species complex
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 119-127
Grace A. McCabe ◽  
Todd Goodwin ◽  
Douglas F. Johnson ◽  
Anthony Fok ◽  

AIM: To report 4 cases of Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii) species complex infection with diverse ophthalmic manifestations, and to review the literature to examine pathobiology of disease, classical ophthalmic presentations and outcomes, and treatment modalities for this emerging pathogen. METHODS: Cases of C. gattii meningoencephalitis with ophthalmic manifestations were identified via chart review at two institutions in Australia and one institution in the mid-west region of the United States and are reported as a case series. Additionally, a MEDLINE literature review was conducted to identify all reported cases of C. gattii with ophthalmic manifestations from 1990-2020. Cases were reviewed and tabulated, together with our series of patients, in this report. RESULTS: Four cases of C. gattii with ophthalmic manifestations are presented; three from Australia and one from the USA. A literature review identified a total of 331 cases of C. gattii with visual sequelae. The majority of cases occurred in immunocompetent individuals. Blurred vision and diplopia were the most common presenting symptoms, with papilloedema the most common sign, reported in 10%-50% of cases. Visual loss was reported in 10%-53% of cases, as compared to rates of visual loss of 1%-9% in C. neoformans infection. Elevated intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal burden, and abnormal neurological exam at presentation correlated with poor visual outcomes. The mainstays of treatment are anti-fungal agents and aggressive management of intracranial hypertension with serial lumbar punctures. CSF diversion procedures should be considered for refractory cases. Acetazolamide and mannitol are associated with high complication rates, and adjuvant corticosteroids have demonstrated higher mortality rates; these treatments should be avoided. CONCLUSION: Permanent visual loss represents a devastating yet potentially preventable sequelae of C. gattii infection. Intracranial hypertension needs to be recognised early and aggressively managed. Referral to an ophthalmologist/neuro-ophthalmologist in all cases of cryptococcal infection independent of visual symptoms at time of diagnosis is recommended.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 87
Hua Zheng ◽  
Zefen Yu ◽  
Xinwei Jiang ◽  
Linlin Fang ◽  
Min Qiao

Colletotrichum species are plant pathogens, saprobes, and endophytes in many economically important hosts. Many studies have investigated the diversity and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum species in common ornamentals, fruits, and vegetables. However, Colletotrichum species occurring in aquatic plants are not well known. During the investigation of the diversity of endophytic fungi in aquatic plants in southwest China, 66 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from aquatic plants there, and 26 of them were selected for sequencing and analyses of actin (ACT), chitin synthase (CHS-1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and β-tubulin (TUB2) genomic regions. Based on morphological characterization and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses, 13 Colletotrichum species were recognized, namely, C. baiyuense sp. nov., C. casaense sp. nov., C. demersi sp. nov., C. dianense sp. nov., C. fructicola, C. garzense sp. nov., C. jiangxiense, C. karstii, C. philoxeroidis sp. nov., C. spicati sp. nov., C. tengchongense sp. nov., C. vulgaris sp. nov., C. wuxuhaiense sp. nov. Two species complexes, the C. boninense species complex and C. gloeosporioides species complex, were found to be associated with aquatic plants. Pathogenicity tests revealed a broad diversity in pathogenicity and aggressiveness among the eight new Colletotrichum species.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262122
Adnan Shahdadi ◽  
Katharina von Wyschetzki ◽  
Hung-Chang Liu ◽  
Ka Hou Chu ◽  
Christoph D. Schubart

Due to the lack of visible barriers to gene flow, it was a long-standing assumption that marine coastal species are widely distributed, until molecular studies revealed geographically structured intraspecific genetic differentiation in many taxa. Historical events of sea level changes during glacial periods are known to have triggered sequential disjunctions and genetic divergences among populations, especially of coastal organisms. The Parasesarma bidens species complex so far includes three named plus potentially cryptic species of estuarine brachyuran crabs, distributed along East to Southeast Asia. The aim of the present study is to address phylogeography and uncover real and hidden biological diversity within this complex, by revealing the underlying genetic structure of populations and species throughout their distribution ranges from Japan to West Papua, with a comparison of mitochondrial COX1 and 16S rRNA gene sequences. Our results reveal that the P. bidens species complex consists of at least five distinct clades, resulting from four main cladogenesis events during the mid to late Pleistocene. Among those clades, P. cricotum and P. sanguimanus are recovered as monophyletic taxa. Geographically restricted endemic clades are encountered in southeastern Indonesia, Japan and China respectively, whereas the Philippines and Taiwan share two clades. As individuals of the Japanese clade can also be found in Taiwan, we provide evidence of a third lineage and the occurrence of a potential cryptic species on this island. Ocean level retreats during Pleistocene ice ages and present oceanic currents appear to be the main triggers for the divergences of the five clades that are here addressed as the P. bidens complex. Secondary range expansions converted Taiwan into the point of maximal overlap, sharing populations with Japan and the Philippines, but not with mainland China.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiangyang Li ◽  
Zilin Yang ◽  
Zhao Wang ◽  
Weipeng Li ◽  
Guohui Zhang ◽  

