respiratory tract infections
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 178
Magdalena Grochowska ◽  
Dominika Ambrożej ◽  
Aneta Wachnik ◽  
Urszula Demkow ◽  
Edyta Podsiadły ◽  

Since the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, many countries have introduced measures to limit the transmission. The data based on ICD-10 codes of lower respiratory tract infections and microbiological analysis of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections were collected. The retrospective five-year analysis of the medical records revealed a substantial decrease in respiratory tract infections during the pandemic year (from April 2020 to March 2021). We noted an 81% decline in the LRTI-associated hospital admissions based on the ICD-10 analysis (from a mean of 1170 admissions per year in the previous four years to 225 admissions between April 2020 through March 2021). According to microbiological analysis, there were 100%, 99%, 87%, and 47% drops in influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus, and norovirus cases reported respectively during the pandemic season until April 2021 in comparison to pre-pandemic years. However, the prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial infections was stable. Moreover, in August 2021, an unexpected rise in RSV-positive cases was observed. The measures applied during the COVID-19 pandemic turned out to be effective but also had a substantial contribution to the so-far stable epidemiological situation of seasonal infections.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262057
Claire A. Woodall ◽  
Luke J. McGeoch ◽  
Alastair D. Hay ◽  
Ashley Hammond

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are extremely common and can cause gastrointestinal tract symptoms and changes to the gut microbiota, yet these effects are poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the reported evidence of gut microbiome alterations in patients with a RTI compared to healthy controls (PROSPERO: CRD42019138853). We systematically searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane and the Clinical Trial Database for studies published between January 2015 and June 2021. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were human cohorts describing the gut microbiome in patients with an RTI compared to healthy controls and the infection was caused by a viral or bacterial pathogen. Dual data screening and extraction with narrative synthesis was performed. We identified 1,593 articles and assessed 11 full texts for inclusion. Included studies (some nested) reported gut microbiome changes in the context of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (n = 5), influenza (H1N1 and H7N9) (n = 2), Tuberculosis (TB) (n = 4), Community-Acquired Pneumonia CAP (n = 2) and recurrent RTIs (rRTI) (n = 1) infections. We found studies of patients with an RTI compared to controls reported a decrease in gut microbiome diversity (Shannon) of 1.45 units (95% CI, 0.15–2.50 [p, <0.0001]) and a lower abundance of taxa (p, 0.0086). Meta-analysis of the Shannon value showed considerable heterogeneity between studies (I2, 94.42). Unbiased analysis displayed as a funnel plot revealed a depletion of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae and Ruminococcus and enrichment of Enterococcus. There was an important absence in the lack of cohort studies reporting gut microbiome changes and high heterogeneity between studies may be explained by variations in microbiome methods and confounder effects. Further human cohort studies are needed to understand RTI-induced gut microbiome changes to better understand interplay between microbes and respiratory health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Fredrik Methi ◽  
Ketil Størdal ◽  
Kjetil Telle ◽  
Vilde Bergstad Larsen ◽  
Karin Magnusson

Aim: To compare hospital admissions across common respiratory tract infections (RTI) in 2017-21, and project possible hospital admissions for the RTIs among children aged 0–12 months and 1-5 years in 2022 and 2023.Methods: In 644 885 children aged 0–12 months and 1–5 years, we plotted the observed monthly number of RTI admissions [upper- and lower RTI, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and COVID-19] from January 1st, 2017 until October 31st, 2021. We also plotted the number of RTI admissions with a need for respiratory support. We used the observed data to project four different scenarios of RTI admissions for the rest of 2021 until 2023, with different impacts on hospital wards: (1) “Business as usual,” (2) “Continuous lockdown,” (3) “Children's immunity debt,” and (4) “Maternal and child immunity debt.”Results: By October 31st, 2021, the number of simultaneous RTI admissions had exceeded the numbers usually observed at the typical season peak in January, i.e., ~900. Based on our observed data and assuming that children and their mothers (who transfer antibodies to the very youngest) have not been exposed to RTI over the last one and a half years, our scenarios suggest that hospitals should be prepared to handle two to three times as many RTI admissions, and two to three times as many RTI admissions requiring respiratory support among 0–5-year-olds as normal, from November 2021 to April 2022.Conclusion: Scenarios with immunity debt suggest that pediatric hospital wards and policy makers should plan for extended capacity.

