likelihood method
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
B. M. Khan ◽  
M. Sabir ◽  
M. N. Alyemeni ◽  
P. Kaushik ◽  
M. Saeed ◽  

Abstract This study aimed to identify the phylogenetic similarities among the muntjac (Muntiacus spp.). The phylogenetic similarities among seven major muntjac species were studied by comparing the nucleotide sequence of 16s rRNA and cytochrome b genome. Nucleotide sequences, retrieved from NCBI databases were aligned by using DNASTAR software. A phylogenetic tree was created for the selected species of muntjac by using the maximum likelihood method on MEGA7 software. The results of nucleotide sequences (16s rRNA) showed phylogenetic similarities between, the M. truongsonensis and M. rooseveltorum had the highest (99.2%) while the lowest similarities (96.8%) found between M. crinifrons and M. putaoensi. While the results of nucleotide sequences (Cty b) showed the highest similarity (100%) between M. muntjak and M. truongsonensis and the lowest s (91.5%) among M. putaoensis and M. crinifrons. The phylogenetic tree of muntjac species (16s rRNA gene) shows the main two clusters, the one including M. putaoensis, M. truongsonensis, M. rooseveltorum, and M. muntjak, and the second one including M. crinifrons and M. vuquangensis. The M. reevesi exists separately in the phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree of muntjac species using cytochrome b genes shows that the M. muntjak and M. truongsonensis are clustered in the same group.

Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Kecheng Xu ◽  
Ruiqi Zhang ◽  
Xue Li ◽  
Jinglong Zhang ◽  
Hang Zhao ◽  

Eucalyptus species are widely planted in the tropics and subtropics, and eucalyptus is among the most important cash crop in Southern China. One of the most important diseases on eucalyptus is Ceratocystis wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata Ellis & Halst., and the genus name Chalaropsis has been proposed for anamorphs of Ceratocystis species (de Beer et al. 2014). During April 2018, severely infected Eucalyptus robusta trees were observed in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. Symptomatic trees initially exhibited yellowing and wilting of foliage on individual branches, then spread to the whole canopy, sometimes followed by death of the whole tree. Reddish-brown to dark-brown discoloration in the woody xylem of affected trees, sometimes a grayish white layer of fungal growth may be seen. The disease was observed on 16% of trees surveyed. The base of trunks with typical symptoms were collected, then the discolored xylem tissues were surface disinfected with 75% ethanol for 30 s and 0.1% mercuric chloride (HgCl2) solution for 2 min, rinsed three times with sterile distilled water, plated onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and incubated at 25°C. After 6 days, a fungus was consistently observed growing from the tissue. Three isolates were obtained. In culture, colonies reaching 54mm diam within 15 days, mycelium initially white, then becoming celadon. Endoconidia unicellular, smooth, cylindrical, straight, biguttulate, 11.21 - 32.26 × 4.12 - 5.25 μm. Phialides produced on short, septate, aerial hyphae, lageniform and chain of phialoconidia (3.62 - 5.89 × 31.39 - 65.76 μm) were also observed. Chlamydospores (11.45 - 14.26 × 10.06 - 12.22 μm) were single, dark, thick-walled. Morphological characteristics of the fungus were consistent with the description of Chalaropsis thielavioides (Paulin-Mahady et al. 2002). The two of three isolates were used for molecular identification and genomic DNA was extracted from isolates (EKY2-2-1, EKY2-2-2) using the chelex-100 method (Xu et al. 2020). The ITS region of rDNA was sequenced using the procedures of Thorpe et al. (2005). Analysis of ITS sequence data (GenBank accessions MW242701, MW242702) showed that the isolates were 99% - 100% homologous to isolates of C. thielavioides from Hevea rubber, Monstera deliciosa L. and ants in China and Rosa sp. in Australia (GenBank accessions KT963172, KJ511482, KT963173 and KX954598) by BLAST analysis. Neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analysis were performed using MEGA 6.06 based on ITS sequences (Fig 1), the evolutionary distances were computed using the Maximum Composite Likelihood method. Analyses showed that both isolates (EKY2-2-1, EKY2-2-2) located on the same clade with all C. thielavioides, and clustered with the C. thielavioides strains with high bootstrap support (97% - 100%). Therefore, the fungus was identified as C. thielavioides based on morphology and molecular evidences. Pathogenicity of C. thielavioides was tested by inoculation of six one-year-old pot grown Eucalyptus citriodora seedlings. The sterilized soil of six seedlings was inoculated by drenching with 20 ml spore suspension (2.0 × 106 spores / ml). Control plants were inoculated with 20 ml of sterile distilled water. The seedlings were kept in a controlled greenhouse at 25°C and watered weekly. After one month incubation, all the isolates produced wilt symptoms, whereas control trees showed no symptoms. The original fungus was successfully re-isolated from inoculated trees and identified as C. thielavioides according to the methods described above, and no fungal growth was observed in the controls, thus satisfying Koch's postulates. Although wilt and canker caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata on eucalyptus have been previously reported in Brazil, Uruguay, Uganda, China and Pakistan (Ferreira et al. 1999; Li et al. 2014; Alam et al. 2017), eucalyptus wilt caused by C. thielavioides has not been reported anywhere. Also, wilt of rubber tree and postharvest rot on carrot caused by C. thielavioides have been reported (Li et al. 2021; Xu et al. 2020). To our knowledge, this is the first report of eucalyptus wilt caused by C. thielavioides in China.

