Antibody Levels
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chiara Ronchini ◽  
Sara Gandini ◽  
Sebastiano Pasqualato ◽  
Luca Mazzarella ◽  
Federica Facciotti ◽  
...  

The correlation between immune responses and protection from SARS-CoV-2 infections and its duration remains unclear. We performed a sanitary surveillance at the European Institute of Oncology (IEO) in Milan over a 27 months period. Pre-vaccination, in 1493 participants, we scored 266 infections (17.8%) and 8 possible reinfections (3%). Post-vaccination, we identified 30 infections in 2029 vaccinated individuals (1.5%). We report that the probability of infection post-vaccination is i) significantly lower compared to natural infection, ii) associated with a significantly shorter median duration of infection than that of first infection and reinfection, iii) anticorrelated with circulating antibody levels.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Julia Schiffner ◽  
Insa Backhaus ◽  
Jens Rimmele ◽  
Sören Schulz ◽  
Till Möhlenkamp ◽  
...  

Characterization of the naturally acquired B and T cell immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is important for the development of public health and vaccination strategies to manage the burden of COVID-19 disease. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional analysis in COVID-19 recovered patients at various time points over a 10-month period in order to investigate how circulating antibody levels and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release by peripheral blood cells change over time following natural infection. From March 2020 till January 2021, we enrolled 412 adults mostly with mild or moderate disease course. At each study visit, subjects donated peripheral blood for testing of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies and IFN-γ release after SARS-CoV-2 S-protein stimulation. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were positive in 316 of 412 (76.7%) and borderline in 31 of 412 (7.5%) patients. Our confirmation assay for the presence of neutralizing antibodies was positive in 215 of 412 (52.2%) and borderline in 88 of 412 (21.4%) patients. Likewise, in 274 of 412 (66.5%) positive IFN-γ release and IgG antibodies were detected. With respect to time after infection, both IgG antibody levels and IFN-γ concentrations decreased by about half within 300 days. Statistically, production of IgG and IFN-γ were closely associated, but on an individual basis, we observed patients with high-antibody titres but low IFN-γ levels and vice versa. Our data suggest that immunological reaction is acquired in most individuals after natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 and is sustained in the majority of patients for at least 10 months after infection after a mild or moderate disease course. Since, so far, no robust marker for protection against COVID-19 exists, we recommend utilizing both, IgG and IFN-γ release for an individual assessment of the immunity status.


Infection ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Vivian Glück ◽  
Sonja Grobecker ◽  
Josef Köstler ◽  
Leonid Tydykov ◽  
Manuela Bertok ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The long-term course of immunity among individuals with a history of COVID-19, in particular among those who received a booster vaccination, has not been well defined so far. Methods SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels were measured by ELISA over 1 year among 136 health care workers infected during the first COVID-19 wave and in a subgroup after booster vaccination approximately 1 year later. Furthermore, spike-protein-reactive memory T cells were quantified approximately 7 months after the infection and after booster vaccination. Thirty healthy individuals without history of COVID-19 who were routinely vaccinated served as controls. Results Levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM- and IgA-antibodies showed a rapid decay over time, whereas IgG-antibody levels decreased more slowly. Among individuals with history of COVID-19, booster vaccination induced very high IgG- and to a lesser degree IgA-antibodies. Antibody levels were significantly higher after booster vaccination than after recovery from COVID-19. After vaccination with a two-dose schedule, healthy control subjects developed similar antibody levels as compared to individuals with history of COVID-19 and booster vaccination. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cell counts did not correlate with antibody levels. None of the study participants suffered from a reinfection. Conclusions Booster vaccination induces high antibody levels in individuals with a history of COVID-19 that exceeds by far levels observed after recovery. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels of similar magnitude were achieved in healthy, COVID-19-naïve individuals after routine two-dose vaccination.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Diana Zhong ◽  
Shaoming Xiao ◽  
Amanda K Debes ◽  
Emily R Egbert ◽  
Patrizio Caturegli ◽  
...  

