Fat Content
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 441-448
Elisa Helena Paz Andrade ◽  
Leorges Moraes da Fonseca ◽  
Marcelo Resende de Souza ◽  
Cláudia Freire de Andrade Morais Penna ◽  

Fermented milk beverage is a product containing milk, whey and/or other ingredients, fermented by specific microorganisms and/or added with fermented milks. Fat determination in this product is important to quality control and inspection. The Gerber method is used worldwide as a simple and rapid method for fat content analysis in raw and processed milks. In Brazil, Roese-Gottlieb is the official method for analysis of fat content in milk beverages. However, the use of Gerber method for fat content determination in fermented milk beverages is widespread throughout the industry in the country. Several authors have tested the use of Gerber method for some dairy products, but there is no report on this evaluation for fermented milk beverages. In this context, the objectives of this work were to determine the fat content of fermented milk beverages by the Gerber method and evaluate the performance of this test, using Roese-Gottlieb as a reference method. Thirty samples of fermented milk beverages were analyzed by both methods. The fat contents ranged from 1.25 to 2.40% by the Gerber method and from 1.24 to 2.50% by the Roese-Gottlieb method. There was no difference (p > 0.05) between the methods. The Gerber method can be used to determine the fat content of fermented milk beverages, without prejudice to the results obtained.

2021 ◽  
Khaldi Zahran ◽  
Nafti Mounir ◽  
Jilani Tabarek

Abstract This study was planned to investigate the raw milk characteristics and quality aspects and to evaluate the impact of nongenetic factors on physicochemical composition and microbial quality of milk from local Maghrebi camels (Camelus dromedarius) kept under a traditional system in oasis areas, southern west, Tunisia. Forty-nine individual milk samples were collected from lactating Negga over two periods of the year (winter and summer). Animals belonging to private flocks were between 5 and 17.5 years of age, with parity numbers ranging from first to sixth. Samples were analyzed for physical parameters, chemical composition, mineral concentrations, and microbiological features according to standard methods. The overall means of physical characteristics were 6.63 ± 0.22, 1030.63 ± 2.54, and 19.11 ± 4.08 for pH, density, and acidity, respectively. No significant association (P > 0.05) between physical characteristics and nongenetic factors has been observed. The average results of chemical composition for dry matter, protein, fat, casein, lactose, ash, and casein/protein ratio were 115.24±15.67g/L, 30.98±6.40 g/L, 32.84±4.88 g/L, 22.77±4.27 g/L, 37.21±4.64 g/L, 6.87±1.59 g/L, and 0.74±0.06 g/L respectively. Season, parity, and age were confirmed to impinge significantly on chemical components, except for lactose. The maximum contents of total solids, protein, casein, and fat content were observed during winter. The third lactation was characterized with the highest content of total solids, protein, casein, and lactose; while the highest fat content was recorded in the second lactation. Lactose content was stable throughout all the studied age classes (P > 0.05), whereas the other chemical constituents, showed an obvious superiority in the age class of 7≤ age ≤ 9 years. Season, parity, and age of the animal exerted a significant effect on all minerals. The highest levels of Ca, P, and K were recorded in the winter (P<0.01) whereas Na showed an opposite pattern and was higher in the summer (P<0.01). All major minerals were higher in milk from multiparous than primiparous camels, with maximum concentrations at the fourth lactation. The uppermost levels of mineral concentrations were recorded in the age class of 7≤ age ≤ 9 years. The lowest ones were those of animals over 12 years old. The microbial analysis of raw milk which is affected by season, parity, and age showed higher overall contamination levels in all studied bacterial counts. The highest levels were observed in winter, among the multiparous and oldest Negga. The results highlighted the complete absence of the two dangerous pathogens Salmonella and CSR in all analyzed samples.

Obesity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (12) ◽  
pp. 2055-2067
Yi Huang ◽  
Jazmin Osorio Mendoza ◽  
Min Li ◽  
Zengguang Jin ◽  
Baoguo Li ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Monika Lund Machlik ◽  
Laila Arnesdatter Hopstock ◽  
Tom Wilsgaard ◽  
Patrik Hansson

