tectona grandis
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Nirvani S. Henrique ◽  
Katia L. Maltoni ◽  
Glaucia A. Faria

ABSTRACT Litterfall is an important source of soil nutrients, but its decomposition can be affected by the crop system used. The objective of this study was to evaluate litterfall decomposition and macronutrient stocks in coffee crop systems in shaded (SHCS) environments and those in full sun (FSCS). The experiment was conducted on a rural property in Cacoal, state of Rondônia, Brazil, in a 2 × 6 factorial scheme with two crop systems (SHCS and FSCS), and six litterfall decomposition evaluation times (0, 30, 60, 180, 300, and 360 days after the litterfall was returned to the soil (DAL)), with seven replicates. The constant of decomposition (k), half-life time (t1/2) at 360 DAL, and phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), and nitrogen (N) concentrations of the remaining litterfall were determined at each evaluation time. The litterfall in the SHCS had a greater weight loss and constant of decomposition and a lower half-life time at the last evaluation, and the weight loss increased as a function of decomposition time. The litterfall stocks of macronutrients N, P, K, Ca, and Mg showed a linear decrease throughout the decomposition time, and increases in sulfur stock were found at the last evaluation.

MycoKeys ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 86 ◽  
pp. 65-85
Guang-Cong Ren ◽  
Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe ◽  
Rajesh Jeewon ◽  
Jutamart Monkai ◽  
Peter E. Mortimer ◽  

During our survey into the diversity of woody litter fungi across the Greater Mekong Subregion, three rhytidhysteron-like taxa were collected from dead woody twigs in China and Thailand. These were further investigated based on morphological observations and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses of a combined DNA data matrix containing SSU, LSU, ITS, and tef1-α sequence data. A new species of Rhytidhysteron, R. xiaokongense sp. nov. is introduced with its asexual morph, and it is characterized by semi-immersed, subglobose to ampulliform conidiomata, dark brown, oblong to ellipsoidal, 1-septate, conidia, which are granular in appearance when mature. In addition to the new species, two new records from Thailand are reported viz. Rhytidhysteron tectonae on woody litter of Betula sp. (Betulaceae) and Fabaceae sp. and Rhytidhysteron neorufulum on woody litter of Tectona grandis (Lamiaceae). Morphological descriptions, illustrations, taxonomic notes and phylogenetic analyses are provided for all entries.

Slamet Santosa ◽  
Eddy Soekendarsi ◽  
Dody Priosambodo ◽  
Abdul Hayat Kasim

Growing media that contain organic materials can provide nutrients and water for plants. This study analyzed the availability and effects of nutrients and water, N and P resorption, and growth of teak seedlings under drought stress. The growing medium was made from ultisol soil (M1), ultisol soil with husk charcoal (M2), ultisol soil with chicken manure (M3), and ultisol soil with compost (M4), then planted with teak seeds. Maintenance was conducted by field capacity watering for 30 days. Teak seedlings were treated with drought stress for 90 days. Based on the analysis, growing media total N ranged from 0.19 to 0.28%, total P ranged from 0.10 to 0.17%, and water ranged from 11.40 to 16.20%. Teak seedling leaves contain N nutrient ranging from 0.34 to 0.95 % and P nutrient ranging from 0.04 to 0.16 %. The N resorption ability of teak seedlings ranged from 26 to 31%, and P resorption was around 20 to 25 %. The height growth of teak seedlings ranged from 80 to 115cm, the stem diameter from 1.4 to 1.8cm, the leaf area from 630 to 650cm2, and the thickness of the leaves from 545 to 462µm. Growing media made from ultisol soil and chicken manure (M3) produced the best water content, N and P resorption, and the growth of teak seedlings after 3 days of drought stress.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Viswakethu Velavan ◽  
Rajendran Dhanapal ◽  
Govindaraju Ramkumar ◽  
Sengodan Karthi ◽  
Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan ◽  