Waning serum antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 have sparked discussions about long-term immunity and need for vaccine boosters. We examined SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG antibodies in a longitudinal cohort, comparing antibody decay in individuals who received an mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. We completed a longitudinal cohort of healthcare workers (HWs) between June 2020 and September 2021. HWs were included if they had a serum sample collected after SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or a serum sample collected ≥ 14 days after second dose of an mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Linear regression models adjusting for vaccine type, age, and sex were used to compare post-vaccination antibody levels between 1) HWs with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and 2) HWs with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection ≤ 90 days and > 90 days prior to first vaccine. Serum was collected from 98 HWs after SARS-CoV-2 infection and before vaccine, and 1960 HWs ≥ 14 days following second vaccine dose. Serum spike antibody levels were higher after vaccination than after natural infection. Compared to SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals, those with prior infection maintained higher post-vaccination mean spike IgG values at 1, 3, and 6 months, after adjusting for age, sex, and vaccine type. Individuals with PCR-confirmed infection > 90 days before vaccination had higher post-vaccination antibody levels than individuals infected ≤ 90 days before vaccination. Individuals with three exposures to spike protein maintain the highest antibody levels particularly when first and second exposures were greater than 90 days apart. A booster dose provides a third exposure and may similarly induce a more durable antibody response.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tsuf Eyran ◽  
Anna Vaisman-Mentesh ◽  
Yeal Dror ◽  
Ligal Aizik ◽  
Aya Kigel ◽  
...  

Here, we describe the longitudinal kinetics of the serological response in COVID-19 recovered patients over the period of 14 months. The antibody kinetics in a cohort of 200 recovered patients with 89 follow up samples at 2-4 visits reveal that RBD-specific antibodies decay over the period of 14 month following the onset of symptoms. The decay rate is associated with the robustness of the response thus, recovered patients that exhibit elevated antibody levels at the first visit, experience faster decay. We further explored the longitudinal kinetics differences between recovered patients and naive BNT162b2 vaccinees. We found a significantly faster decay in naive vaccinees compared to recovered patients suggesting that the serological memory following natural infection is more robust compared to vaccination. Our data highlights the differences between serological memory induced by natural infection vs. vaccination, facilitating the decision making in Israel regarding the 3rd dose vaccination.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Annika Fendler ◽  
Lewis Au ◽  
Scott Shepherd ◽  
Fiona Byrne ◽  
Maddalena Cerrone ◽  
...  

Abstract Patients with cancer have higher COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Here we present the prospective CAPTURE study (NCT03226886) integrating longitudinal immune profiling with clinical annotation. Of 357 patients with cancer, 118 were SARS-CoV-2-positive, 94 were symptomatic and 2 patients died of COVID-19. In this cohort, 83% patients had S1-reactive antibodies, 82% had neutralizing antibodies against WT, whereas neutralizing antibody titers (NAbT) against the Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants were substantially reduced. Whereas S1-reactive antibody levels decreased in 13% of patients, NAbT remained stable up to 329 days. Patients also had detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells and CD4+ responses correlating with S1-reactive antibody levels, although patients with hematological malignancies had impaired immune responses that were disease and treatment-specific, but presented compensatory cellular responses, further supported by clinical. Overall, these findings advance the understanding of the nature and duration of immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with cancer.


Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 1031
Author(s):  
Olivera Lijeskić ◽  
Ivana Klun ◽  
Marija Stamenov Djaković ◽  
Nenad Gligorić ◽  
Tijana Štajner ◽  
...  

