physical activity interventions
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Mengying Wang ◽  
Qiaochu Xue ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  
Knut Krohn ◽  
Stefanie Ziesche ◽  

Abstract Purpose Little is known about the relations between changes in circulating microRNA-122 (miR-122) and liver fat in response to weight-loss interventions. We aimed to investigate the association between miR-122 and changes of hepatic fat content during 18-month diet and physical activity interventions. Methods The CENTRAL trial is an 18-month randomized, controlled trial among adults with abdominal obesity or dyslipidemia. Subjects were randomly assigned to a low-fat diet or a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diet. After six months of dietary intervention, each diet group was further randomized into added physical activity groups or no added physical activity groups for the following 12 months of intervention. The current study included 220 participants at baseline and 134 participants with repeated measurements on serum miR-122 and hepatic fat content over 18 months. Results Serum miR-122 significantly increased from baseline to 18 months, while no difference was observed across the four intervention groups. We found a significant association between miR-122 and hepatic fat content at baseline, as per unit increment in log-transformed miR-122 was associated with 3.79 higher hepatic fat content (P<0.001). Furthermore, we found that higher elevations in miR-122 were associated with less reductions in hepatic fat percentage during 18-month interventions (β=1.56, P=0.002). We also found a significant interaction between changes in miR-122 and baseline fasting plasma glucose with hepatic fat content changes in 18 months (P interaction=0.02). Conclusions Our data indicate that participants with higher elevation in serum miR-122 may benefit less in reduction of hepatic fat content in response to diet and physical activity interventions.

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Siobhan Wong ◽  
Leanne Hassett ◽  
Harriet Koorts ◽  
Anne Grunseit ◽  
Allison Tong ◽  

Abstract Background There is currently little evidence of planning for real-world implementation of physical activity interventions. We are undertaking the ComeBACK (Coaching and Exercise for Better Walking) study, a 3-arm hybrid Type 1 randomised controlled trial evaluating a health coaching intervention and a text messaging intervention. We used an implementation planning framework, the PRACTical planning for Implementation and Scale-up (PRACTIS), to guide the process evaluation for the trial. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for the process evaluation of the ComeBACK trial using the framework of the PRACTIS guide. Methods A mixed methods process evaluation protocol was developed informed by the Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance on process evaluations for complex interventions and the PRACTIS guide. Quantitative data, including participant questionnaires, health coach and administrative logbooks, and website and text message usage data, is being collected over the trial period. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with trial participants, health coaches and health service stakeholders will explore expectations, factors influencing the delivery of the ComeBACK interventions and potential scalability within existing health services. These data will be mapped against the steps of the PRACTIS guide, with reporting at the level of the individual, provider, organisational and community/systems. Quantitative and qualitative data will elicit potential contextual barriers and facilitators to implementation and scale-up. Quantitative data will be reported descriptively, and qualitative data analysed thematically. Discussion This process evaluation integrates an evaluation of prospective implementation and scale-up. It is envisaged this will inform barriers and enablers to future delivery, implementation and scale-up of physical activity interventions. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to describe the application of PRACTIS to guide the process evaluation of physical activity interventions. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) Registration date: 10/12/2018.

Thomas D. Griffiths ◽  
Diane Crone ◽  
Mike Stembridge ◽  
Rachel N. Lord

Prolonged sitting negatively affects several cardiovascular disease biomarkers. Current workplace physical activity interventions to reduce sitting result in inconsistent uptake and adherence rates. Co-production attempts to improve the translation of evidence to practice through engaging the participants within the intervention design, improving the context sensitivity and acceptability of the intervention. A needs analysis questionnaire was initially conducted (n = 157) to scope workplace behaviours and attitudes. A development group (n = 11) was consulted in focus groups around the needs analysis findings and asked to comment on the feasibility of a proposed intervention. A pilot intervention was then carried out (n = 5). The needs analysis indicated that only 1.8% (n = 4) engaged in occupational physical activity, and 68.7% (n = 103) sat for ≥6 h during their working day. Through the focus groups, an intervention breaking up sitting time hourly with five-minute walking breaks was co-produced. Cultural and pragmatic issues concerning the implementation of frequent physical activity breaks from sitting and the subsequent impact on work productivity were highlighted. The pilot intervention increased the number of breaks from sedentary behaviour from 2 to 11. The co-production methodology resulted in a research- and stakeholder-guided compromise. Large-scale intervention implementation is required before firm effectiveness conclusions can be made.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 370-378
Alfredo Ruiz ◽  
Kwok Ng ◽  
Pauli Rintala ◽  
Kaisa Kaseva ◽  
Taija Finni