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 59-70

Estimation of rainfall for a given return period is of utmost importance for planning and design of minor and major hydraulic structures. This can be achieved through Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) of rainfall by fitting Extreme Value family of Distributions (EVD) such as Generalized Extreme Value, Extreme Value Type-1, Extreme Value Type-2 and Generalized Pareto to the series of observed Annual 1-Day Maximum Rainfall (AMR) data. Based on the intended applications and the variate under consideration, Method of Moments (MoM), Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM) and L-Moments (LMO) are used for determination of parameters of probability distributions. The adequacy of fitting EVD to the AMR series was evaluated by quantitative assessment using Goodness-of-Fit (viz., Chi-square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov) and diagnostic test (viz., D-index) tests and qualitative assessment by the fitted curves of the estimated rainfall. The paper presents a study on intercomparison of EVD (using MoM, MLM and LMO) adopted in EVA of rainfall with illustrative example and the results obtained thereof. 

Rajesh Singh ◽  
Pritee Singh ◽  
Kailash Kale

Reliability is an essentially important characteristic of software. The reliability of software has been assessed by considering Poisson Type occurrence of software failures and the failure intensity of one parameter say (η_1 ) Rayleigh class. Here, it is assumed that the software contains fixed number of inherent faults say (η_0 ). The scale parameter of Rayleigh density (η_1 ) and fixed number of inherent faults contained in software are the parameters of interest. The failure intensity and mean failure function of this Poisson Type Rayleigh Class (PTRC) Software Reliability Growth Model (SRGM) have been studied. The estimates of above parameters can be obtained by using maximum likelihood method. Bayesian technique has been used to about estimates of η_0 and η_1 if prior knowledge about these parameters is available. The prior knowledge about these parameters is considered in the form of non- informative priors for both the parameters. The proposed Bayes estimators are compared with their corresponding maximum likelihood estimators on the basis of risk efficiencies under squared error loss. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is used for calculating risk efficiencies. It is seen that both the proposed Bayes estimators can be preferred over corresponding MLEs for the proper choice of the values of execution time.

Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Xiang Xie ◽  
Shiqiang Zhang ◽  
Qingjie Yu ◽  
Xinye Li ◽  
Yongsheng Liu ◽  