Johannes M. Sperlich ◽  
Bodo Grimbacher ◽  
Veronika Soetedjo ◽  
Sarita Workman ◽  
Siobhan O. Burns ◽  

AbstractBronchiectasis is a frequent complication of common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID). In a cohort of patients with CVID, we sought to identify predictors of bronchiectasis. Secondly, we sought to describe the impact of bronchiectasis on lung function, infection risk, and quality of life. We conducted an observational cohort study of 110 patients with CVID and an available pulmonary computed tomography scan. The prevalence of bronchiectasis was 53%, with most of these patients (54%) having mild disease. Patients with bronchiectasis had lower median serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations, especially long-term IgM (0 vs 0.25 g/l; p < 0.01) and pre-treatment IgG (1.3 vs 3.7 g/l; p < 0.01). CVID patients with bronchiectasis had worse forced expiratory volume in one second (2.10 vs 2.99 l; p < 0.01) and an annual decline in forced expiratory volume in one second of 25 ml/year (vs 8 ml/year in patients without bronchiectasis; p = 0.01). Patients with bronchiectasis also reported more annual respiratory tract infections (1.77 vs 1.25 infections/year, p = 0.04) and a poorer quality of life (26 vs 14 points in the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire; p = 0.02). Low serum immunoglobulin M concentration identifies patients at risk for bronchiectasis in CVID and may play a role in pathogenesis. Bronchiectasis is relevant because it is associated with frequent respiratory tract infections, poorer lung function, a greater rate of lung function decline, and a lower quality of life.

2022 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Ali Hosseininasab ◽  
Hamidreza Mollaie ◽  
Zainab Karimi

Background: Human Bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus associated with mild to severe upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children. Objectives: This study aimed to detect the virus in the nasopharynx of children under 5-year-old with respiratory infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods: Two hundred samples were taken from children referred to pediatric clinics in Kerman, southeastern Iran, with respiratory infections and were positive for virus by PCR. Next, the positive samples were genotyped by real-time PCR. Results: Out of 200 samples, 13 (6.5%) were positive for the Bocavirus gene, and all positive samples were infected by HBoV-1. We observed that 116 patients were male, and there was no difference in the prevalence of the virus based on gender (P = 0.345). The prevalence was significantly higher in infants under 10 months old (P = 0.049). Infection by Bucavirus virus was significantly correlated with symptoms, such as fever (P = 0.035, r = 0.7), otitis media (P = 0.013, r = 0.8), diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting (P = 0.001, r = 0.4). Conclusions: According to our findings, HBoV could be one of the causes of infections in the respiratory system of children, and the only type in the studied region is HBoV-1.

Hany Akeel Al-hussaniy ◽  
Raghid R. Altalebi ◽  
Ali H. Albu-Rghaif ◽  
Abdul-Ghaffar A. Abdul-Amir

Diseases of the respiratory system are a common cause of antibiotic prescription in Iraq and worldwide. Technology has been recently used for its diagnosis, such as the Film Array Respiratory Panel. This study aims to identify the correlation between the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract infections with the result of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for respiratory viruses. A descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective study included 134 patients treated at Alkharama Hospital and the Private Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, in the period from January 2020 to March 2020 For all cases, the results of the panel and the treatment received by the patients were analysed. 58% received antibiotic treatment upon admission, 13% combined treatment (antibiotic + antiviral), 27% received symptomatic treatment, and 2% were treated with the first-instance antiviral. After the result, 38% continued with antibiotics, 30% with antibiotics and antivirals, 13.8% with antivirals and 18.2% with symptomatic treatment. Despite the worldwide alarm over antimicrobial resistance, patients continue to be treated with antibiotics due to a situation that is influenced by several factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 60 (1) ◽  
pp. 15-40
Bernard F. Laya ◽  
Nathan David P. Concepcion ◽  
Pilar Garcia-Peña ◽  
Jaishree Naidoo ◽  
Supika Kritsaneepaiboon ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 107-113
Bing-Hua Liao

A key plant species (Senecio L.) not only is a vital multilevel functional medicinal material of indications of respiratory tract infections, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, enteritis, dysentery, but also it is a widely distributed wide plant species. This plant species is widely distributed elevation from 500m to 1500m in six landscapes in Shan County of China. However, understanding dynamics of stems moisture of the plants is difficult along elevation. Herein showed that relations between stems moisture of the species and elevation is a significant positive connection from 500m to 1000m (P<0.01) as well as relationships between stems moisture of this species to elevation is a significant negative connection from 1000m to 1500m (P<0.01). This study provides six types and eco-adaptation for finding new species. Therefore, this study has theoretical and practical significance for plants protection along elevation and environmental gradient over the spatial-temporal-environmental-disturbance scales (STEDS) in the multilevel green space diversity.

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