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Food Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (S2) ◽  
pp. 45-50
Author(s):  
A.M. Sari ◽  
D.A. Artini ◽  
D. Ishartani ◽  
A. Nursiwi ◽  
M.Z. Zaman

In addition to soybean, Leucaena leucocephala is one of the tempe raw materials usually used in Indonesia. These tempe is only made by peoples in a few areas in the southern part of Java such as Wonogiri, Gunungkidul and Pacitan. For some purposes, such as cooking ingredients, tempe is deliberately fermented longer than usual to obtain a savory taste. In a previous study, we had studied leucaena tempe or people known as lamtoro tempe that process in Wonogiri and reported that there had been a change in characteristic during fermentation until over-fermented tempe. Therefore, in this research, we analyzed the change in the chemical and microbiological characteristic of lamtoro tempe from Pacitan during continued fermentation. This research showed that during the fermentation process, mold, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) persisted for up to 126 hrs of fermentation time. The growth of yeast and mold tend to decrease while LAB continued to increase until it reached 11 log CFU/mL. In addition, the moisture content, ash content, soluble protein levels, pH and titrated acid increased during continued fermentation time. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid were the highest amino acids by weight percentage. Both amino acids have an important role in the sensory characteristics of lamtoro tempe.


Author(s):  
Ika Amalia Kartika

This research optimised the application of a hexane-methanol mixture as a binary solvent for the concurrent oil-resin extraction and separation from Calophyllum seeds on a pilot scale, in a direct stage. The optimum oil and resin yields were determined by optimising the extraction conditions using response surface methodology and a second order polynomial model. The extraction conditions affected the oil and resin yields, with the extraction time as the biggest influencing factor. Optimum oil (65%) and resin (16%) yields were predicted to be obtained at 5.2 h and 433 rpm. The model validation with these extraction conditions showed that the predicted results and actual oil (62%) and resin (15%) yields were in passable agreement. The oil was composed of 75.4% triglycerides with a density of 0.874 g·cm<sup>–3</sup>, a viscosity of 26.4 mPa·s<sup>–1</sup>, an acid value of 46.4 mg KOH·g<sup>–1</sup>, an iodine value of 98.0 g iodine·100 g<sup>–1</sup>, trace water and sediment contents, and zero ash content. The resin had a viscosity of 4 694.8 mPa·s<sup>–1</sup>, a total phenolic content of a 4.51% gallic acid equivalent, an antioxidant activity of an 8.82 mg ascorbic acid equivalent·g<sup>–1</sup>, and an acid value of 126.2 mg KOH·g<sup>–1</sup>.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 460-468
Author(s):  
A. Bello ◽  
D. A. Machido ◽  
A. I. Mohammed-Dabo ◽  
S. A. Ado

Researchers are showing interest in laccase because it is able to degrade several lignocellulosic biomass. It is important to optimize laccase production to achieve higher yield at a lower cost using agricultural wastes. This study was aimed at optimizing the culture conditions for laccase production. Previously isolated and characterized laccase producing Curvularia lunata was collected from the laboratory of Microbiology department, ABU, Zaria. Maize cobs which were used as substrate were collected from Seed Processing Unit of Institute for Agricultural Research, Zaria and the proximate composition of the substrate was determined according to AOAC guideline. The optimum fermentation type for laccase production was determined after which the culture conditions for laccase production were optimized. Laccase activity was determination by guaiacol assay. The proximate compositions of the maize cob were found to be Moisture content (3.18%), Crude protein (2.50%), Crude fat (32.20%), Crude fibre (3.15), Ash content (1.88%) and Carbohydrate content (57.09%). Higher laccase activity was recorded under solid state fermentation compared to submerged fermentation. The optimum culture conditions were found to be inoculum size 3 x 5 mm, pH 5, incubation temperature 30 oC and incubation period of 6 days. The culture conditions for laccase production by Curvularia lunata using maize cob as substrate were optimized


Author(s):  
. Junianto ◽  
Maria M. N. Mametapo ◽  
Arijjal Fadhli Aulia ◽  
. Fitriyanti ◽  
Nabila Qurrata A'yun

