antibody levels
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Füsun Can ◽  
Zeynep Ece Kuloğlu ◽  
Rojbin El ◽  
Gülen Esken ◽  
Yeşim Tok ◽  

Objective: There is a need for the immunogenicity of different boosters after widely used inactivated vaccine regimens. We aimed to determine the effects of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac boosters on the humoral and cellular immunity of individuals who had two doses of CoronaVac vaccination. Methods: The study was conducted in three centers (Koc University Hospital, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Hospital, and Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical School Hospital) in Istanbul. Individuals who had two doses of CoronaVac and no history of COVID-19 were included. The baseline blood samples were collected three to five months after two doses of CoronaVac. Follow-up samples were taken one and three months after third doses of CoronaVac or one dose of mRNA BNT162b2 boosters. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected by plaque reduction assay. T cell responses were evaluated by Elispot assay and flow cytometry. Results: We found a 3.38-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers (Geometric Mean Titer [GMT], 78.69) one month after BNT162b2 booster and maintained at the three months (GMT, 80). However, in the CoronaVac group, significantly lower GMTs than BNT162b2 after 1 month and 3 months (21.44 and 28.44, respectively) indicated the weak immunogenicity of the CoronaVac booster (p<0.001). In the ELISpot assay, IL-2 levels after BNT162b2 were higher than baseline and CoronaVac booster (p<0.001) and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher than baseline (P<0.001). The CD8+CD38+CD69+ and CD4+CD38+CD69+ T cells were stimulated significantly at the 3 month of the BNT162b2 boosters. Conclusion: The neutralizing antibody levels after three months of the BNT162b2 booster were higher than the antibody levels after CoronaVac. On the other hand, specific T cells might contribute to immune protection. By considering the waning immunity, we suggest a new booster dose with BNT162b2 for the countries that already have two doses of primary CoronaVac regimens.

S. Erdenlig Gurbilek ◽  
M.S. Karagul ◽  
A.M. Saytekin ◽  
E.A. Baklan ◽  
G. Saglam

Background: Vaccination is the most fundamental strategy in the control and eradication of brucellosis. Several vaccination programs with different vaccines have been carried out in many countries in which brucellosis continues to be a problem in livestock. One of the recommended vaccines against brucellosis in cattle is the live Brucella abortus S19 vaccine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of field safety and efficacy trials for the conjunctival Brucella abortus S19 vaccine prior to the mass vaccination program. Methods: In this study, 81 female cattle were vaccinated with a reduced dose of Brucella abortus S19 vaccine with the conjunctival route. The immune response after vaccination was investigated by suggested serological tests; namely, Rose Bengal Plate Test, Serum Agglutination Test and Complement Fixation Test. Result: No adverse effect was observed within the scope of safety. Isolation of vaccine strain was observed only in a milk sample of lactating animals. Excluding the diagnosis criteria of the serological tests, humoral immune response was observed in most of the animals by all the serological tests one month after vaccination. Antibody levels lasted approximately 4 months after vaccination. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that besides vaccine-induced antibodies, the vaccine including changes in dose and administration way in this study did not cause any significant risks for the target animals.

2022 ◽  
Qiao Wang ◽  
Lili Feng ◽  
Haohai Zhang ◽  
Juehua Gao ◽  
Changchuin Mao ◽  

Abstract While mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 were highly efficacious against severe illness and hospitalization, they seem to be less effective in preventing infection months after vaccination, especially with the Delta variant. Breakthrough infections might be due to higher infectivity of the variants, relaxed protective measures by the general public in “COVID-19 fatigue”, and/or waning immunity post-vaccination. Determining the neutralizing antibody levels in a longitudinal manner may address this issue, but technical complexity of classic assays precludes easy detection and quick answers. We developed a lateral flow immunoassay NeutraXpress™ (commercial name of the test kit by Antagen Diagnostics, Inc.), and tested fingertip blood samples of subjects receiving either Moderna or Pfizer vaccines at various time points. With this device, we confirmed the reported clinical findings that mRNA vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies quickly wane after 3–6 months. Thus, using rapid tests to monitor neutralizing antibody status could help identify individuals at risk, prevent breakthrough infections and guide social behavior to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Statement of Significance. Mounting evidence suggests that mRNA vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody titres against SARS-CoV-2 wane in 3–6 months. Quick identification of fully vaccinated persons with high risk of breakthrough infections is key to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The described LFIA device having a control/sample dual-lane design serves this purpose with successful field-test data.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 176-180
Ranjana Hawaldar ◽  
Sadhna Sodani ◽  
Varsha Sodani ◽  
R K Sodani

