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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Theodore A. Chavkin ◽  
Loc-Duyen Pham ◽  
Aleksandar Kostic

AbstractManaging postprandial glycemic response, or the increase in blood sugar following a meal, is a crucial component to maintaining healthy blood sugar in patients with diabetes. To test whether oral probiotics can impact postprandial glycemic response, E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) was evaluated in an oral glucose tolerance test. Oral gavage of EcN concurrent with a glucose bolus reduced the post-gavage glycemic response in mice. However, there was no difference in glycemic response when comparing EcN to a mutant deficient in glucose metabolism. This suggests that while EcN can alter glycemic response to a glucose bolus, this effect is not mediated by direct uptake of glucose. Of the possible indirect effects EcN could have, gastric emptying rate was highlighted as a likely cause, but EcN had no effect on gastric emptying rate in mice. This leaves many more possible indirect explanations for the interaction between EcN and host glucose metabolism to be explored in future work.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
pp. 25
Author(s):  
Joseph Okello Mugisha ◽  
Janet Seeley

Background: It is not clear whether village health teams (VHTs) can be empowered to participate in interventions to prevent and control hypertension and diabetes in older adults in Uganda. We conducted this study in rural Uganda to establish if VHTs could be effectively trained to use a smart phone guided intervention to link older people with hypertension and diabetes to care. We also explored the experiences of VHTs in managing older adults with health problems, their knowledge of hypertension and diabetes and their understanding of referral systems. We also explored their experiences with smartphones. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with and trained 20 VHTs randomly selected from Bukulula sub-county in Kalungu district from October 2017-December 2018. We used interview guides to explore topics relevant to our study objectives. VHTs were trained to measure blood sugar and blood pressure using digital machines. VHTs were trained on identifying symptoms of diabetes mellitus. Data from IDIs were analysed using thematic content analysis. Competence tests were used to evaluate the training. Results: Most of the VHTs were female (75%). All VHTs had some knowledge on hypertension and diabetes and other chronic diseases. They did not have any experience in treating older adults since they had been trained to deal mainly with children. Half of the VHTs owned smartphones. All were willing to participate in an intervention using a smartphone to link older adults with hypertension and diabetes mellitus to care. By the end of the training, all but three participants could comprehend the symptoms of diabetes and measure blood sugar and blood pressure. Conclusion: Village health teams in the study setting need training in managing the health needs of older adults before engaging with an intervention using smartphones to link older adults with diabetes mellitus and hypertension to care.


2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (11) ◽  
pp. 1061-1068
Author(s):  
Omid Aminian ◽  
Maryam Saraei ◽  
Saeed Najieb Pour ◽  
Sahar Eftekhari

Background: Little is known about the role of occupational-related physical activity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Aims: This study aimed to assess the association between different types of physical activity (work-related, transport-related, home-time and leisure-time) and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a sample of Iranian workers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from February to November 2018 among 415 workers of a rubber factory in Tehran province. Physical activity levels of the participants were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Blood sample were analysed for cardiovascular disease risk factors (fasting blood sugar ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mmHg and waist circumference ≥ 102 cm). Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were also measured, as was body mass index (BMI). Results: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease differed significantly according to type of physical activity. Fasting blood sugar ≥ 100 mg/dL and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 had a significant negative association with overall physical activity level (P < 0.001). In a logistic regression analysis, leisure-time physical activity had a significant negative correlation with all risk factors for cardiovascular disease after adjusting for age and smoking. Conclusion: Leisure-time physical activity has a more important role in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors than other types of activity, including work-related physical activity.


