referral system
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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
Natalia Natalia ◽  
Haerawati Idris

Physicians’ decision to refer patients in primary health care is vital in supporting the referral system. The increase of referral cases impacted the claims cost and hospital workload. This study aimed to analyze the physicians’ behavior in referring National Health Insurance (NHI) patients to hospitals. This study employed a qualitative method; 18 informants were selected using purposive sampling and analyzed using content analysis. The data were validated by triangulating method, source, and data. Physicians referred patients when the cases could not be handled; there were indications of severe disease and required further examination. The obstacles in the referral system were pressure from NHI patients that wanted to be referred and diagnosed differently from ICD 10. In referring NHI patients, physicians had followed referral procedures and criteria. High referrals were caused by patients being forced to be referred, coming with complaints of severe disease, having examined in a hospital, and some cases should not be referred to but still referred by entering a similar diagnosis into the ICD 10. It is expected that public health centers will educate NHI patients related to tiered referral procedures in health services.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 138-152
Sri Rahayu ◽  
Hosizah Hosizah

AbstractThe Health Care Referral System is a service system that controls the delegation of authority and responsibility for health problems which is carried out reciprocally vertically or horizontally, in the sense of a unit with less capability to a more capable unit. The purpose of this study was to determine the implementation of the health service referral system in terms of regulations, health personnel resources and infrastructure. This research is a systematic review (Systematic Literature Review). The data synthesis process was carried out by comparing 15 literatures that met the quality assessment as well as inclusion and exclusion criteria with the database sources used, namely, Google Scholar, Pubmed, ScienceDirect. The data is processed and presented in tabulated form. The results showed that several countries such as Indonesia, Iran, Northern Tanzania, Riyadh, Ghana, Zambia and Hoduras from the articles reviewed used a referral system starting from the basic level (Primary), secondary level (Secondary) and tertiary level (Tertiary). Judging from the three aspects of the implementation of the health service referral system reviewed, it shows that there are problems in its implementation, including; the regulatory aspect found only 2 literatures that discussed regulations in the implementation of the referral system, the aspect of health personnel resources was found to be unavailability of health workers in health services causing patient referral and infrastructure aspects found obstacles in inadequate infrastructure resulting in referral.Keywords: implementation, referral system, health care AbstrakSistem Rujukan Pelayanan Kesehatan merupakan sistem pelayanan yang mengendalikan pelimpahan wewenang serta tanggung jawab atas permasalahan kesehatan yang dilakukan secara timbal balik secara vertikal ataupun horizontal, dalam makna dari unit yang berkemampuan kurang ke unit yang lebih, terjangkau dan rasional. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui implementasi sistem rujukan layanan kesehatan dilihat dari aspek regulasi, sumber daya tenaga kesehatan dan sarana prasarana. Penelitian ini merupakan tinjauan sistematis (Systematic Literature Review). Proses data sintesis dalam penelitian ini dilakukan dengan cara membandingkan 15 literature yang memenuhi penilaian kualitas serta kriteria inklusi dan ekslusi dengan sumber database yang digunakan yaitu, Google Scholar, Pubmed, ScienceDirect. Data diolah dan disajikan dalam bentuk tabulasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukan beberapa negara seperti Indonesia, Iran, Tanzania Utara, Riyadh, Ghana, Zambia dan Hoduras dari artikel yang direview menggunakan sistem rujukan yang dimulai dari tingkat dasar (Primary), tingkat menengah (Secondary) dan tingkat tersier (Tertiary). Dilihat dari ketiga aspek implementasi sistem rujukan layanan kesehatan yang direview menunjukkan adanya permasalahan dalam pengimplementasiannya diantaranya; aspek regulasi ditemukan hanya 2 literature yang membahas regulasi dalam pengimplementasian sistem rujukan, aspek sumber daya tenaga kesehatan ditemukannya ketidaktersediaan tenaga kesehatan di layanan kesehatan sehingga menyebabkan terjadinya rujukan pasien dan aspek sarana prasarana ditemukannya hambatan pada infrastruktur yang tidak memadai sehingga menyebabkan terjadinya rujukanKata Kunci: implementasi, sistem rujukan, layanan kesehatan

2021 ◽  
pp. 1357633X2110682
Rebecca Calafiore ◽  
Aziz Khan ◽  
Daren Anderson ◽  
Zhao Helen Wu ◽  
Jun Lu

Background There are few studies focusing on pediatric teledermatology, and the impact of a large-scale pediatric teledermatology program on the accessibility and efficiency of dermatology care remains unclear. This study evaluated the impact of a state-wide implementation of a store-and-forward teledermatology program augmented by the incorporation of dermoscopy in pediatric patients visiting community health centers. Methods It was a descriptive, retrospective cohort study of 876 pediatric dermatology referrals. Results In the traditional referral system, only 60 patients (17.6%) were seen by dermatologists with average waiting times of 75 days due to limited access. In comparison, with an implementation of dermoscopy-aided teledermatology, all 536 teledermatology referrals received dermatological care within 24 h, of which only 64 (12%) patients requires face-to-face (F2F) consultation. Patients referred for F2F consultation via eConsults had a much lower no-show rate as compared to the traditional referral system (39% vs. 71%). Side by side comparison between general population and pediatric population has demonstrated shared features in efficiency and access improvement but revealed specific characteristics of pediatric teledermatology in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion Coordinated store-and-forward teledermatology platform with incorporation of dermoscopy between large community care network and dermatology provider can greatly improve access to pediatric dermatology care especially in underserved population. The efficiency of teledermatology in access improvement for pediatric population is comparable with adult population in eConsults. There are also unique features and challenges in pediatric teledermatology that require further research.