Real-life data on the performance of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are still limited. We here present the rates of detection and levels of antibodies specific for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein RBD (receptor binding domain) elicited by four vaccines available in Serbia, including BNT-162b2 (BioNTech/Pfizer), BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm), Gam-COVID-Vac (Gamaleya Research Institute) and ChAdOx1-S (AstraZeneca), compared with those after documented COVID-19, at 6 weeks and 3 months post first vaccine dose or post-infection. Six weeks post first vaccine dose, specific IgG antibodies were detected in 100% of individuals fully vaccinated with BNT-162b2 (n = 100) and Gam-COVID-Vac (n = 12) and in 81.7% of BBIBP-CorV recipients (n = 148), while one dose of ChAdOx1-S (n = 24) induced specific antibodies in 75%. Antibody levels elicited by BNT-162b2 were higher, while those elicited by BBIBP-CorV were lower, than after SARS-CoV-2 infection. By 3 months post-vaccination, antibody levels decreased but remained ≥20-fold above the cut-off in BNT-162b2 but not in BBIBP-CorV recipients, when an additional 30% were seronegative. For all vaccines, antibody levels were higher in individuals with past COVID-19 than in naïve individuals. A total of twelve new infections occurred within the first 3 months post-vaccination, eight after the first dose of BNT-162b2 and ChAdOx1-S (one each) and BBIBP-CorV (six), and four after full vaccination with BBIBP-CorV, but none required hospitalization.


Transfusion ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Justin E. Juskewitch ◽  
Micah D. Zuccarelli ◽  
Kristie K. Clymer ◽  
Laurie L. Wakefield ◽  
Justin D. Kreuter ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 010-018
Author(s):  
Iva Christova ◽  
Iva Trifonova ◽  
Teodora Gladnishka ◽  
Elena Dragusheva ◽  
Georgi Popov ◽  
...  

Relations between viral load, antibody levels and COVID-19 severity are not well studied and results from such investigations are controversial. In this study, we investigated kinetics of viral load and antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 20 patients with COVID-19 and analysed the association with disease severity. The patients were followed on weekly basis within the first month after the onset and then once per month for the next 4 months. Serum samples were tested for IgA, IgM, and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 using ELISA tests. SARS-CoV-2 viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs was measured by quantitative Realtime RT-PCR. For vast majority of the patients, the viral loads were at their highest levels at presentation and then declined gradually. Despite development of specific antibody response 7-11 days after the onset of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was still detected in nasopharyngeal swabs of most of the patients. There was no direct link between viral load and severity of COVID-19: some of mild and some of severe cases started with a high viral load. There was a relationship between the time from the onset of the disease and the viral load: the highest viral load was in the first days. In more severe cases, there was a tendency for slower reduction in viral load and longer detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Levels of the specific antibodies increased earlier and to higher levels and were present for longer time in patients with more severe manifestations of COVID-19 than in those with milder disease.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Divya Ail ◽  
Duohao Ren ◽  
Elena Brazhnikova ◽  
Celine Jaillard ◽  
Stephane Bertin ◽  
...  

The positive clinical outcomes in adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated retinal gene therapy have often been attributed to the low immunogenicity of AAVs along with the immune-privilege of the eye. However, several recent preclinical studies and clinical trials have shown potential for inflammatory responses to AAV mediated gene therapy. Our current understanding of the factors contributing to intraocular inflammation such as the existence of serum antibodies against AAVs prior to injection and their contribution to increases in antibody levels post-injection is incomplete. The parameters that regulate the generation of new antibodies in response to the AAV capsid or transgene post-injection after intraocular administration are also insufficiently described. In this study we carried out a retrospective analysis of the pre-existing serum antibodies in correlation with changes in antibody levels after intraocular injections of AAV in non-human primates (NHPs). We analyzed NHP serums for the presence of both Binding Antibodies (BABs), as well as a subset of these called Neutralizing Antibodies (NABs) that impede AAV transduction upon binding. We observed significantly higher pre-existing serum BABs against AAV8 compared to other serotypes. We observed a dose-dependent increase in both BABs and NABs in the serums collected post-injection, irrespective of the serotype or the mode of injection. Lastly, we were able to demonstrate a co-relation between the serum BAB levels with clinical grading of inflammation and levels of transgene expression.


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