Camellia oleifera, a major tree species for producing edible oil, is originated in China. Its oil is also called ‘‘eastern olive oil’’ with high economic value due to richness in a variety of healthy fatty acids (Lin et al. 218). However, leaves are susceptible to leaf spot disease (Zhu et al. 2014). In May 2021, we found circular to irregular reddish-brown lesions, 4-11 mm in diameter, near the leaf veins or leaf edges on 30%-50% leaves of 1/3 oil tea trees in a garden of Hefei City, Anhui Province, China (East longitude 117.27, North latitude 31.86) (Figure S1 A). To isolate the causal agents, symptomatic leaves were cut from the junction of diseased and healthy tissues (5X5 mm) and treated with 70 % alcohol for 30 secs and 1 % NaClO for 5 min, and subsequently inoculated onto PDA medium for culture. After 3 days, hyphal tips were transferred to PDA. Eventually, five isolates were obtained. Then the isolates were cultured on PDA at 25°C for 7 days and the mycelia appeared yellow with a white edge and secreted a large amount of orange-red material to the PDA (Figure S1 B and C). Twenty days later, the mycelium appeared reddish-brown, and sub-circular (3-10 mm) raised white or yellow mycelium was commonly seen on the Petri dish, and black particles were occasionally seen. Meanwhile, the colonies on the PDA produced abundant conidia. Microscopy revealed that conidia were globular to pyriform, dark, verrucose, and multicellular with 14.2 to 25.3 μm (=19.34 μm, n = 30) diameter (Figure S1 D). The morphological characteristics of mycelial and conidia from these isolates are similar to that of Epicoccum layuense (Chen et al.2020). To further determine the species classification of the isolates, DNA was extracted from 7-day-old mycelia cultures and the PCR-amplified fragments were sequenced for internal transcribed spacer (ITS), beta-tubulin and 28S large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU) gene regions ITS1/ITS4, Bt2a/Bt2b and LR0R/LR5, followed by sequencing and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the sequences analysis (White et al. 1990; Glass and Donaldson 1995; Vilgalys and Hester 1990). Sequence analysis revealed that ITS, beta-tubulin, and LSU divided these isolates into two groups. The isolates AAU-NCY1 and AAU-NCY2, representing the first group (AAU-NCY1 and AAU-NCY5) and the second group (AAU-NCY2, AAU-NCY3 and AAU-NCY4), respectively, were used for further studies. Based on BLASTn analysis, the ITS sequences of AAU-NCY1 (MZ477250) and AAU-NCY2 (MZ477251) showed 100 and 99.6% identity with E. layuense accessions MN396393 and KY742108, respectively. And, the beta-tubulin sequences (MZ552310; MZ552311) showed 99.03 and 99.35% identity with E. layuense accessions MN397247 and MN397248, respectively. Consistently, their LSU (MZ477254; MZ477255) showed 99.88 and 99.77% identity with E. layuense accessions MN328724 and MN396395, respectively. Phylogenetic trees were built by maximum likelihood method (1,000 replicates) using MEGA v.6.0 based on the concatenated sequences of ITS, beta-tubulin and LSU (Figure S2). Phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed that AAU-NCY1 and AAU-NCY2 are closely clustered with E. layuense stains (Figure S2). To test the pathogenicity, conidial suspension of AAU-NCY2 (106 spores/mL) was prepared and sterile water was used as the control. Twelve healthy leaves (six for each treatment) on C. oleifera tree were punched with sterile needle (0.8-1mm), the sterile water or spore suspension was added dropwise at the pinhole respectively (Figure S1 E and F). The experiment was repeated three times. By ten-day post inoculation, the leaves infected by the conidia gradually developed reddish-brown necrotic spots that were similar to those observed in the garden, while the control leaves remained asymptomatic (Figure S1 G and H). DNA sequences derived from the strain re-isolated from the infected leaves was identical to that of the original strain. E. layuense has been reported to cause leaf spot on C. sinensis (Chen et al. 2020), and similar pathogenic phenotypes were reported on Weigela florida (Tian et al. 2021) and Prunus x yedoensis Matsumura in Korea ( Han et al. 2021). To our knowledge, this is the first report of E. layuense causing leaf spot on C. oleifera in Hefei, China.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Hasan Ongor ◽  
Necati Timurkaan ◽  
Hasan Abayli ◽  
Burak Karabulut ◽  
Hakan Kalender ◽  