Pseudomonas stutzeri is a species complex with extremely broad phenotypic and genotypic diversity. However, very little is known about its diversity, taxonomy and phylogeny at the genomic scale. To address these issues, we systematically and comprehensively defined the taxonomy and nomenclature for this species complex and explored its genetic diversity using hundreds of sequenced genomes. By combining average nucleotide identity (ANI) evaluation and phylogenetic inference approaches, we identified 123 P. stutzeri complex genomes covering at least six well-defined species among all sequenced Pseudomonas genomes; of these, 25 genomes represented novel members of this species complex. ANI values of ≥∼95% and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values of ≥∼60% in combination with phylogenomic analysis consistently and robustly supported the division of these strains into 27 genomovars (most likely species to some extent), comprising 16 known and 11 unknown genomovars. We revealed that 12 strains had mistaken taxonomic assignments, while 16 strains without species names can be assigned to the species level within the species complex. We observed an open pan-genome of the P. stutzeri complex comprising 13,261 gene families, among which approximately 45% gene families do not match any sequence present in the COG database, and a large proportion of accessory genes. The genome contents experienced extensive genetic gain and loss events, which may be one of the major mechanisms driving diversification within this species complex. Surprisingly, we found that the ectoine biosynthesis gene cluster (ect) was present in all genomes of P. stutzeri species complex strains but distributed at very low frequency (43 out of 9548) in other Pseudomonas genomes, suggesting a possible origin of the ancestors of P. stutzeri species complex in high-osmolarity environments. Collectively, our study highlights the potential of using whole-genome sequences to re-evaluate the current definition of the P. stutzeri complex, shedding new light on its genomic diversity and evolutionary history.

BMC Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Lin Chou ◽  
Yu-Chen Lin ◽  
Mindia Haryono ◽  
Mary Nia M. Santos ◽  
Shu-Ting Cho ◽  

Abstract Background Many named species as defined in current bacterial taxonomy correspond to species complexes. Uncertainties regarding the organization of their genetic diversity challenge research efforts. We utilized the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex (a.k.a. Agrobacterium biovar 1), a taxon known for its phytopathogenicity and applications in transformation, as a study system and devised strategies for investigating genome diversity and evolution of species complexes. Results We utilized 35 genome assemblies, including 14 newly generated ones, to achieve a phylogenetically balanced sampling of A. tumefaciens. Our genomic analysis suggested that the 10 genomospecies described previously are distinct biological species and supported a quantitative guideline for species delineation. Furthermore, our inference of gene content and core-genome phylogeny allowed for investigations of genes critical in fitness and ecology. For the type VI secretion system (T6SS) involved in interbacterial competition and thought to be conserved, we detected multiple losses and one horizontal gene transfer. For the tumor-inducing plasmids (pTi) and pTi-encoded type IV secretion system (T4SS) that are essential for agrobacterial phytopathogenicity, we uncovered novel diversity and hypothesized their involvement in shaping this species complex. Intriguingly, for both T6SS and T4SS, genes encoding structural components are highly conserved, whereas extensive diversity exists for genes encoding effectors and other proteins. Conclusions We demonstrate that the combination of a phylogeny-guided sampling scheme and an emphasis on high-quality assemblies provides a cost-effective approach for robust analysis in evolutionary genomics. We show that the T6SS VgrG proteins involved in specific effector binding and delivery can be classified into distinct types based on domain organization. The co-occurrence patterns of VgrG-associated domains and the neighboring genes that encode different chaperones/effectors can be used to infer possible interacting partners. Similarly, the associations between plant host preference and the pTi type among these strains can be used to infer phenotype-genotype correspondence. Our strategies for multi-level investigations at scales that range from whole genomes to intragenic domains and phylogenetic depths from between- to within-species are applicable to other bacteria. Furthermore, modularity observed in the molecular evolution of genes and domains is useful for inferring functional constraints and informing experimental works.

2022 ◽  
Vol 79 (2) ◽  
Magda Antunes de Chaves ◽  
Paula Reginatto ◽  
Bárbara Souza da Costa ◽  
Ricardo Itiki de Paschoal ◽  
Mário Lettieri Teixeira ◽  

2022 ◽  
Imane Laraba ◽  
Mark Busman ◽  
David M. Geiser ◽  
Kerry O'Donnell

Recent studies on multiple continents indicate members of the Fusarium tricinctum species complex (FTSC) are emerging as prevalent pathogens of small-grain cereals, pulses, and other economically important crops. These understudied fusaria produce structurally diverse mycotoxins, among which enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) are the most frequent and of greatest concern to food and feed safety. Herein a large survey of fusaria in the Fusarium Research Center and Agricultural Research Service culture collections was undertaken to assess species diversity and mycotoxin potential within the FTSC. A 151-strain collection originating from diverse hosts and substrates from different agroclimatic regions throughout the world was selected from 460 FTSC strains to represent the breadth of FTSC phylogenetic diversity. Evolutionary relationships inferred from a 5-locus dataset, using maximum likelihood and parsimony, resolved the 151 strains as 24 phylogenetically distinct species, including nine that are new to science. Of the five genes analyzed, nearly full-length phosphate permease sequences contained the most phylogenetically informative characters, establishing its suitability for species-level phylogenetics within the FTSC. Fifteen of the species produced ENNs, MON, the sphingosine analog 2-amino-14,16- dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (AOD), and the toxic pigment aurofusarin (AUR) on a cracked corn kernel substrate. Interestingly, the five earliest diverging species in the FTSC phylogeny (i.e., F. iranicum, F. flocciferum, F. torulosum, Fusarium spp. FTSC 8 and 24) failed to produce AOD and MON, but synthesized ENNs and/or AUR. Moreover, our reassessment of nine published phylogenetic studies on the FTSC identified 11 additional novel taxa, suggesting this complex comprises at least 36 species.

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Charles A. Specht ◽  
E. Jane Homan ◽  
Chrono K. Lee ◽  
Zhongming Mou ◽  
Christina L. Gomez ◽  

Cryptococcosis, due to infection by fungi of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex, is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised persons, particularly those with AIDS. Cryptococcal vaccines are a public health priority yet are not available for human use.

2022 ◽  
Vol 166 ◽  
pp. 107220
Ariadne F. Sabbag ◽  
Maria Tereza C. Thomé ◽  
Mariana L. Lyra ◽  
Cinthia A. Brasileiro ◽  
Emily Moriarty Lemmon ◽  

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