Physical activity is associated with better health in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Numerous physical activity interventions have been designed to promote physical activity among youth with CP. No previous studies have explored the factors contributing to the intention to participate and predicting attendance behaviour for these interventions. Using theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this study explored the prediction of physical activity intention and attendance behaviour in a physical activity intervention aiming to promote physical activity in a sample of young individuals with CP. Males with CP aged 9–21 years were asked to complete measures of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and, intentions towards a physical activity intervention. Participants had no cognitive impairments to understand and follow instructions, were categorised into Gross Motor Function Classification System I–III, did not receive any specific lower limbs’ medical treatment, or did not participate in a strength training program for lower limbs within 6 months before the study. Subjective norms were found to be the only significant predictor of intention, accounting for 83% of variance in intention. Intention and perceived behaviour control were found to be a nonsignificant predictor of attendance behaviour in youth with CP. The results show that TPB is a relevant tool in the prediction of intention towards a physical activity intervention in Finnish youth with CP.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Nathalie André ◽  
Steven Gastinger ◽  
Amélie Rébillard

A large amount of evidence shows that after a cancer diagnosis, patients significantly reduce their level of physical activity. Usually, this reduction is attributed to cancer-related fatigue. However, to our knowledge, no study has clearly demonstrated that fatigue alters effort-based decision-making in cancer. This mini-review aimed to provide evidence that chronic fatigue in cancer patients causes changes in brain connectivity that impact effort-based decision-making. Indeed, three patterns of activation to compensate for dysfunctional networks have been reported: greater variability in the executive network and hyperactivation in the executive network, which account for less efficient and costly processes in the frontal cortex, and reduced deactivation in the default mode network. Nevertheless, these activation patterns are also observed with other factors, such as anticipatory stressors (worry, rumination or sleep loss), that might also cause reluctance to engage in physical activity. Effort-based decision-making involving weighing costs against benefits and physical activity interventions should increase immediate benefits to facilitate engagement in effortful activities.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 6364
Amy L. Shaver ◽  
Swapnil Sharma ◽  
Nikita Nikita ◽  
Daniel S. Lefler ◽  
Atrayee Basu-Mallick ◽  

Background: Cancer therapies are associated with multiple adverse effects, including (but not limited to) cancer-related fatigue (CRF). Fatigue is one of the most common side effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), occurring in up to 25% of patients. Physical activity has been shown to help reduce CRF through modulating the immune system, and may synergistically aid in the anti-tumor effects of ICIs. This review describes the nature and scope of evidence for the effects associated with concurrent physical activity while undergoing ICI therapy. Method: Scoping review methodology was utilized to identify studies, extract data, and collate and summarize results. Results: In literature published from January 2010 through to August 2021, only one human study and three pre-clinical studies met inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Existing evidence supports that physical activity is associated with decreased treatment-related toxicities such as CRF. However, further investigation is warranted. The dearth of clinical studies illustrates the need for more research to address this question, to guide patients and their providers in the application of appropriate physical activity interventions in those patients undergoing ICI.

2021 ◽  
Christophe Alarie ◽  
Isabelle Gagnon ◽  
Lily Trang Than Huynh ◽  
Karine Doucet ◽  
Adèle Pichette-Auray ◽  

Abstract Background Physical activity interventions have been shown to be an effective therapeutic approach to improve symptoms and reduce recovery time after a mild traumatic brain injury. Service providers from a specialized traumatic brain injury outpatient rehabilitation program recognized the need to ensure their physical activity intervention integrated evidence-based treatment components, while considering user needs and preferences. To inform quality improvement efforts, service providers felt it necessary to learn about the perceptions of key stakeholders, regarding the quality of the intervention. The study objective was to explore the perceptions of administrators, clinicians and users of the specialized program regarding the physical activity intervention’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT). Methods Using a SWOT analysis framework, this qualitative study explored the perspectives of the purposive sample (n=14) composed of the managerial staff, six clinicians and five program users. Semi-structured interviews were performed, recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Results Fifty categories were generated resulting in 15 strengths, 17 weaknesses, 12 opportunities and 6 threats grouped into 8 overarching categories: physical activity intervention, health-related outcomes, clinical expertise, knowledge translation, communication, user engagement, resources, accessibility. Category descriptions, convergent and divergent perspectives, and salient quotes of participants are provided. Conclusions This study successfully identified perceived strengths, many weaknesses, several opportunities and a few threats. Participants were generally positive about the intervention but identified weaknesses including the need for service providers to better describe the physical activity intervention using theoretically driven approaches before engaging in quality improvement activities. Convergent and divergent perspectives of service providers and program users helped identify areas to maintain and others to improve upon when the program develops their new intervention. Study results may also inform the development of other physical activity interventions designed for adults with persisting symptoms of a mild traumatic brain injury.

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