A field survey was done in teak (Tectona grandis F.) forests in South India to explore the entomopathogenic effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Sordariomycetes) against teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae). About 300 soils and infected insect samples were collected during the survey and thirty-six fungal isolates were isolated from soil and insect samples and characterized. The fungi were cultured on PDAY with dodine and antibiotics. Generally, the EPF culture was incubated at 27 °C in darkness for 15 days. Virulence of the Entomopathogenic Fungi (EPF) ability to germinate under cold and heat temperatures was assessed in a culture impregnated with conidia. In the experiment, it was found that for the first time Metarhizium quizhouense, Metarhizium robertsii, and Metarhizium majus species caused significantly higher mortality to hosts. These isolates of M. anisopliae, M. robertsii, M. majus, and M. quizhouense were all considered to be effective virulent and environmentally adaptive. The Metarhizium isolates were recommended as effective bio-control agents through the field investigation of teak defoliator Hyblaea puera from South India forest. This study paves the way to utilize the indigenous isolates of EPF for the control of teak defoliator and to combat the pests thatare resistant to insecticide.

Naseer Mohammad ◽  
Ankur Dahayat ◽  
Yogesh Pardhi ◽  
Muthu Rajkumar ◽  
Shamim Akhtar Ansari ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
H. Jesús Muñoz-Flores ◽  
J. Trinidad Sáenz-Reyes ◽  
Ruben Barrera-Ramírez ◽  
Jonathan Hernández-Ramos ◽  
Martín Gómez-Cárdenas

Para mitigar la deforestación en México, se han establecido plantaciones forestales comerciales (PFC) con especies nativas e introducidas. El objetivo fue realizar el diagnóstico del crecimiento, incremento y las características del suelo de plantaciones comerciales de teca (Tectona grandis L. f.), establecidas en el trópico seco del estado de Michoacán. El tipo de muestreo fue sistemático con intensidad entre 2.6 y 5.0%. El análisis de varianza (ANOVA) indicó diferencias significativas en la supervivencia, crecimientos e incrementos y en área de copa, los más altos valores de supervivencia se tienen en la plantación San Bernardo (Municipio Nuevo Urecho) a siete años de su establecimiento, y los mayores incrementos medios anuales en diámetro, altura, volumen y área de copa, se presentaron en Las Casitas (Municipio de Múgica) a tres años. Para el estado fitosanitario y vigor del arbolado no se encontraron diferencias significativas. 

MB Ahmed ◽  
MM Islam ◽  
MM Islam

The main purpose of the study was to identify the plant genetic resources (PGRs) affected by shrimp farming and to determine their magnitude of vulnerability. Data were collected from randomly selected 100 respondents, through personal interview, using an interview schedule, at Dumuria upazila of Khulna district, during 16 November 2009 to 15 February 2010. The fruit PGRs were more affected by shrimp farming than that of timber yielding and other types of PGRs. Among the 18-fruit PGRs available, all were endangered, except indigenous velvet apple, Diospyros peregrine (Gaertn.) Gürke, which was in threatened condition. Among the fruit species, banana, Musa acuminate; guava, Psidium guajava L.; jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.; sapota, Manilkara zapota L. and betel nut, Areca catechu L. were in highly endangered. Among the 17-timber yielding and other plant species, only 7-PGRs were affected by shrimp farming while majority (10-PGRs) had been available in different extents. Among the vulnerable PGRs, bamboo, Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss; flame of the forest, Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook.) Raf.; teak, Tectona grandis L.f. and banyan, Ficus benghalensis L. were endangered, while Indian ash tree, Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr.; ipil-ipil, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit and cool mat, Schumannianthus dichotomus (Roxb.) Gagnep. were in threatened condition. In general, the total fruit trees decreased in numbers (-74.17%) after inception of shrimp farming. On the other hand, the total numbers of timber yielding plants increased by 15.45%. From the overall consideration (irrespective of types), the number of plant population decreased (-58.10%) after inception of shrimp farming. It means that the plant species were affected by shrimp farming and became endangered. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 11(2): 18-26, Dec 2021

Agrociencia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 55 (8) ◽  
pp. 719-732
Manuel Aguilera Rodríguez ◽  
Arnulfo Aldrete ◽  
Libia Iris Trejo Téllez ◽  
Víctor M. Ordaz Chaparro