Chiara Pittalis ◽  
Ruairí Brugha ◽  
Leon Bijlmakers ◽  
Frances Cunningham ◽  
Gerald Mwapasa ◽  

Background: A functionally effective referral system that links district level hospitals (DLHs) with referral hospitals (RHs) facilitates surgical patients getting timely access to specialist surgical expertise not available locally. Most published studies from low- and middle-income countries have examined only selected aspects of such referral systems, which are often fragmented. Inadequate understanding of their functionality leads to missed opportunities for improvements. This research aimed to investigate the functionality of the referral system for surgical patients in Malawi, a low-income country. Methods: This study, conducted in 2017-2019, integrated principles from two theories. We used network theory to explore interprofessional relationships between DLHs and RHs at referral network, member (hospital) and community levels; and used principles from complex adaptive systems theory to unpack the mechanisms of network dynamics. The study employed mixed-methods, specifically surveys (n=22 DLHs), interviews with clinicians (n=20), and a database of incoming referrals at two sentinel RHs over a six-month period. Results: Obstacles to referral system functionality in Malawi included weaknesses in formal coordination structures, notably: unclear scope of practice of district surgical teams; lack of referral protocols; lack of referral communication standards; and misaligned organisational practices. Deficiencies in informal relationships included mistrust and uncollaborative operating environments, undermining coordination between DLHs and RHs. Poor system functionality adversely impacted the quality, efficiency and safety of patient referral-related care. Respondents identified aspects of the district-referral hospital relationships, which could be leveraged to build more collaborative and productive inter-professional relationships in the future. Conclusion: Multi-level interventions are needed to address failures at both ends of the referral pathway. This study captured new insights into longstanding problems in referral systems in resource-limited settings, contributing to a better understanding of how to build more functional systems to optimise the continuum and quality of surgical care for rural populations in similar settings.

2021 ◽  
Vol Vol. 131 (6) ◽  
pp. 951-970
Damien Besancenot ◽  
Nicolas Sirven ◽  
Radu Vranceanu

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 55-61
Nur Hayati Munawaroh ◽  
Ndari Afriyani ◽  
Sri Wahyuni ◽  
Triyo Rachmadi

Background: The disease classification system is a grouping of diseases following the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Tenth Revisions ICD-10. The coding application must be in accordance with ICD-10 to obtain a valid code in disease indexing, national, international reporting of morbidity and mortality, analysis of health care costs, and epidemiological and clinical research. The diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder is made if schizophrenia and affective disorder are symptoms based on the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. This study aims to determine the synchronization of the codification of unspecified schizophrenia and determine the factors that influence it against the back-referral system at the Mirit Health Center. Method: This research is qualitative research with a descriptive approach. Respondents were four officers, i.e. one doctor, one medical record officer, one person holding a mental program, one pharmacy officer. The number of observed medical record documents was 96 data with research indicators of accuracy and completeness of the diagnosis code in patients referred from First Level Health Facilities (FKTP) to Advanced Health Facilities (FKTL). Result: The results showed 30 referrals, with nine referrals having the accuracy of the patient referral diagnosis code. The back-referral program (PRB) for mental illness at the Mirit Health Center, in collaboration with Mbah Marsio's mental health rehabilitation center, was carried out well. However, the implementation of the Chronic Disease Management program (Prolanis) for mental health was still not good. Conclusion: There are many unsynchronized codifications. It is recommended to conduct an evaluation where they communicate with each other about the patient's condition to supervise the implementation of Referback Patients, especially to specialists who write the back-referral form.

2021 ◽  
Vol 108 (Supplement_9) ◽  
Andrew Refalo ◽  
Annabelle White ◽  
Hedda Widlund ◽  
Husam Ebied

Abstract Background AUGIS recommends patients diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and gallstone pancreatitis to receive a laparoscopy cholecystectomy on the index admission, ideally within 72 hours of presentation. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with better patient outcomes and reduced readmission rates. During the Covid-19 pandemic emergency surgery, if possible was avoided. These patients are referred for an elective cholecystectomy, however waiting times can be lengthy with readmissions common prior to surgery.  Methods We performed a closed loop audit on acute biliary admissions to a central London tertiary care centre. We assessed waiting times to laparoscopic cholecystectomy for patients fit for surgery as well as readmissions prior to surgery. The data was collated over a one-year period (01/03/2019 to 29/02/2020), analysed and presented to the senior biliary surgery team. A dedicated e-referral system for patients who did not receive a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on index admission was implemented. Post intervention admissions were re-audited over a second year (01/03/2020- 30/01/2021) and re-analysed to assess the effect of the intervention.   Results A total of 111 patients with acute cholecystitis, 52 with gallstone pancreatitis, 34 with biliary colic, 36 with choledocholithiasis and 10 with ascending cholangitis, were included. Prior to implementation of our referral system average waiting time to laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 98.2 weeks, reduced to 47.7 weeks post referral system implementation. Reduction in waiting times resulted in readmission rates reduced by: 23.3% in Choledocholithiasis; 17.4% in Biliary Colic;   16.7% in Ascending Cholangitis; 12.8% in Acute Cholecystitis and 8.3% in Gallstone pancreatitis.  Conclusions Admissions with acute biliary colic compose a substantial workload. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a preference for elective versus emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, delay in surgery results in a readmission burden on emergency surgery departments and worse patient outcomes hence laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be performed as soon as possible following initial admission. This audit demonstrates that a dedicated biliary referral system reduced waiting time which translates to a reduction in admission rates. The importance of this referral system is magnified in the recovery phase of the pandemic where we continue to recover waiting times.

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