hydration phases
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2022 ◽  
Vol 153 ◽  
pp. 106691
Alisa Machner ◽  
Marie H. Bjørndal ◽  
Harald Justnes ◽  
Lucija Hanžič ◽  
Aljoša Šajna ◽  

S. Rahimbaev ◽  
N. Onoprienko ◽  
O. Sal'nikova

Thermodynamic analysis of the hydration processes of tricalcium silicate 3CaO•SiO2 is difficult due to the unreliability of the initial data for hydration products. In addition, there are disagreements about the basicity of the hydration phases (3CaO•SiO2•3H2O or 2CaO•SiO2•2H2O). For the latter, there is no free energy of formation in the reference literature. There are also no data on the water solubility of these calcium hydrosilicates. The proposed values of ∆G0298 for these hydrosilicates, equal to 1064,3 and 639,7, as well as the enthalpies of formation (∆Н0298), equal to 1157,2 and 696,9 kcal/mol, re-spectively. Further thermodynamic calculations were performed using these values. To calculate the composition of the liquid phase, a simplified Born-Haber cycle is used. The values of the calculated heat release of tricalcium silicate with the formation of C3S2H3 and C2SH2, obtained using the pro-posed values of enthalpies, differ little from each other and are close to the experimental data. The calculated solubility of C3S2H3 is 0,7 g/l CaO, and C2SH2 is 0,92 g/l CaO. Since the solubility of C3S2H3 is much lower than of Ca(OH)2 (portlandite), which is formed during hydration of tricalcium silicate in large quantities, C3S2H3 is unstable under these conditions and its basicity increases. It is suggested that C3S2H3 is the main hydration product of CEM III and other cements with a high content of active mineral additives, and C2SH2 is CEM I and CEM II.

Minerals ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (7) ◽  
pp. 590 ◽  
Moisés Frías ◽  
Raquel Vigil de la Villa ◽  
Sagrario Martínez-Ramírez ◽  
Lucía Fernández-Carrasco ◽  
Ernesto Villar-Cociña ◽  

This study analysed the fine particle (<5 mm) waste generated during siliceous or calcareous (depending on the composition of the original aggregate) concrete waste crushing. In the absence of industrial applications, such waste is amassed in open-air stockpiles on construction and demolition wastes (CDW) management plant grounds. The aim pursued was to find an outlet for that material in the cement industry. The starting waste, sourced from six Spanish management facilities, was characterised for its chemical and mineralogical composition, physical properties and pozzolanicity. The mineralogical phases in the CDW/lime system and their variations during the pozzolanic reaction were likewise identified. The findings showed that the fine waste consisted primarily in quartz, calcite, micas and feldspars, with smaller fractions of kaolinite and cement anhydrous phases. No portland cement hydration phases were identified. All six types analysed exhibited medium to low pozzolanicity, with the highest values recorded for the siliceous waste. Ettringite, C–S–H gels and calcium aluminate hydrates (C4AH13, C4AcH12) were identified during the pozzolanic reaction in CDW/lime system. Therefore, this type of waste can be reused as supplementary cementitious material with low-medium pozzolanic activity.

2017 ◽  
Vol 896 ◽  
pp. 97-103 ◽  
Wen Hai Chen ◽  
Cheng You Wu ◽  
Hui Fang Zhang ◽  
Wu Yu Zhang ◽  
Bo Kun Chen ◽  

Alternating current impedance has been used to study effects of hydration stages and molar ratio on the pore structure and hydration characters of basic magnesium sulfate cement. The alternating current impedance spectra of at early hydration almost appears as a straight line because none crystal hydration phases form. And it appears high frequency semicircle at late hydration stage because of decreasing of porosity and amount of 5Mg (OH)2 ·MgSO4·7H2O gradually form with ages. Besides, alternating current impedance spectra differences among basic magnesium sulfate, magnesium oxysulfate and magnesium oxychloride cement have been studied. These differences indicate that additives such as citric acid may change the structure and charge characteristics of MgO hydration layer which make tends to form more 5Mg (OH)2 ·MgSO4·7H2O phase in basic magnesium sulfate cement than that in magnesium oxysulfate cement. The higher pore solution resistance of BMS cement is the main factor of better steel-protection.

2015 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 46-52 ◽  
Rosario García Giménez ◽  
Raquel Vigil de la Villa ◽  
Sara Goñi ◽  
Moisés Frías

2011 ◽  
Vol 23 (6) ◽  
pp. 265-275 ◽  
Astrid Gruskovnjak ◽  
Barbara Lothenbach ◽  
Frank Winnefeld ◽  
Beat Münch ◽  
Renato Figi ◽  

2010 ◽  
Vol 168-170 ◽  
pp. 582-588
Feng Chen Zhang ◽  
De Jian Shen ◽  
Ji Kai Zhou ◽  
Zhong Hua Li

Cement hydration at early age is sometimes in a certain thermal environment probably caused by hydration heat of mass concrete as well as cement productions curing at high temperature. And phases composition and strength development in thermal environment are commonly different from those in normal curing conditions. Phases composition and strength development of concrete containing different fly ash content curing in different thermal environment are studied in this paper. Experimental results show that compressive strengths of concrete with 0.3 water to binder ratio increase with the increase of curing temperature. Splitting tensile strength of concrete not containing any fly ash curing at about 50 is the highest among those curing at temperature between 40 and 80 . For concrete with different fly ash content, splitting tensile strengths increase approximately with the increse of curing temperature. Dehydration of ettringite and formation of monosulfate solid solution and AFm at higher temperature perhaps relate to the development of concrete splitting tensile strength along with different curing temperature. Adding fly ash to binder, curing temperature at which hydration phases change occurs is raised, which helps to explain that splitting tensile strengths of concrete with different fly ash content decrease little with the increase of curing temperature between 60 and 80 .

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