel for information dispersal. Existing frameworks for the use of social media as a channel for crisis communications provide guidance for emergency management agencies across all levels of government but fail to account for the varying access to communication resources at the local level. Due to the differing access to communication resources and unique relationships with stakeholders at the local level, there is a need for guidance on how local emergency management agencies can use social media to disperse essential information. The proposed Communication Hub Framework utilizes local emergency management professionals’ relationships with key community stakeholders to aid in the distribution of essential information to community members via social media during a disaster.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Patrick Mapulanga ◽  
Dorothy Doreen Eneya ◽  
Diston Store Chiweza

Purpose The purpose of this paper was to assess the similarities and differences between the Political Parties and the Access to Information Acts in Malawi. While political parties are largely funded by donations that are frequently kept as a secret, the Access to Information Act does not include political party funding among the categories of non-disclosed information. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on the qualitative content analysis of the legislation in Malawi. Content analysis of the two pieces of legislation was adopted. This paper is a review of the literature and an examination of Malawi's Political Parties and Access to Information Acts. The document study was supplemented by a review of related literature on the two legislations. Findings The Political Parties Act prohibits the government, ministries and departments from directly or indirectly funding political parties. The Access to Information Act to ensure information generated by Malawi government ministries, departments and agencies is readily made available by the citizens when needed or requested. The Access to Information Act does not exempt political parties from disclosing their funding sources. The two acts work in tandem to promote accountability and transparency in political party funding and sources. Research limitations/implications This study is limited to Malawi's Political Parties and Access to Information Acts. Only the South African related acts have informed the paper. However, several acts within developing countries would have greatly aided the paper. Practical implications The implementation of the two pieces of legislation has implications for the balance between disclosure and non-disclosure of political party funding. Oversight functions and credible human resource capacity are needed in both political parties and government enforcement institutions. Social implications Oversight functions by the Administrator-General through the Registrar of Political Parties and the Malawi Human Rights Commission are key to the implementation of Malawi's Political Parties and Access to Information Acts, respectively. Proper enforcement of the oversight functions is expected to result in an open, transparent and accountable Malawian society. Originality/value Various players are needed in the accountability chain to protect disclosure and non-disclosure of information. Very little information is known on the powers, functions and duties of office bearers capable of enforcing legislation to keep political parties' funding clean. Little is known on how the citizens can access information regarding political parties funding.


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