Author(s):  
Jessica Patricia Pangaribuan ◽  
M. Aron Pase

Background: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is the disease caused by 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2, a novel β corona- virus of group 2B . COVID-19 has been reported to be associated with severe condition with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). D-dimer is a by product of fibrin degradation. It is widely recognized as a biomarker for thromboembolism and as a prognostic marker for critical patients. Methods: This study uses secondary data, which is obtained by looking at the contents of patient medical records at H. Adam Malik Medan Hospital between 2020-2021. The population of this study was all inpatients confirmed COVID-19 through an RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 swab examination. The study sample was obtained by the total sampling method, where all populations that meet the criteria of inclusion and exclusion are used as research samples. Patients were triaged as per severity on basis of national guidelines: asymptomatic, Mild (respiratory rate < 24/min, SpO2 >94% at room air), moderate (respiratory rate: 24-30/min, SpO2 90-94% at room air) and severe (respiratory rate >30/min SpO2 < 90%), ARDS and septic shock [6]. HbA1c implementation using HPLC methods and D-dimer is measured by ELISA method. Result: There were 163 patients consisting of 92 men and 71 women, the average age was 56.9±10.3 years, and HbA1c, FPG and PPG remained uncontrolled. There were no differences in age parameters of blood sugar profiles and D-dimers between men and women. D-dimers are significantly negatively correlated with PPG. Conclusion: Age, blood sugar profile and D-dimer did not differ significantly between men and women, and D-dimer had a correlation significantly with PPG on T2DM with COVID-19 patients. Keywords : D-dimer, T2DM, COVID-19


Author(s):  
Ajaz Ahmed wani ◽  

Diabetes mellitus a group of metabolic disorders in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancrease does not produce enough insulin or because cells do not respond properly to the insulin that is produced. Coronavirus disease (Covid -19) recently emerged with formidable infectivity and high mortality. Emerging data suggest that diabetes is one of the most prevalent comorbidities in patients with covid -19, although casual relationship has not been investigated , where as pre existing diabetes can be considered as a risk factor for the adverse outcome of covid -19 .The present article discussed the literature related to the corelation between diabetes and covid -19.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Md. Abu Rumman Refat ◽  
Md Al Amin ◽  
Chetna Kaushal ◽  
Mst. Nilufa Yeasmin ◽  
Md Khairul Islam

Diabetes is a disease that affects how your body processes blood sugar and is often referred to as diabetes mellitus. Insulin insufficiency and ineffective insulin use coincide when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin or the human body cannot use the insulin that is produced. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps in the transport of glucose from food into cells for use as energy. The common effect of uncontrolled diabetes is hyper-glycemia, or high blood sugar, which plus other health concerns, raises serious health issues, majorly towards the nerves and blood vessels. According to 2014 statistics, people aged 18 or older had diabetes and, according to 2019 statistics, diabetes alone caused 1.5 million deaths. However, because of the rapid growth of machine learning(ML) and deep learning (DL) classification algorithms. indifferent sectors, like health science, it is now remarkably easy to detect diabetes in its early stages. In this experiment, we have conducted a comparative analysis of several ML and DL techniques for early diabetes disease prediction. Additionally, we used a diabetes dataset from the UCI repository that has 17 attributes, including class, and evaluated the performance of all proposed machine learning and deep learning classification algorithms using a variety of performance metrics. According to our experiments, the XGBoost classifier outperformed the rest of the algorithms by approximately 100.0%, while the rest of the algorithms were over 90.0% accurate.<br>


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 039-046
Author(s):  
Omoirri Moses Aziakpono ◽  
Uyovwiesevwa Ataihire Johnson ◽  
Orji Uchechukwu Harrison ◽  
Chukwuemeka Charles Ofili ◽  
Nwosu Gloria Chizoba ◽  
...  