Introduction: Dairy fat is rich in saturated fatty acids known to increase serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, intake of fermented dairy products has been associated with reduced CVD risk in observational studies. How intakes of different fermented dairy products are associated with blood lipid concentrations may provide a possible explanation for the suggested reduced CVD risk.Aim: To examine the associations between different types of fermented dairy products, with various fat contents and dairy matrix structures, and blood lipid concentrations in a general population.Methods: In 11,377 women and men aged between 40-99 participating in the population-based Tromsø Study 2015-2016, multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations between total intake of fermented dairy products, intake of yogurt (including regular-fat, low-fat, and semi-solid yogurt), cheese (including regular-fat and low-fat), and liquid fermented dairy, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides. Dietary data was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounding factors, and cheese intake analyses were stratified by self-reported use of cholesterol-lowering drugs.Results: Cheese intake was positively associated with HDL-C [regression coefficient 0.02 mmol/l (95 % CI 0.01, 0.03)], and inversely associated with LDL-C [regression coefficient−0.03 mmol/l (95 % CI−0.04,−0.01)] and triglycerides [relative change −1.34 % (95 % CI: −2.29 %, −0.37 %)] per 25 g/day among non-users of cholesterol-lowering drugs, while no associations were found among users. Total intake of fermented dairy was inversely associated with triglycerides [relative change −1.11 % (95 % CI: −1.96 %, −0.24 %)] per 250 g/day, while no associations were found for yogurt intake. Intake of low-fat cheese was more favorably associated with blood lipids compared to regular-fat cheese, and semi-solid yogurt was inversely associated with LDL-C and triglycerides, while intake of liquid fermented dairy was not associated with any of the blood lipids.Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of investigating specific types of dairy products separately, based on fat content and dairy matrix, when examining effects on blood lipid concentrations, and stratifying statistical models by use of cholesterol-lowering drugs when relevant.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260001
Xiaoyang Li ◽  
Qiushi Yang ◽  
Hang Ye ◽  
Shuo Li ◽  
Yuzhu Wang ◽  

Objective To compare the reliability of different methods for measuring fat content of pancreas by MR modified Dixon(mDixon) Sequence and accurately evaluate pancreatic fat in as simple a way as possible. Methods This is a retrospective study, 64 patients were included in this study who underwent abdominal MR scan that contained the mDixon sequence from June 2019 to May 2020(Included 7 patients with type 2 diabetes and 4 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), they were admitted to hospital through the obesity clinic set up by endocrine department, all of them were initially diagnosed and untreated). All of the 64 patients were scanned in 3.0T MR (Philips Ingenia II) due to their condition, 10–34 slice pancreas images were obtained, which were different from each other. Three different methods of measurement were employed by two observers using Philips Intellispace Portal software: (1) All images (whole-pancreas) measurement, the whole-pancreatic fat fraction (wPFF) was calculated by software. (2) Interval slices measurement, that is half-pancreatic slices fat fraction (hPFF) measured in the same way, fat fraction obtained by the interlayer assay was calculated. (3) As usual, the fat content of pancreatic head, body and tail fat was measured respectively, and in order to improve credibility, we also measured head、 body and tail in every layer, and its average value was taken. The elapsed time of the above different measurement methods was recorded. Intra-group correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to analyze the consistency of the measured data within and between observers. T-tests and Friedman tests were applied to compare the difference of measured values among groups. Results No matter in normal person or diabetic or IGT, hPFF has shown good stability (ICChPFF = 0.988), and there was no significant difference compared with wPFF. But the average fat percentage composition of head, body and tail were significantly different from wPFF and hPFF (P < 0.01). At the same time, compared with normal person, pancreatic fat content in IGT and diabetic patients showed progressive significance(P<0.05). Conclusion The distribution of pancreatic fat is not uniform, the method of measuring half pancreas by interlayer data collection can reflect the fat content of the entire pancreas, this suggests that measuring 50% of the pancreas is sufficient, this method effectively saves time and effort without affecting the results, which may have a better clinical application prospect.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2855
Nayil Dinkçi ◽  
Merve Aktaş ◽  
Vildan Akdeniz ◽  
Alexandrina Sirbu

There is an increasing interest in applying fruit-processing wastes as functional food ingredients. Hazelnut skin, an interesting and innovative ingredient has recently been evaluated as one of the richest edible sources of polyphenolic compounds. This study aimed to evaluate the use of hazelnut skin as a functional additive in yogurt and to determine the effect of various percentages (2%, 3%, and 4%) of hazelnut skin on the physicochemical, microbiological, rheological, biochemical, and sensorial properties of yogurt. The results showed that the addition of hazelnut skin significantly increased total solids from 16.5% to 17.7% and fat content from 3.45% to 4.60% and decreased titratable acidity by up to 36%. The enrichment with hazelnut skin also improved the viability of yogurt bacteria, water holding capacity (WHC), and antioxidant activity of yogurts. Better results for WHC and antioxidant values were found in yogurt enriched with 4% hazelnut skin. Total phenolic content and Fe2+ chelating activity of yogurts increased with the increasing hazelnut skin ratio. However, yogurts with hazelnut skin had low instrumental texture parameters and apparent viscosity values. On the other hand, acceptable sensorial properties similar to control yogurts increase the consumption potential of yogurts enriched with hazelnut skin.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2137
Li-Shan Shen ◽  
Quan-Xi Li ◽  
Xiao-Wen Luo ◽  
Hui-Jun Tang ◽  
You-Jie Tang ◽  

