Fruit Fly
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2021 ◽  
Lisandro Milocco ◽  
Isaac Salazar-Ciudad

Predicting how populations respond to selection is a key goal of evolutionary biology. The field of quantitative genetics provides predictions for the response to directional selection through the breeder’s equation. However, differences between the observed responses to selection and those predicted by the breeder’s equation occur. The sources of these errors include omission of traits under selection, inaccurate estimates of genetic variance, and nonlinearities in the relationship between genetic and phenotypic variation. A key insight from previous research is that the expected value of these prediction errors is often not zero, in which case the predictions are systematically biased. Here, we propose that this prediction bias, rather than being a nuisance, can be used to improve the predictions. We use this to develop a novel method to predict the response to selection, which is built on three key innovations. First, the method predicts change as the breeder’s equation plus a bias term. Second, the method combines information from the breeder’s equation and from the record of past changes in the mean, to estimate the bias and predict change using a Kalman filter. Third, the parameters of the filter are fitted in each generation using a machine-learning algorithm on the record of past changes. We apply the method to data of an artificial selection experiment of the wing of the fruit fly, as well as to an in silico evolution experiment for teeth. We find that the method outperforms the breeder’s equation, and notably provides good predictions even when traits under selection are omitted from the analysis and when additive genetic variance is estimated inaccurately. The proposed method is easy to apply since it only requires recording the mean of the traits over past generations.

2021 ◽  
Hanjun Lee ◽  
Bruce Blumberg ◽  
Michael S Lawrence ◽  
Toshi Shioda

Identification of dynamic changes in chromatin conformation is a fundamental task in genetics. In 2020, Galan et al. presented CHESS (Comparison of Hi-C Experiments using Structural Similarity), a novel computational algorithm designed for systematic identification of structural differences in chromatin-contact maps. Using CHESS, the same group recently reported that chromatin organization is largely maintained across tissues during dorsoventral patterning of fruit fly embryos despite tissue-specific chromatin states and gene expression. However, here we show that the primary outputs of CHESS–namely, the structural similarity index (SSIM) profiles–are nearly identical regardless of the input matrices, even when query and reference reads were shuffled to destroy any significant differences. This issue stems from the dominance of the regional counting noise arising from stochastic sampling in chromatin-contact maps, reflecting a fundamentally incorrect assumption of the CHESS algorithm. Therefore, biological interpretation of SSIM profiles generated by CHESS requires considerable caution.

Insects ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 851
Hyojoong Kim ◽  
Sohee Kim ◽  
Sangjin Kim ◽  
Yerim Lee ◽  
Heung-Sik Lee ◽  

To infer the introduction sources of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, we used a mitochondrial marker to reconstruct the haplotype network and 15 microsatellite loci to reveal genetic structure and relationships between the geographically or temporally different collections from Asia. We performed Approximate Bayesian computations to infer a global origin and a source of the quarantine collections found in Korea. As a result, the 40 populations were divided into three groups, of which genetic similarity is not related to the geographic vicinity. Korean samples had a similar genetic structure to Taiwan and Thailand ones. Our results suggest that the place of origin of the B. dorsalis specimens found in Korea’s border quarantine is likely to be Taiwan or Thailand. As the global origin of B. dorsalis, we estimated that Taiwan and Thailand were most likely the global origins of Southeast Asian populations by testing hypothetical scenarios by the approximate Bayesian computation analyses. Our results will allow easier identification of the source region of the forthcoming invasion of quarantined B. dorsalis specimens.

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
Mürşide Yağcı ◽  
Tuğba Akdeniz Fırat ◽  
F. Dolunay Erdoğuş ◽  
Müge Şahin

Abstract Background Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Mediterranean fruit fly), is one of the important polyphagous pest species in the world that harms almost all fruits causing significant yields losses. Control of this pest which is on the quarantine list of many countries is highly important. Due to the negative effects of chemical control on the environment and human health, biological control approaches have gained importance. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a potential biological control agent that can be used for effectively controlling the Medfly. Results In this study, effects of four EPNs species on larvae, pupae and adults of Medfly were investigated under laboratory conditions. Four different concentrations of EPNs species were used against each stage of the pest. It pest showed different sensitivity to different concentrations of each of the tested EPNs. High mortality rate of 94% was caused by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (11 KG),, followed by H. bacteriophora (TOK-20) with 91%, Steinernema carpocapsae (85%) and S. feltiae (Tokat-Emir) with 71% at highest concentration (200 IJ/larvae. The highest effect on adult mortality (100%) was recorded by the species S. feltiae (Tokat-Emir) at the highest concentration (200 IJ/adult) in the trials, followed by H. bacteriophora (11 KG) with 92%, H. bacteriophora (TOK-20) with 91% and S. carpocapsae (Tokat-Bakışlı05) with 87.37% mortality rates at the same concentrations. Conclusions It was determined that the EPNs tested in this study had insecticidal properties and they might be used in biological control programs against the Medfly.

