chemical stability
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 534
Ali Rashidinejad ◽  
Geoffrey B. Jameson ◽  
Harjinder Singh

Poor water solubility and low bioavailability of hydrophobic flavonoids such as rutin remain as substantial challenges to their oral delivery via functional foods. In this study, the effect of pH and the addition of a protein (sodium caseinate; NaCas) on the aqueous solubility and stability of rutin was studied, from which an efficient delivery system for the incorporation of rutin into functional food products was developed. The aqueous solubility, chemical stability, crystallinity, and morphology of rutin (0.1–5% w/v) under various pH (1–11) and protein concentrations (0.2–8% w/v) were studied. To manufacture the concentrated colloidally stable rutin–NaCas particles, rutin was dissolved and deprotonated in a NaCas solution at alkaline pH before its subsequent neutralisation at pH 7. The excess water was removed using ultrafiltration to improve the loading capacity. Rutin showed the highest solubility at pH 11, while the addition of NaCas resulted in the improvement of both solubility and chemical stability. Critically, to achieve particles with colloidal stability, the NaCas:rutin ratio (w/w) had to be greater than 2.5 and 40 respectively for the lowest (0.2% w/v) and highest (4 to 8% w/v) concentrations of NaCas. The rutin–NaCas particles in the concentrated formulations were physically stable, with a size in the range of 185 to 230 nm and zeta potential of −36.8 to −38.1 mV, depending on the NaCas:rutin ratio. Encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of rutin in different systems were 76% to 83% and 2% to 22%, respectively. The concentrated formulation containing 5% w/v NaCas and 2% w/v rutin was chosen as the most efficient delivery system due to the ideal protein:flavonoid ratio (2.5:1), which resulted in the highest loading capacity (22%). Taken together, the findings show that the delivery system developed in this study can be a promising method for the incorporation of a high concentration of hydrophobic flavonoids such as rutin into functional foods.

Venu Sharma ◽  
Meena Nemiwal ◽  
Dinesh Kumar

Abstract: Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are porous crystalline materials that have emerged as promising molecular materials in optoelectronic, catalysis, and gas storage applications. COFs exhibit unique features such as adaptability for various substrates, high chemical stability, tunability, ease of working, and recyclability that render them efficient catalysts. The current mini-review article discusses the synthesis and applications of COFs as catalysts. We hope that the present review will be highly beneficial for researchers working in the area of COFs and their applications in catalysis.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Armin Mooranian ◽  
Corina Mihaela Ionescu ◽  
Daniel Walker ◽  
Melissa Jones ◽  
Susbin Raj Wagle ◽  

Recent studies in our laboratories have shown promising effects of bile acids in ➀ drug encapsulation for oral targeted delivery (via capsule stabilization) particularly when encapsulated with Eudragit NM30D® and ➁ viable-cell encapsulation and delivery (via supporting cell viability and biological activities, postencapsulation). Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate applications of bile acid-Eudragit NM30D® capsules in viable-cell encapsulation ready for delivery. Mouse-cloned pancreatic β-cell line was cultured and cells encapsulated using bile acid-Eudragit NM30D® capsules, and capsules’ images, viability, inflammation, and bioenergetics of encapsulated cells assessed. The capsules’ thermal and chemical stability assays were also assessed to ascertain an association between capsules’ stability and cellular biological activities. Bile acid-Eudragit NM30D® capsules showed improved cell viability (e.g., F1 < F2 & F8; p < 0.05), insulin, inflammatory profile, and bioenergetics as well as thermal and chemical stability, compared with control. These effects were formulation-dependent and suggest, overall, that changes in ratios of bile acids to Eudragit NM30D® can change the microenvironment of the capsules and subsequent cellular biological activities.

Wael Kaade ◽  
Carmen Méndez-Sánchez ◽  
Carme Güell ◽  
Silvia De Lamo-Castellví ◽  
Monsterrat Mestres ◽  

Sungyu Choi ◽  
Sang-Hun Shin ◽  
Dong-Hyun Lee ◽  
Gisu Doo ◽  
Dong Wook Lee ◽  

Cerium oxide-containing interlocking interfacial layer improved mechanical adhesion and chemical stability of the interface. For the first time as a hydrocarbon-based membrane, it operated stably for more than 500 hours.

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