Abstract Background Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2, MDV-1), which primarily affects chickens. However, the virus is also able to induce tumors and polyneuritis in turkeys, albeit less frequently than in chickens. Results This is the first study in Turkey reporting the molecular characterization of a MDV-1 strain detected in a flock of backyard turkeys exhibiting visceral lymphoma. Here, MEQ, vIL-8, pp38 and 132-bp tandem repeat regions, which are frequently preferred in the pathotyping of MDV-1, were examined. It was determined that the MEQ gene of MDV-1/TR-21/turkey strain obtained in the present study encoded 339 amino acids (1020 nt) and had four proline-rich repeat regions (PPPP). Based on the nucleotide sequence of the MEQ gene of the MDV-1/TR-21/turkey strain, a phylogenetic tree was created using the MEGA-X software with the Maximum Likelihood Method (in 1000 replicates). Our strain was highly identical (> 99.8) to the Italian/Ck/625/16, Polish (Polen5) and some Turkish (Layer-GaHV-2-02-TR-2017, Tr/MDV-1/19) MDV-1 strains. Also, nt and aa sequences of the MEQ gene of our strain were 99.1 and 99.41% identical to another Turkish strain (MDV/Tur/2019) originated from chickens. Sequence analysis of pp38 and vIL-8 genes also supported the above finding. The identity ratios of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of vIL-8 and pp38 genes of MDV-1/TR-21/turkey strain were 99.64–100% and 99.79–100%, respectively, when compared with those of the Polish strain. According to 132-bp tandem repeat PCR results, the MDV-1/TR-21/turkey strain had five copies. Conclusions These results suggested that the MDV-1/TR-21/turkey strain obtained from backyard turkeys can be either very virulent or very virulent plus pathotype, though experimental inoculation is required for precise pathotyping.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Romil Singh ◽  
Sawai Singh Rathore ◽  
Hira Khan ◽  
Abhishek Bhurwal ◽  
Mack Sheraton ◽  

Purpose: The primary objective of this systematic review is to assess association of mortality in COVID-19 patients on Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and Angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs). A secondary objective is to assess associations with higher severity of the disease in COVID-19 patients.Materials and Methods: We searched multiple COVID-19 databases (WHO, CDC, LIT-COVID) for longitudinal studies globally reporting mortality and severity published before January 18th, 2021. Meta-analyses were performed using 53 studies for mortality outcome and 43 for the severity outcome. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were generated to describe overall effect size using random effect models. To account for between study results variations, multivariate meta-regression was performed with preselected covariates using maximum likelihood method for both the mortality and severity models.Result: Our findings showed that the use of ACEIs/ARBs did not significantly influence either mortality (OR = 1.16 95% CI 0.94–1.44, p = 0.15, I2 = 93.2%) or severity (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 0.94–1.48, p = 0.15, I2 = 91.1%) in comparison to not being on ACEIs/ARBs in COVID-19 positive patients. Multivariate meta-regression for the mortality model demonstrated that 36% of between study variations could be explained by differences in age, gender, and proportion of heart diseases in the study samples. Multivariate meta-regression for the severity model demonstrated that 8% of between study variations could be explained by differences in age, proportion of diabetes, heart disease and study country in the study samples.Conclusion: We found no association of mortality or severity in COVID-19 patients taking ACEIs/ARBs.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 105
Bashar Al-Mhairat ◽  
Ayman Al-Quraan

Wind energy has become one of the world’s most renewable energy sources in recent years. It is regarded as a clean energy source because it produces no greenhouse gas emissions. The assessment of wind energy resources is an important step in the development of any wind energy conversion system (WECS). As a result, this article examines the wind energy potential of nine Jordanian wind locations: Queen Alia Airport, Civil Amman Airport, King Hussein Airport, Irbid, Mafraq, Ma’an, Ghor Al Safi, Safawi, and Irwaished. The available wind speed data were implemented using three statistical distribution models, Weibull, Rayleigh, and Gamma distributions, and one traditional estimation method, the Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM). Three optimization techniques were used to assign parameters to each distribution model: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO), and Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA). To determine the optimal distribution model, the performance of these distribution models was tested. According to the findings, King Hussein Airport features the highest wind power density, followed by Queen Alia Airport, while Irbid features the lowest, followed by Ghor Al Safi.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Oleen Machona ◽  
Farisai Chidzwondo ◽  
Rumbidzai Mangoyi

