fruit fly
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
L. B. Monteiro ◽  
G. Nishimura ◽  
R. S. Monteiro

Abstract The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important pest in the subtropical region of Brazil. This insect has tritrophic relation between wild fruits and parasitoids and is associated with apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards adjacent to the Atlantic Forest in Paraná. We thus investigated the degree of infestation of the fruit fly and natural parasitism in wild and cultivated fruits surrounding apple orchards. For this purpose, we collected fruits of Acca sellowiana (Berg.) Burret, Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart), Eugenia uniflora L., Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava (L.), Annona neosericea Rainer and Eriobotrya japonica (Thumb) in apple orchards adjacent to the Atlantic Forest located in Campo do Tenente, Lapa and Porto Amazonas counties. In total, we collected 18,289 fruits during four growing years. The occurrence of A. fraterculus depends on the susceptible period of apple fruits. A. sellowiana and P. cattleianum were considered primary fruit fly multipliers and P. guajava was secondary, all occurring after the apple harvest (IS period). The group of parasitoids with A. fraterculus was Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911) and Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti, 1911) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) all of which are first records in the Atlantic Forest in Paraná. First record of O. bellus occurring in the State of Paraná, as well as, first record of the tritrophic association between host plant A. neosericea, parasitoids D. areolatus and O. bellus and fruit fly A. fraterculus. The host P. cattleianum stood out among the Myrtaceae species in regard to the high diversity of parasitoid species (81% of parasitoids). The total number of Figitidae species (76.5%) was higher than that of Braconidae species. The influence of climatic events in southern Brazil on wild fruit production should be further studied to understand the association of A. fraterculus with the tritrophic relationship.


Author(s):  
Sofija Pavković‐Lučić ◽  
Jelena Trajković ◽  
Dragana Miličić ◽  
Boban Anđelković ◽  
Luka Lučić ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sharon Towett-Kirui ◽  
Jennifer L. Morrow ◽  
Markus Riegler

AbstractInsect mitogenome organisation is highly conserved, yet, some insects, especially with parasitic life cycles, have rearranged mitogenomes. Furthermore, intraspecific mitochondrial diversity can be reduced by fitness-affecting bacterial endosymbionts like Wolbachia due to their maternal coinheritance with mitochondria. We have sequenced mitogenomes of the Wolbachia-infected endoparasitoid Dipterophagus daci (Strepsiptera: Halictophagidae) and four of its 22 known tephritid fruit fly host species using total genomic extracts of parasitised flies collected across > 700 km in Australia. This halictophagid mitogenome revealed extensive rearrangements relative to the four fly mitogenomes which exhibited the ancestral insect mitogenome pattern. Compared to the only four available other strepsipteran mitogenomes, the D. daci mitogenome had additional transpositions of one rRNA and two tRNA genes, and a single nucleotide frameshift deletion in nad5 requiring translational frameshifting or, alternatively, resulting in a large protein truncation. Dipterophagus daci displays an almost completely endoparasitic life cycle when compared to Strepsiptera that have maintained the ancestral state of free-living adults. Our results support the hypothesis that the transition to extreme endoparasitism evolved together with increased levels of mitogenome changes. Furthermore, intraspecific mitogenome diversity was substantially smaller in D. daci than the parasitised flies suggesting Wolbachia reduced mitochondrial diversity because of a role in D. daci fitness.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Khandaker Asif Ahmed ◽  
Heng Lin Yeap ◽  
Gunjan Pandey ◽  
Siu Fai Lee ◽  
Phillip W. Taylor ◽  
...  

AbstractFemales of many insect species are unreceptive to remating for a period following their first mating. This inhibitory effect may be mediated by either the female or her first mate, or both, and often reflects the complex interplay of reproductive strategies between the sexes. Natural variation in remating inhibition and how this phenotype responds to captive breeding are largely unexplored in insects, including many pest species. We investigated genetic variation in remating propensity in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, using strains differing in source locality and degree of domestication. We found up to threefold inherited variation between strains from different localities in the level of intra-strain remating inhibition. The level of inhibition also declined significantly during domestication, which implied the existence of genetic variation for this trait within the starting populations as well. Inter-strain mating and remating trials showed that the strain differences were mainly due to the genotypes of the female and, to a lesser extent, the second male, with little effect of the initial male genotype. Implications for our understanding of fruit fly reproductive biology and population genetics and the design of Sterile Insect Technique pest management programs are discussed.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Catriona Munro ◽  
Hugo Cadis ◽  
Evelyn Houliston ◽  
Jean-Ren&eacute Huynh

During meiosis, each duplicated chromosome pairs and recombines with its unique homolog to ensure the shuffling of genetic information across generations. Functional studies in classical model organisms have revealed a surprising diversity in the chronology and interdependency of the earliest meiotic steps such as chromosome movements, pairing, association via Synaptonemal Complex formation (synapsis), recombination and the formation of chiasmata. A key player is Spo11, an evolutionarily conserved topoisomerase-related transesterase that initiates meiotic recombination via the catalysis of programmed DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs). While DSBs are required for pairing and synapsis in budding yeast and mouse, alternative pathways are employed during female meiosis of the fruit fly and nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, to provide a comparative perspective on meiotic regulation from a distinct animal clade, we chart gametogenesis in Clytia hemisphaerica jellyfish and examine the role of Spo11 using CRISPR-Cas9 mutants, generated clonally from F0 polyp colonies. Spo11 mutant females fail to assemble synaptonemal complexes and chiasmata, such that homologous chromosome pairs disperse during oocyte growth. Subsequent meiotic divisions are abnormal but produce viable progeny. Clytia thus shares an ancient eukaryotic dependence of synapsis and chromosome segregation on Spo11-generated DSBs. It provides a valuable additional experimental model for dissecting meiotic mechanisms during animal gametogenesis, and for building a comparative framework for distinguishing evolutionarily conserved versus flexible features of meiosis.


2022 ◽  
pp. 5-5
Author(s):  
Richard A. I. Drew ◽  
Meredith C. Romig

Abstract Large numbers of dacine specimens were collected throughout Papua New Guinea by trapping and host fruit sampling. Steinertype fruit fly traps, baited with cue lure, methyl eugenol or vanillylacetone (zingerone), were set in many localities over a wide range of ecosystems. In most cases, the traps were serviced on 2-week cycles for at least 1 year. Samples of rainforest and cultivated fruits were collected in some provinces. All specimens collected were preserved in a dry state and sent to R.A.I. Drew at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia, for microscopic identification and curation. Data and photographs of Bactrocera longicornis were received from the Museum Nationale d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France. The subgeneric classification used herein follows Drew and Hancock (2016) and Hancock and Drew (2006, 2015, 2016, 2017a,b,c,d,e, 2018a,b,c, 2019).


2022 ◽  
pp. 21-23
Author(s):  
Richard A. I. Drew ◽  
Meredith C. Romig

Abstract This chapter provides information on the occurrence, distribution and host plants of major fruit fly species in Papua New Guinea, including Bactrocera bryoniae, B. frauenfeldi, B. musae, B. neohumeralis, B. papayae, B. trivialis, B. umbrosa, B. cucurbitae and B. decipiens.


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