Alcohol, Blood Sugar, and Grip muscle strengths (GMS) may play key role in injury prevention and rehabilitation. In many cases, strengthening of the grip has been a prescription for rehabilitation from injuries such as golf and tennis elbow. In this study, the effects of alcohol and glucose consumption on grip muscle strength in early adult male subject was investigated. A total of thirty (200) human subjects of about18+ years old were recruited for the study. The subjects were administered varying doses of alcohol and glucose D, then allowed to rest for a period of 5 and 10 minutes before assessing their grip muscle strength, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and body weights. Obtained records were then compared with those of control (normal) subject who neither received alcohol nor glucose D. Differences in mean was obtained between groups using the student t-test. From the result, study found a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.05) in GMS for different times (5 min and 10 min) of alcohol administration as compared with control subjects. A notable significant decrease (p > 0.05) was also observed for FBS with increasing administration times as compared with control. This decrease was however insignificant for 10 min duration compared with 5 minutes. This decrease was however significant (p < 0.05) for alcohol 5 min intake as compared with control group. All test group (experimental) showed a statistically significant decrease in GMS after alcohol administration as compared with control. Lastly, a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.05) was observed in GMS for 10 min of Glucose D intake. Whereas, subject who took glucose D in 5 min showed an insignificant decrease as compared with control. It is recommended that more studies be conducted to corroborate the result of this study.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Liza Merianti ◽  
Dona Amelia ◽  
Ade Srywahyuni

Background: In 2015, the International Diabetes Federation reported that there were 415 million adultsaged 20 to 79 with diabetes. Indonesia is among the 10 countries with the high number of diabetic patientsand is ranked 7th in the world with the number of patients reaching 10.2 million. Diabetes management canbe done through controlling blood sugar through 4 pillars, namely education, diet, exercise, andmedication. However, the current phenomena show that many diabetics have poor dietary control so theyfail maintain their blood sugar within its normal limits and are at greater risk for diabetes complications.However, we can still find diabetic patients who are able to improve their diet and control their blood sugar.Therefore, getting information from them, especially related to their experience in controlling their diet, isexpected to provide hope and motivation for others. Hence, this study aims to find out and expolore theexperience of diabetics with controlled blood sugar and dietMethods: This study uses a qualitative research method with a descriptive phenomenology approach. Theselection of participants was carried out by using a purposive sampling technique. The number ofparticipants in this study were 5 and data were processed through Colaizzi method.Result:.There are four themes obtained in this study namely: Self-commitment to discipline and dietarycompliance, Fruit as an alternative appetite suppresant, Controlling hunger as a habit, and Channellinghunger to activities. Controlling diet for participants has been succesfully done by created a new habitthrough controlling their hunger, so that they could keep their commitment dan disclipline for dietarycompliance, choosing fruits as alternative suppresant and doing activity for channeling the hunger.Therefore it is important for the nurses to educate the diabetic patients about how to deal with diet issuesthrough controlling a hunger as a habit


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ade Srywahyuni ◽  
Dona Amelia

Background: In 2015, the International Diabetes Federation reported that there were 415 million adultsaged 20 to 79 with diabetes. Indonesia is among the 10 countries with the high number of diabetic patientsand is ranked 7th in the world with the number of patients reaching 10.2 million. Diabetes management canbe done through controlling blood sugar through 4 pillars, namely education, diet, exercise, andmedication. However, the current phenomena show that many diabetics have poor dietary control so theyfail maintain their blood sugar within its normal limits and are at greater risk for diabetes complications.However, we can still find diabetic patients who are able to improve their diet and control their blood sugar.Therefore, getting information from them, especially related to their experience in controlling their diet, isexpected to provide hope and motivation for others. Hence, this study aims to find out and expolore theexperience of diabetics with controlled blood sugar and dietMethods: This study uses a qualitative research method with a descriptive phenomenology approach. Theselection of participants was carried out by using a purposive sampling technique. The number ofparticipants in this study were 5 and data were processed through Colaizzi method.Result:.There are four themes obtained in this study namely: Self-commitment to discipline and dietarycompliance, Fruit as an alternative appetite suppresant, Controlling hunger as a habit, and Channellinghunger to activities. Controlling diet for participants has been succesfully done by created a new habitthrough controlling their hunger, so that they could keep their commitment dan disclipline for dietarycompliance, choosing fruits as alternative suppresant and doing activity for channeling the hunger.Therefore it is important for the nurses to educate the diabetic patients about how to deal with diet issuesthrough controlling a hunger as a habit


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