Chitosan extracted from shrimp or crab can be made as raw material for biodegradable packaging. The purpose of this article is to review the advantages of chitosan as a raw material for packaging, the extraction method of chitosan, the properties and quality of chitosan, biodegradable packaging, manufacturing methods, and properties of packaging made from chitosan and the development of chitosan products for packaging materials. Chitosan is a raw material for packaging that can be parsed, commonly called biodegradable packaging, non-toxic and anti-bacterial. The method of making chitosan is removing minerals and removing protein from shrimp, crab, or ranjungan shells to obtain chitin, followed by the chitin acetylation process to obtain chitosan. The quality of chitosan is listed in SNI No.7949 (2013), where this standardization includes color, moisture content, ash content, nitrogen content, and degree of deacetylation. Chitosan has been used for edible coating material and edible film material, both of which have different manufacturing methods and characteristics. The development of chitosan as raw material for degradable packaging is that chitosan is made in nanoparticle size.


Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (6) ◽  
pp. 1035
Author(s):  
Muhammad Salman Haider ◽  
Mehmed Akif Isik ◽  
Daniele Castello ◽  
Thomas Helmer Pedersen ◽  
Lasse Aistrup Rosendahl

In this contribution, we successfully applied demineralization (i.e., solvent-assisted separation and acid washing) for the removal of carbonaceous solids and inorganics from a biocrude obtained from the catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Miscanthus. The experimental results of all six employed acids showed that 0.1 M H2SO4 was the most effective and significantly reduced metallic (Fe by 93.9%, <15 µg/g and Mg by 95.6%, 2.1 µg/g) and ash content (by 92.7% to 337 µg/g) from the already filtered biocrude. The utilized demineralizing agents caused a loss of nitrogen and of organic carbon (1% total organic carbon (TOC) and 0.058% total nitrogen (TN) in 0.1 M H2SO4). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) results clarified the nature of this loss, showing that 54% of ketones and 39% of alcohols were removed when 0.1 M H2SO4 was employed. Furthermore, FT-IR spectra remained the same before and after acid washing without affecting any functional groups. This work therefore proposes demineralization as a viable route for the removal of high inorganic content from lignocellulosic HTL biocrudes.


Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 3229
Author(s):  
Elżbieta Janowska-Renkas ◽  
Agnieszka Kaliciak ◽  
Grzegorz Janus ◽  
Jolanta Kowalska

The paper presents results of research on the impact of fly ash from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of lignite, used in quantities of 30 and 45% by mass, and the mixture of FBC and silicious fly ash in amount of 45% by mass, on properties of cement–ash mortars. Mortars were exposed to aggressive environment of 1, 3, and 5% HCl solutions for 2 years. Mortars containing 45% FBC exposed to 1% HCl solution (pH = 2) showed the highest durability from among other mortars. The growth of their strength observed after 90 days of testing in 1% HCl environment, as well as the lowest drop of strength after 730 days of exposure to this environment, resulted from the reduced amount of large pores from 20 to 200 nm in mortars containing fly ash, with simultaneous growth of smaller pores of <20 nm during testing. A beneficial effect has been demonstrated of FBC addition to cement on properties of cement–ash mortars exposed to the aggressive impact of the HCl. Mortars with FBC fly-ash content increased to 45% by mass showed higher strength values, smaller differences in linear and mass changes, and increased durability in an aggressive environment observed during 730 days of testing.


Author(s):  
Marian Wiatowski ◽  
Roksana Muzyka ◽  
Krzysztof Kapusta ◽  
Maciej Chrubasik