Desde el año 2003 en algunos viveros forestales del país se utilizan sustratos con aserrín fresco de pino y oyamel. Debido a la disponibilidad de aserrín de una variedad mayor de especies, este estudio planteó la hipótesis de que los sustratos con aserrín fresco de latifoliadas son aptos para producir planta de Pinus patula con calidad similar a la que se produce en sustratos con aserrín de especies de pino u oyamel. Para probarla, el objetivo fue evaluar el crecimiento de plantas de P. patula en charolas de poliestireno llenas con sustratos con 60% de aserrín fresco de las 11 principales especies forestales maderables (coníferas y latifoliadas) que se aprovechan en las regiones centro y sureste de México. El aserrín utilizado fue de las especies: Abies religiosa, Hevea brasiliensis, Gmelina arborea, Mangifera indica, Pinus ayacahuite, Pinus montezumae, Pinus patula, Pinus teocote, Quercus laurina, Quercus rugosa y Tectona grandis. Las charolas (77 cavidades de 170 cm3) se llenaron con mezcla de sustrato con aserrín (60%), corteza de pino compostada, perlita y vermiculita (20, 10 y 10%). A cada mezcla para rellenar charolas se adicionó fertilizante: Multicote® 18-6-12 y 12-24-12 (N-P2O5-K2O) de 8 meses de liberación (4 g L-1 de cada uno) y Micromax® (1 g L-1). El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar e incluyó 11 tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. A los siete meses se presentaron diferencias (p≤0.05) por tratamiento en diámetro, altura, pesos secos, índices de robustez y de calidad de Dickson, y en la concentración foliar de N, K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu y B. Con todos los sustratos se obtuvieron índices de calidad de Dickson ≥0.47; diámetros ≥4 mm y alturas de 20 a 30 cm, excepto el de M. indica. Las concentraciones de N y P fueron ≥1.3 y 0.20%, excepto en las plantas de los sustratos H. brasiliensis y M. indica. Las concentraciones de K, Mg, Ca, Zn y B fueron inferiores a los valores recomendados en todos los tratamientos. La planta producida en el sustrato con aserrín de P. ayacahuite desarrolló las mejores variables morfológicas y de concentración de nutrientes; mientras que los valores más bajos se observaron en la planta con sustrato de M. indica. Lo cual se atribuye respectivamente, al menor y al mayor contenido de sales y fenoles en el aserrín de esas dos especies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 37-44
Husnul Khatimah ◽  
AR Pratiwi Hasanuddin ◽  
Amirullah Amirullah

Indonesia merupakan salah satu Negara dengan kasus kecacingan yang cukup tinggi. Kasus kecacingan ini disebabkan oleh infeksi cacing usus yang proses menularnya melalui perantara tanah (Soil Transmitted helmint). Penyakit kecacingan banyak ditemukan di daerah dengan kelembaban tinggi terutama pada kelompok masyarakat dengan kebersihan diri dan keadaan lingkungan yang kurang baik. Cacing yang merupakan penyebab dari infeksi adalah Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura dan cacing tambang. Infeksi cacing ini mengakibatkan beberapa masalah yakni gangguan pencernaan, penyerapan serta metabolisme makanan sehingga protein, karbohidrat, lemak, vitamin dan darah dapat hilang dalam jumlah yang banyak. Eosin 2% merupakan pewarna yang selama ini digunakan dalam pewarnaan telur cacing nematode usus. Daun jati (Tectona grandis) merupakan tanaman yang memberikan warna alami karena mengandung.pigmen Antosianin. Antosianin mampu memberikan warna merah, biru, orange atau ungu. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah yaitu untuk mengetahui gambaran cacing STH (Soil Transmitted Helminth) menggunakan ekstrak daun jati (Tectona.grandis). Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dekskriptif dengan pemeriksaan cacing menggunakan metode sedimentasi yang dilakukan dengan pewarna ekstrak daun jati dengan pelarut ethanol dan esoin 2% sebagai kontrol positif. Hasil penelitian menujukkan bahwa ekstrak daun jati konsentrasi 60% lebih baik dan mampu dijadikan sebagai pewarna pengganti eosin. Hal ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun jati dapat digunakan sebagai pewarna alami dalam pemeriksaan telur cacing. Kata Kunci: Daun jati, Eosin, Soil Transmitted Helminth, Telur cacing

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