H. Rasolofoarivao ◽  
L. H. Raveloson Ravaomanarivo ◽  
H. Delatte

Abstract Agriculture is one of the major farming activities, representing 32% of the gross domestic product of Madagascar and 74.3% of the population is involved in this activity. Fruit flies of the Tephritidae family are considered as the most destructive pests for agriculture in the country, nevertheless, few data exist on host plants and distribution of those pests. In the present study, we address those questions by conducting a large survey between November 2016 and July 2018 across the six agroecological regions of Madagascar. Fruit and vegetable were sampled from 198 plant species (wild and cultivated) and represented 37,965 fruits from all regions of Madagascar. The infestation index ranged from 0.06 to 538.46 pupae/kg, the infestation percentage was up to 54.84% in some samples, 63 plant species were considered as host of Tephritidae. Twelve fruit fly species were identified, seven of which were previously described as endemic, five species could be considered as widespread (altitudinal gradients between 1 and 1634 m asl) and major pests in Madagascar: Ceratitis malgassa (23 plant species from 12 families), Neoceratitis cyanescens (16 plant species from one family), Bactrocera dorsalis (18 plant species from 12 families), Dacus demmerezi (ten plant species from one family), Dacus vertebratus (six species from one family). Those results are of importance for implementation of control measures.

Maria do Socorro Miranda De Sousa ◽  
Jhulie Emille Veloso Dos Santos ◽  
Dori Edson Nava ◽  
Roberto Antonio Zucchi ◽  
Ricardo Adaime

 Fruit-bearing plants in the Brazilian Amazon are mainly attacked by species of Anastrepha, of which about half are endemic to the region. However, tritrophic relations (fly/plant/parasitoid) have only been established for some 25% of the species of Anastrepha in the region. At present, 11 species of hymenopterous parasitoids (Braconidae and Figitidae) have been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon. Parasitoids in general, especially those of the family Braconidae, stand out as the most effective natural enemies of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha. Doryctobracon areolatus is the most abundant parasitoid and it is associated with the largest number of Anastrepha species in the region. Some fruiting species, for example Bellucia grossularioides (L.) Triana and Geissospermum argenteum Woodson, have been studied aiming at biological control of fruit flies, because they act as reservoirs or multipliers of fruit fly parasitoids. Although research has advanced significantly in the past 20 years, there is a shortage of studies in nearly all states in the region, due to the huge area of the Brazilian Amazon.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Fukiko Kitani-Morii ◽  
Robert P. Friedland ◽  
Hideki Yoshida ◽  
Toshiki Mizuno

Accumulating evidence show that the gut microbiota is deeply involved not only in host nutrient metabolism but also in immune function, endocrine regulation, and chronic disease. In neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the gut-brain axis, the bidirectional interaction between the brain and the gut, provides new route of pathological spread and potential therapeutic targets. Although studies of gut microbiota have been conducted mainly in mice, mammalian gut microbiota is highly diverse, complex, and sensitive to environmental changes. Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, has many advantages as a laboratory animal: short life cycle, numerous and genetically homogenous offspring, less ethical concerns, availability of many genetic models, and low maintenance costs. Drosophila has a simpler gut microbiota than mammals and can be made to remain sterile or to have standardized gut microbiota by simple established methods. Research on the microbiota of Drosophila has revealed new molecules that regulate the brain-gut axis, and it has been shown that dysbiosis of the fly microbiota worsens lifespan, motor function, and neurodegeneration in AD and PD models. The results shown in fly studies represents a fundamental part of the immune and proteomic process involving gut-microbiota interactions that are highly conserved. Even though the fly’s gut microbiota are not simple mimics of humans, flies are a valuable system to learn the molecular mechanisms of how the gut microbiota affect host health and behavior.

2021 ◽  
Saloni Rose ◽  
Esteban J. Beckwith ◽  
Charlotte Burmester ◽  
Robin C. May ◽  
Marc S. Dionne ◽  

Reproduction and immunity are crucial traits that determine an animal's fitness. Terminal investment hypothesis predicts that reproductive investment should increase in the face of a mortality risk caused by infection. However, due to competitive allocation of energetic resources, individuals fighting infections are expected to decrease reproductive efforts. While there is evidence for both hypotheses, the factors that determine the choice between these strategies are poorly understood. Here, we assess the impact of bacterial infection on pre-copulatory behaviours in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that male flies infected with six different bacteria, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains, show no significant differences in courtship intensity and mating success. Similarly, bacterial infections did not affect sexual receptivity in female flies. Our data suggest that pre-copulatory reproductive behaviours remain preserved in infected animals, despite the huge metabolic cost of infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 44
Agus Kardinan ◽  
Elna Karmawati