AbstractIn this study, the composition of tars collected during a six-day underground coal gasification (UCG) test at the experimental mine ‘Barbara’ in Poland in 2013 was examined. During the test, tar samples were taken every day from the liquid product separator and analysed by the methods used for testing properties of typical coke oven (coal) tar. The obtained results were compared with each other and with the data for coal tar. As gasification progressed, a decreasing trend in the water content and an increasing trend in the ash content were observed. The tars tested were characterized by large changes in the residue after coking and content of parts insoluble in toluene and by smaller fluctuations in the content of parts insoluble in quinoline. All tested samples were characterized by very high distillation losses, while for samples starting from the third day of gasification, a clear decrease in losses was visible. A chromatographic analysis showed that there were no major differences in composition between the tested tars and that none of the tar had a dominant component such as naphthalene in coal tar. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UCG tars is several times lower than that in coal tar. No light monoaromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes—BTEX) were found in the analysed tars, which results from the fact that these compounds, due to their high volatility, did not separate from the process gas in the liquid product separator.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. e49110615929
Author(s):  
Fernando Yano Abrao ◽  
Henrique Marques da Costa ◽  
Tatiana de Sousa Fiuza ◽  
Camila Aline Romano ◽  
Heleno Dias Ferreira ◽  
...  

Psidium guineense Swartz is a bush used in urinary tract diseases, diarrhea, and dysentery. The present study aims to perform the anatomical study of the leaves and evaluation of the chemical composition of the volatile oils from Psidium guineense Swartz leaves and fruits. The botanical material was collected in Hidrolândia, Goiás. Anatomical characterization and phytochemical screening of the leaves were performed by conventional methods. Leaf and fruit (green fruits, immature fruits, and ripe fruits) powders were submitted to hydrodistillation in the Clevenger apparatus and the identification of the chemical components of the volatile oils obtained was done by GC-MS. The leaf blade is hypoestomatic with paracytic and anisocytic stomata. Secretory cavities are observed in the central vein, mesophyll, petiole, and young stem. The powder moisture content was 7.4%. The total ash content of the leaf powder was 6.3% and the acid-insoluble ash content was 0.8%. The presence of tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the leaves were identified. Leaves volatile oil’s majority compounds were 2Z,6E-farnesol (23.1-25.4%), α-copaene (17.7-20.3%), muurola-4,10(1.4) dien-1-β-ol (5.8-6.7%), epi-α-cadinol (5.5- 6.3%), and δ-Cadinene (5.0- 5.9%). Fruits volatile oil’s majority compounds were 2Z,6E-farnesol (31.9-41.4%), α-copaene (13.3-26.6%), δ-cadinene (5.4-9.8%), γ-himachalene (3.8-6.1%), and cubenol (2.6-6.1%). This is the first report on anatomical study of the leaves, and chemical composition of volatile oils from leaves and fruits of P. guineense collected in Hidrolândia, Goiás.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shirin Ahmad

This research investigates the effect of fatigue loading on the flexural performance and self-healing behaviour of beams and link slabs made of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). The influences of fly ash content, types/size of sand, MgO agent, fatigue stress level/cycle and age are analyzed based on strength/deflection capacity recovery and residual strength/deflection/energy absorbing capacity. The deflection evolution rate and energy absorption capacity were much higher in ECC link slabs compared to their SCC counterparts. Higher energy absorption and deflection evolution rate were observed in mortar sand based ECC specimens during fatigue loading. ECC link slabs with mortar sand having 55% fly ash content have shown the best self-healing and fatigue performance attaining high residual strength, deflection and energy absorbing capacity of up to 98.3%, 95.4% and 97.1% of control specimens, respectively besides retaining multi-cracking characteristics. This research demonstrates viability of using ECC link slab for construction of joint-free bridges.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shirin Ahmad

This research investigates the effect of fatigue loading on the flexural performance and self-healing behaviour of beams and link slabs made of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). The influences of fly ash content, types/size of sand, MgO agent, fatigue stress level/cycle and age are analyzed based on strength/deflection capacity recovery and residual strength/deflection/energy absorbing capacity. The deflection evolution rate and energy absorption capacity were much higher in ECC link slabs compared to their SCC counterparts. Higher energy absorption and deflection evolution rate were observed in mortar sand based ECC specimens during fatigue loading. ECC link slabs with mortar sand having 55% fly ash content have shown the best self-healing and fatigue performance attaining high residual strength, deflection and energy absorbing capacity of up to 98.3%, 95.4% and 97.1% of control specimens, respectively besides retaining multi-cracking characteristics. This research demonstrates viability of using ECC link slab for construction of joint-free bridges.


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