Purpose: To quantitatively investigate the correlation between liver fat content and hepatic perfusion disorders (HPD) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for liver cancer using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-determined proton density fat fraction (PDFF). Materials and methods: A total of 150 liver cancer patients underwent liver MRI examination within one month after RFA and at four months after RFA. According to the liver fat content, they were divided into non-, mild, moderate, and severe fatty liver groups. The liver fat content and hepatic perfusion disorders were determined using PDFF images and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI images. The relationship between the liver fat content and HPD was investigated. Results: At the first postoperative MRI examination, the proportion of patients in the nonfatty liver group with hyperperfused foci (11.11%) was significantly lower than that in the mild (30.00%), moderate (42.86%), and severe fatty liver (56.67%) groups (p < 0.05), whereas the proportions of patients with hypoperfused foci (6.67%, 7.5%, 5.71%, and 6.67%, respectively) were not significantly different among the four groups (p > 0.05). In the nonfatty liver group, the liver fat content was not correlated with hyperperfusion abnormalities or hypoperfusion abnormalities. By contrast, in the three fatty liver groups, the liver fat content was correlated with hyperperfusion abnormalities but was not correlated with hypoperfusion abnormalities. At the second postoperative MRI examination, six patients in the nonfatty liver group were diagnosed with fatty liver, including two patients with newly developed hyperperfusion abnormalities and one patient whose hypoperfusion abnormality remained the same as it was in the first postoperative MRI examination. Conclusion: There was a high correlation between the liver fat content and hyperperfusion abnormalities after RFA for liver cancer. The higher the liver fat content was, the higher the was risk of hyperperfusion abnormalities. However, there was little correlation between liver fat content and hypoperfusion abnormalities, and the increase in postoperative liver fat content did not induce or alter the presence of hypoperfused foci.

2021 ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Qing-Ling Li ◽  
Hui-Quan Wen ◽  
Li-Shan Shen ◽  
Xiao-Wen Luo ◽  

Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, and the mortality of NAFLD-related heart diseases is higher than that of NAFLD-related liver diseases. We aimed to quantitatively measure liver, myocardium, and para-apical fat in obese patients and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with varying degrees of liver fat deposition using IDEAL-IQ technology and to explore the differences in fat content and their correlations. Materials and Methods This study retrospectively analyzed the data of 170 patients, including 85 obese patients (50 males, 35 females; average age, 43.5 years) and 85 T2DM patients (45 males, 40 females; average age, 45.5 years). All patients underwent axial T1WI, T2WI, and IDEAL-IQ, the FF map of the right liver lobe, the interventricular septum, the left ventricle, and para-apical fat was used for the quantitative measurement of fat content. Results For obese patients, the myocardial fat content was significantly higher in the severe fatty liver group than other liver groups (left ventricle, 3.65% ± 0.80%; interventricular septum, 3.46% ± 0.84%). For T2DM patients, the fat contents of different para-apical fat were positively correlated with fatty liver severity (p < 0.05) and were higher in T2DM patients with fatty liver than in obese patients with fatty liver. For both obese patients and T2DM patients, para-apical fat was only significantly different between the normal liver group (obese patients, 89.10±3.73%; T2DM patients, 89.14±3.80%) and the mild fatty liver group (obese patients, 92.64±2.43%; T2DM patients, 92.42±2.70%) (p < 0.01) and was unrelated to fatty liver severity (p > 0.05). Conclusion The results showed myocardial fat content increased with liver fat content, T2DM patients were more likely to have myocardial fat deposition than obese patients, and the fat content trends were consistent in para-apical fat in patients with varying degrees of fatty liver. This study provides an accurate and non-invasive method for the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD-related heart diseases in obese patients and T2DM patients.

Sumartini ◽  
Sellen Gurusmatika ◽  
Wan Amira

Seaweed is considered high class marine and fisheries sector in international demand for its derivative products. One of traditional use of seaweed as food is stick snack which is widely consumed due to its crunchiness and deliciousness. The objective of this study was to characterize the proximate analysis, hardness, and sensory perception of stick snack derived from seaweed. Seaweed stick were prepared with varying food additives such as  sodium acid phyorposphate (SAPP), steaoryl lactylate (SSL), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and control (without addition of food additives). The results confirmed that the use of food additives induce change in proximate, hardness, and sensory perception. Seaweed stick with addition NaHCO3 has the highest fat content while seaweed stick with addition of SAPP has  the highest crispness. In addition, sensory test showed that seaweed stick with addition with NaHCO3 provide the highest acceptance in texture and flavour.

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