<p> </p><p>Fruit flies (<em>Bact</em><em>r</em><em>ocera</em> spp) can cause yield losses of 30-40% of the horticultural product and even crop failure. One way to control is to use an attractant with the active ingredient methyl eugenol<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">.</span> The objective of the research was to identify the catching ability and the durability of the formula on trapping fruit flies. It was conducted from October 2020 to March 2021 in orchards in the Bogor area, designed in a randomized block with 8 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments consisted of oils: (1) nutmeg, (2) cloves, (3) citronella, (4) palm, (5) melaleuca + nutmeg, (6) melaleuca + cloves, (7) melaleuca + citronella, (8 ) melaleuca + palm (1:1 ratio). As much as 1 ml of oil is dropped on a cotton swab in a trap bottle and hung on a fruit tree. Observations were made every 5 days by counting the number, type of flies, and sex of the flies trapped. It showed that nutmeg and clove oil were able to trap 5 and 7 fruit flies in the first 5 days, but subsequently no flies were trapped, while citronella and palm oil were unable to trap fruit flies. A mixture of melaleuca oil containing 84.86% methyl eugenol with nutmeg, citronella, and palm oil was able to trap fruit flies for about 3 months with a total catch of 2.479; 2.434; and 2.487, respectively, while the mixture of melaleuca+cloves was able to trap fruit flies for 4 months and was able to trap 2 female flies<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">.</span></p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>:   Attractant, <em>Bactrocera</em> spp., <em>Melaleuca bracteata</em>, methyl eugenol</p><p> </p><p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p><p><strong>Efektivitas Formula Minyak <em>Melaleuca bracteata</em> Terhadap Daya Tangkap Hama Lalat Buah (<em>Bactrocera</em> spp.)</strong></p><p>Lalat buah (<em>Bact</em><em>rocera</em> spp) dapat menimbulkan kehilangan hasil sebesar 30–40% pada produk hortikultura, bahkan gagal panen. Salah satu cara pengendaliannya adalah dengan menggunakan atraktan (pemikat) berbahan aktif metil eugenol (C<sub>11</sub>H<sub>14</sub>O<sub>2</sub>)<em>. </em>Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui daya tangkap dan daya tahan formula dalam memerangkap hama lalat buah. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Oktober 2020 sampai Maret 2021 di kebun buah-buahan (rambutan, jambu biji, dan jambu air) di Bogor, dengan rancangan acak kelompok 8 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan.  Perlakuan terdiri dari minyak : (1) pala, (2) cengkeh, (3) serai wangi, (4) sawit, (5) melaleuca + pala, (6) melaleuca + cengkeh, (7) melaleuca + serai wangi, (8) melaleuca + sawit (dengan perbandingan 1 :1).  Sebanyak 1 ml minyak diteteskan pada kapas di dalam botol perangkap dan digantungkan pada pohon. Pengamatan dilakukan setiap 5 hari terhadap jumlah, jenis dan jenis kelamin lalat yang terperangkap. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa minyak pala dan cengkeh mampu memerangkap lalat buah sebanyak 5 dan 7 ekor berturut-turut pada 5 hari pertama, namun selanjutnya tidak ada lalat yang terperangkap, sedangkan minyak serai wangi dan sawit tidak mampu memerangkap lalat buah. Campuran minyak melaleuca yang mengandung metil eugenol 84,86% dengan minyak pala, serai wangi dan sawit mampu memerangkap lalat buah selama sekitar 3 bulan dengan total tangkapan sebesar 2,479; 2,434; dan 2,487 ekor per perangkap berturut-turut, sedangkan campuran Melaleuca dengan cengkeh mampu memerangkap lalat buah selama 4 bulan dan mampu memerangkap 2 ekor lalat betina, walaupun dengan jumlah tangkapan yang lebih rendah (2,078 ekor) daripada perlakuan lain.</p><p><strong>Kata kunci</strong> : Atraktan, <em>Bactrocera</em> spp., <em>Melaleuca bracteata, </em>metil eugenol</p>

Amanda Ayala ◽  
Jorge Toledo ◽  
Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud ◽  
Pablo Liedo ◽  
Pablo Montoya

Abstract Knowledge on reproductive strategies and host use in insect parasitoids is fundamental for biological control purposes. Superparasitism and multiparasitism, oviposition in a previously parasitized host by a female of the same or different species, respectively, may impact pest management decisions. Our objective was to determine the occurrence of superparasitism and multiparasitism in three species of native larval−pupal solitary endoparasitoids that attack Anastrepha Shiner species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Neotropical region, and the possible effect on offspring fitness parameters. Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck), Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), and Opius hirtus (Fischer) occur in sympatry in Mexico, and are currently under consideration for use as biocontrol agents. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions with females acting alone (self-superparasitism), females in groups of the same species (conspecific superparasitism), and females in mixed groups (multiparasitism). Our results showed that self-superparasitism is an uncommon strategy in the three native species and is rare under conditions of intraspecific competition. In the case of multiparasitism, a higher number of immature stages of U. anastrephae was observed, compared to those of D. crawfordi and O. hirtus. However, it is not clear yet if this was due to some adult female trait or to the competitive ability of the larvae. We conclude that most females of the native species studied appeared to avoid superparasitism, specifically when acting alone, suggesting a high discrimination ability, which is probably a result of a close relationship and evolutionary history with Anastrepha hosts.

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