multiple charging
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2022 ◽  
Yao Song ◽  
Xiangyu Pei ◽  
Huichao Liu ◽  
Jiajia Zhou ◽  
Zhibin Wang

Abstract. Accurate particle classification plays a vital role in aerosol studies. Differential mobility analyzer (DMA), centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) and aerodynamic aerosol classifier (AAC) are commonly used to select particles with a specific size or mass. However, multiple charging effect cannot be entirely avoided either using individual technique or using tandem system such as DMA-CPMA, especially when selecting soot particles with fractal structures. In this study, we demonstrate the transfer functions of DMA-CPMA and DMA-AAC systems, as well as the potential multiple charging effect. Our results show that the ability to remove multiply charged particles mainly depends on particles morphology and instruments setups of DMA-CPMA system. Using measurements from soot experiments and literature data, a general trend in the appearance of multiple charging effect with decreasing size when selecting aspherical particles was observed. Otherwise, our results indicated that the ability of DMA-AAC to resolve particles with multiple charges is mainly related to the resolutions of classifiers. In most cases, DMA-AAC can eliminate multiple charging effect regardless of the particle morphology, while particles with multiple charges can be selected when decreasing resolutions of DMA and AAC. We propose that the multiple charging effect should be reconsidered when using DMA-CPMA or DMA-AAC system in estimating size and mass resolved optical properties in the field and lab experiments.

Aurélien Froger ◽  
Ola Jabali ◽  
Jorge E. Mendoza ◽  
Gilbert Laporte

Electric vehicle routing problems (E-VRPs) deal with routing a fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) to serve a set of customers while minimizing an operational criterion, for example, cost or time. The feasibility of the routes is constrained by the autonomy of the EVs, which may be recharged along the route. Much of the E-VRP research neglects the capacity of charging stations (CSs) and thus implicitly assumes that an unlimited number of EVs can be simultaneously charged at a CS. In this paper, we model and solve E-VRPs considering these capacity restrictions. In particular, we study an E-VRP with nonlinear charging functions, multiple charging technologies, en route charging, and variable charging quantities while explicitly accounting for the number of chargers available at privately managed CSs. We refer to this problem as the E-VRP with nonlinear charging functions and capacitated stations (E-VRP-NL-C). We introduce a continuous-time model formulation for the problem. We then introduce an algorithmic framework that iterates between two main components: (1) the route generator, which uses an iterated local search algorithm to build a pool of high-quality routes, and (2) the solution assembler, which applies a branch-and-cut algorithm to combine a subset of routes from the pool into a solution satisfying the capacity constraints. We compare four assembly strategies on a set of instances. We show that our algorithm effectively deals with the E-VRP-NL-C. Furthermore, considering the uncapacitated version of the E-VRP-NL-C, our solution method identifies new best-known solutions for 80 of 120 instances.

Actuators ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 325
Manan’Iarivo Louis Rasolonjanahary ◽  
Chris Bingham ◽  
Nigel Schofield ◽  
Masoud Bazargan

In the case of the widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EV), it is well known that their use and charging could affect the network distribution system, with possible repercussions including line overload and transformer saturation. In consequence, during periods of peak energy demand, the number of EVs that can be simultaneously charged, or their individual power consumption, should be controlled, particularly if the production of energy relies solely on renewable sources. This requires the adoption of adaptive and/or intelligent charging strategies. This paper focuses on public charging stations and proposes methods of attribution of charging priority based on the level of charge required and premiums. The proposed solution is based on model predictive control (MPC), which maintains total current/power within limits (which can change with time) and imparts real-time priority charge scheduling of multiple charging bays. The priority is defined in the diagonal entry of the quadratic form matrix of the cost function. In all simulations, the order of EV charging operation matched the attributed priorities for the cases of ten cars within the available power. If two or more EVs possess similar or equal diagonal entry values, then the car with the smallest battery capacitance starts to charge its battery first. The method is also shown to readily allow participation in Demand Side Response (DSR) schemes by reducing the current temporarily during the charging operation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 139212
Jingjing Zhang ◽  
Ilya A. Shkrob ◽  
Lily A. Robertson ◽  
Lu Zhang

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Bing Hao ◽  
He Du ◽  
Xuefeng Dai ◽  
Hong Liang

To solve the problem of automatic recharging path planning for cleaning robots in complex industrial environments, this paper proposes two environmental path planning types based on designated charging location and multiple charging locations. First, we use the improved Maklink graph to plan the complex environment; then, we use the Dijkstra algorithm to plan the global path to reduce the complex two-dimensional path planning to one dimension; finally, we use the improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (IFOA) to adjust the path nodes for shorting the path length. Simulation experiments show that the effectiveness of using this path planning method in a complex industrial environment enables the cleaning robot to select a designated location or the nearest charging location to recharge when the power is limited. The proposed improved algorithm has the characteristics of a small amount of calculation, high precision, and fast convergence speed.

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