Abstract Background The excessive use of polystyrene as a packaging material has resulted in a rise in environmental pollution. Polystyrene waste has continually increased water pollution, soil pollution and the closing of landfill sites since it is durable and resistant to biodegradation. Therefore, the challenge in polystyrene disposal has caused researchers to look for urgent innovative and eco-friendly solutions for plastic degradation. The current study focuses on the isolation and identification of bacteria produced by the larvae of beetle Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworms), that enable them to survive when fed with polystyrene foam as their sole carbon diet. Materials and methods The biodegradation of polystyrene by Tenebrio molitor was investigated by breeding and rearing the mealworms in the presence and absence of polystyrene. A comparison was made between those fed with a normal diet and those fed on polystyrene. The mealworms which were fed with polystyrene were then dissected and the guts were collected to isolate and identify the bacteria in their guts. The viability and metabolic activity of the isolates were investigated. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing was used for molecular identification of the isolates. The PCR products were directly sequenced using Sanger’s method and the phylogenetic tree and molecular evolutionary analyses were constructed using MEGAX software with the Neighbour Joining algorithm. The evolutionary distances were computed using the Maximum Composite Likelihood method. Results The decrease in mass of the polystyrene as feedstock confirmed that the mealworms were depending on polystyrene as their sole carbon diet. The frass egested by mealworms also confirmed the biodegradation of polystyrene as it contained very tiny residues of polystyrene. Three isolates were obtained from the mealworms guts, and all were found to be gram-negative. The sequencing results showed that the isolates were Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182, Klebsiella oxytoca NBRC 102593 and Klebsiella oxytoca JCM 1665. Conclusion Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182, Klebsiella oxytoca NBRC 102593 and Klebsiella oxytoca JCM 1665 maybe some of the bacteria responsible for polystyrene biodegradation.

Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Xianping Zhang ◽  
Xuedong Cao ◽  
Qingqing Dang ◽  
Yongguang Liu ◽  
Xiaoping Zhu ◽  

Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and economically important fruit crops in the world. However, many pathogens can cause decay of muskmelon fruit, including Fusarium spp.. Fusarium spp. are the most important pathogen, affecting muskmelon fruit yield and quality (Wang et al. 2011). In August 2020, fruit rot symptoms were observed on ripening muskmelons (cv. Tianbao) in several fields in Jiyang District, Jinan City of Shandong Province, China. The incidences of infected muskmelon ranged from 15% to 30% and caused an average 20% yield loss. Symptoms appeared as pale brown, water-soaked lesions that were irregular in shape, with the lesion sizes ranging from a small spot (1 to 2 cm) to decay of the entire fruit. The core and surface of infected fruit were colonized and covered with white mycelia. Two infected muskmelons were collected from two fields, 3.5 km apart. Tissues removed from inside the infected fruit were surface disinfected with 75% ethanol for 30 s, and cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 25°C in the dark for 5 days. Four purified cultures were obtained using the single spore method. On carnation leaf agar (CLA), 3 to 5 septate, falcate, with a pronounced dorsiventral curvature macroconidia with tapered apical cell, and foot-shaped basal cell, measuring 20 to 40 × 3.5 to 4.5 μm. Microconidia and chlamydospores were not observed. These morphological characteristics were consistent with the description of F. luffae (Wang et al., 2019). Because these isolates had similar morphology, two representative isolates (XP11 and XP12) were selected for multilocus phylogenetic analyses. DNA was extracted from the representative isolates using a CTAB method. Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) (White et al. 1990), calmodulin (CAM), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2), translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1) (Xia et al. 2019) were amplified using specific primers, sequenced, and deposited in GenBank (ITS: MW391509 and MW391510, CAM: MW392789 and MW392790, RPB2: MW392797 and MW392798, TEF1: MW392793 and MW392794). Alignments of a combined dataset of ITS, CAM, RPB2 and TEF1 were made using MAFFT v. 7, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted in MEGA v. 7.0 using the maximum likelihood method. The muskmelon isolates (XP11 and XP12) clustered together with the F. luffae reference strain LC12167 (99% bootstrap). To perform a pathogenicity test, 10 μl of conidial suspensions (1 × 106 conidia/ml) were injected into each muskmelon fruit using a syringe, and the control fruit was inoculated with 10 μl of sterile distilled water. There were ten replicated fruits for each treatment. The test was repeated three times. After 7 days at 25°C, the interior of the inoculated muskmelons begun to rot, and the rot lesion expanded from the core towards the surface of the fruit, then white mycelia were produced on the surface. Ten isolations were re-isolated from the infected tissues and confirmed to fulfill Koch’s postulates. No symptoms were observed on the control muskmelons. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fruit rot caused by F. luffae in muskmelon in China. Considering the economic value of the muskmelon crop, correct identification can help farmers select appropriate field management measures for control of this disease.

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