Gene Region
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Janet I Collett ◽  
Stephen R Pearce

Two dimensional graphical dotplotting is adopted to identify sequence elements and their variants in lengths of DNA of up to 10 kb. Named GCAT for identification of precisely defined short sequences and their variants, its use complements the precise matching of many computational programs, including BLAST. Short reiterated search sequences are entered in the Y axis of the dotplot program to be matched at their identical and near identical sites in a sequence of interest entered in the X axis. The result is a barcode like representation of the identified sequence elements along the X axis of the dotplot. Alignments of searches and sequence landmarks provide visualization of composition and juxtapositions. The method is described here by example of characterizations of three distinctive sequences available in the annotated Drosophila melanogaster reference genome (www.flybase.org): the Jonah 99C gene region, the transcript of Dipeptidase B and the transposable element roo. Surprising observations emerging from these explorations include in frame STOP codons in the large exonic intron of Dip-B, high A content of the replicative strand of roo as TE example and similarities of its ORF and the large intron of Dip B.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 405
Author(s):  
Maide Barış

Germline genetic intervention (GGI) has been one of the most discussed topics within the bioethics literature since 2012, when the programming of CRISPR/Cas9 for a specifically targeted gene region has become possible. While some authors are optimistic about what GGI may offer, others strongly disagree and refute the use of this technology for different reasons. This paper will aim to examine one of the most widespread arguments against GGI, namely “heritability” argument, comprehensively. Firstly, it will aim to examine the moral importance of the germline. Secondly, it will try to understand three possible assumptions of the heritability argument. Then it will try to respond to these assumptions and argue that they are neither scientifically supportable nor rationally solid for rejecting GGI altogether.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 405-411


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nicole Foster ◽  
Kor-jent Van Dijk ◽  
Edward Biffin ◽  
Jennifer Young ◽  
Vicki Ann Thomson ◽  
...  

Metabarcoding of plant DNA recovered from environmental samples, termed environmental DNA (eDNA), has been used to detect invasive species, track biodiversity changes and reconstruct past ecosystems. The P6 loop of the trnL intron is the most widely utilized gene region for metabarcoding plants due to the short fragment length and subsequent ease of recovery from degraded DNA, which is characteristic of environmental samples. However, the taxonomic resolution for this gene region is limited, often precluding species level identification. Additionally, targeting gene regions using universal primers can bias results as some taxa will amplify more effectively than others. To increase the ability of DNA metabarcoding to better resolve flowering plant species (angiosperms) within environmental samples, and reduce bias in amplification, we developed a multi-gene targeted capture method that simultaneously targets 20 chloroplast gene regions in a single assay across all flowering plant species. Using this approach, we effectively recovered multiple chloroplast gene regions for three species within artificial DNA mixtures down to 0.001 ng/uL of DNA. We tested the detection level of this approach, successfully recovering target genes for 10 flowering plant species. Finally, we applied this approach to sediment samples containing unknown compositions of environmental DNA and confidently detected plant species that were later verified with observation data. Targeting multiple chloroplast gene regions in environmental samples enabled species-level information to be recovered from complex DNA mixtures. Thus, the method developed here, confers an improved level of data on community composition, which can be used to better understand flowering plant assemblages in environmental samples.


Author(s):  
Erol Atay ◽  
Mustafa Ersal ◽  
Kemal Karabağ ◽  
İsmail Turan Çetin

Striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena) is one of the species in danger of extinction and categorized globally as “Under Threatened Organism”. From time to time, different tissue samples and carcasses of the striped hyena are reported in different regions of Anatolia. In this study, 571 bp length of Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit II (COX 2) of mitochondiral DNA from hair, ears, nails and teeth specimens from six striped hyaenas were amplified and sequenced to determined phylogenetic relationships between close and distant species related to hyaena. Tissue samples using in this study were found randomly at different times in Hatay province, Turkey. According to our results, all colected samples located in Hatay region are the members of H. hyaena species. Moreover, this research is the first molecular research using COX2 gene region for phylogenetic analysis in Turkey. Further investigation can be performed on studies that suggest determining phylogenetic status of striped hyaenas.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
handan Şapcı Selamoğlu

Abstract The genetic resources and biological diversity of countries are very important. Biodiversity and genetic resources should be protected, especially as endemic species. In this concept, DNA barcoding studies are an effective way to identify an unknown taxon and protected the biodiversity of a country. Astragalus argaeus and A. stenosemioides are narrow endemic species from Mt. Erciyes, Turkey. To determine its phylogenetic relationships and DNA barcoding, sequence data from the chloroplast DNA (matK region) were analyzed by parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. In this study, A. argaeus, A. stenosemioides samples, and 23 sequences from GenBank, including a closely related species were performed. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the matK gene region could clearly distinguish A. argaeus and A. stenosemioides from its closely related species. DNA barcoding surveys can contribute to taxonomic and biodiversity research, various molecular ecology, and population genetics studies. Also, it is possible to determine the species by separating the matK DNA gene region, which is one of the molecular characters, and A. argaeus and A. stenosemioides have been successfully barcoded for the first time; therefore, it has been shown that this gene region can be used for barcoding.


Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Simona Prencipe ◽  
Davide Spadaro

Italy is the largest tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)-producing country in Europe with a cultivated area of 97,092 ha and a production of 5,798,103 tons/year in 2018 (FAOSTAT, 2020). During July 2020, a postharvest rot occurred in fresh tomatoes ‘Piccadilly’ cultivated in Sicily (Pachino, RG) and commercialized in Northern Italy (Torino, TO). Affected fruit showed circular black rot on the blossom end. The rot had an average incidence of 7% of the fruits, in three batches of 100 tomatoes each. Isolation was carried out by cutting pieces of symptomatic rotten fruits. The fragments were surface-disinfected with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 30 s, rinsed in sterile water and air-dried. Five fragments were cut and plated onto Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) supplemented with streptomycin, and incubated at 24±1°C in the dark for 5 days. Representative colonies were transferred onto PCA and morphological observations were performed as described by Woudenberg et al. (2017) after 7 and 14 days. Colonies were olive-green, flat with regular margins, while conidia were mid to deep brown, solitary, ovoid or ellipsoid (17.39 µm ± 2.04 × 10.59 ± 3.30 µm) with transverse and longitudinal septa. Based on morphological observations the isolates were identified as Stemphylium eturmiunum (Simmons, 2001). Species identification was confirmed by sequencing rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) using primers ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990), cmdA gene region using primers CALDF1/CALDR2 (Lawrence et al. 2013) and gapdh gene region with primers gpd1/gpd2 (Berbee et al. 1999). Six amplified sequences per region (ANos. from MW158387 to MW158398 and from MW159746 to MW159751) were BLAST-searched in GenBank, obtaining >99 % identity with ex-type strain of S. eturmiunum strain CBS 109845 (AN° KU850541) for ITS, and 100% identity (ANos. KU850831 and KU850689) for cmdA and gapdh, respectively. To confirm the species, DNA sequences were aligned with CLUSTAL W with closely related species of Stemphylium reported in the last revision of the genus (Woudenberg et al., 2017), and a phylogenetic analysis with the Neighbor Joining method based on Tamura Nei model + Gamma distribution (bootstrap 1,000) was performed. The phylogenetic tree confirmed the identity of the isolates as S. eturmiunum (Suppl. Fig. 1). To fulfil Koch’s postulates, pathogenicity tests were conducted on S. lycopersicum cv. Piccadilly fruits. Tomatoes were surface sterilized with 1% sodium hypochlorite and air-dried. Fruits (5 fruits per isolates) were wounded (two injuries of 3 mm each) and inoculated with a spore suspension of 1x105 cell/mL obtained from 15 days-old PCA cultures, as in Spadoni et al. (2020. Negative controls were wounded and inoculated with sterile deionized water. Symptoms occurred on all fruits inoculated after 12 days at 24±1°C and S. eturmiunum was re-isolated from inoculated fruits on PCA (Suppl. Fig. 2), control remained symptomless. Re-isolated colonies were molecularly identified as S. eturmiunum. In Italy a different species, S. vesicarium, was reported on tomato (Porta-Puglia, 1981), while S. eturmiunum was described as a postharvest pathogen of tomato in China, Greece, New Zealand and the United States (Woudenberg et al., 2017; Vaghefi et al., 2020), and from fruits commercialized in Danish and Spanish markets (Andersen and Frisvad, 2004). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. eturmiunum causing postharvest rot on tomato in Italy. The occurrence of this pathogen further stresses the importance of careful handling to prevent fruit crackings and of preharvest control strategies.


Author(s):  
Davide Nespoli ◽  
Irene Pellegrino ◽  
Marco Galaverni ◽  
Romolo Caniglia ◽  
Joseph Sunyer ◽  
...  

AbstractMarmora’s Warbler (Curruca sarda) and Balearic Warbler (C. balearica) are allopatric sibling species and were recently split mostly based on morphological and ethological characteristics. Here we provide the first phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses of this species complex to support the taxonomic status of C. sarda and C. balearica in light of integrative taxonomy. We sampled the two taxa in most of their breeding ranges and we sequenced three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene region. All C. balearica individuals had private haplotypes for the four markers and formed monophyletic clades. Genetic distances between the two taxa were comparable with those found between other species belonging to the Curruca genus. Furthermore, most of the genetic variance was expressed at the interspecific level, rather than between different populations within taxa or between individuals within populations. Our results strongly support the current taxonomic status of these two warblers as distinct species.


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