It is said that children are less affected by SARSCoV2 infection because of their young immune system, so they have relatively milder symptoms as compared to adults. So the true incidence of SARSCoV2 is not known in this age group. Serosurveys in the paediatric age group can give a much better estimate of the incidence of SARSCoV2 infection in asymptomatic and symptomatic childrenThe present study was undertaken to study the seroprevalence of SARSCoV2 antibodies in children below 18 years of age, by measuring the S1RBD domain of spike protein neutralizing IgG antibody levels.This was a retrospective study carried out from August 2020 to August 2021 in a private diagnostic centre of Central India. 539 children of both genders from newborn babies upto 18 years of age were included in the study. US FDA Emergency Use Authorized [EUA], Atellica Solution SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay that detects anti S1-RBD antibodies including neutralizing IgG against SARS-CoV-2 was used for antibody estimation. Antibody level ≥1 was termed reactive or seropositive and below 1 were considered to be non reactive or seroneagtive There were 321 males and 218 females with a male to female ratio of 1.47 :1. 57% male children were seropositive while 61.9% female children showed seropositivity with an overall positivity rate of 58.99%.The findings of our study suggest that chidren below 5 years and adolescents exhibit higher antibody responses as compared to children between 5-10 years of age. The results of our study would be of help in formulating surveillance and vaccination strategies for children and in implementing public safety guidelines.

2022 ◽  
Apoorva Munigela ◽  
Sasikala M ◽  
Gujjarlapudi Deepika ◽  
Anand V Kulkarni ◽  
Krishna Vemula ◽  

Abstract Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to be a major health concern leading to substantial mortality and morbidity across the world. Vaccination is effective in reducing the severity and associated mortality. Data pertaining to the duration of immunity, antibody waning and the optimal timing of booster dose administration is limited. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the antibody levels in healthcare workers who were fully vaccinated after obtaining Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent. Whole blood was collected and enumeration of S1/S2 neutralizing antibody levels was carried out using LIAISON SARS-COV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay. A total of 1636 individuals who were vaccinated with Covaxin or Covishield were included. Of these, 52% were males with a median age of 29 years. Diabetes and Hypertension was noted in 2.32% (38/1636) and 2.87% (47/1636) of the individuals. Spike neutralizing antibodies were below the detectable range (<15 AU/ml) in 6.0% (98/1636) of the individuals. Decline in neutralizing antibody was seen in 30% of the individuals above 40 years of age with comorbidities (diabetes and hypertension) after 6 months. These individuals may be prioritized for a booster dose at 6 months.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Carla Usai ◽  
Joseph M. Gibbons ◽  
Corinna Pade ◽  
Wenhao Li ◽  
Sabina R. M. Jacobs ◽  

BackgroundThe presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection varies from asymptomatic to severe COVID-19. Similarly, high variability in the presence, titre and duration of specific antibodies has been reported. While some host factors determining these differences, such as age and ethnicity have been identified, the underlying molecular mechanisms underpinning these differences remain poorly defined.MethodsWe analysed serum and PBMC from 17 subjects with a previous PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and 10 unexposed volunteers following the first wave of the pandemic, in the UK. Anti-NP IgG and neutralising antibodies were measured, as well as a panel of infection and inflammation related cytokines. The virus-specific T cell response was determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and flow cytometry after overnight incubation of PBMCs with pools of selected SARS-CoV-2 specific peptides.ResultsSeven of 17 convalescent subjects had undetectable levels of anti-NP IgG, and a positive correlation was shown between anti-NP IgG levels and the titre of neutralising antibodies (IC50). In contrast, a discrepancy was noted between antibody levels and T cell IFN-γ production by ELISpot following stimulation with specific peptides. Among the analysed cytokines, β-NGF and IL-1α levels were significantly different between anti-NP positive and negative subjects, and only β-NGF significantly correlated with anti-NP positivity. Interestingly, CD4+ T cells of anti-NP negative subjects expressed lower amounts of the β-NGF-specific receptor TrkA.ConclusionsOur results suggest that the β-NGF/TrkA signalling pathway is associated with the production of anti-NP specific antibody in mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and the mechanistic regulation of this pathway in COVID-19 requires further investigation.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 171
Richard Vollenberg ◽  
Phil-Robin Tepasse ◽  
Joachim Ewald Kühn ◽  
Marc Hennies ◽  
Markus Strauss ◽  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronovirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Vaccination is considered the core approach to containing the pandemic. There is currently insufficient evidence on the efficacy of these vaccines in immunosuppressed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the humoral response in immunosuppressed IBD patients after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. In this prospective study, IgG antibody levels (AB) against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (spike-protein) were quantitatively determined. For assessing the potential neutralizing capacity, a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate neutralization test (sVNT) was employed in IBD patients (n = 95) and healthy controls (n = 38). Sera were examined prior to the first/second vaccination and 3/6 months after second vaccination. Patients showed lower sVNT (%) and IgG-S (AU/mL) AB both before the second vaccination (sVNT p < 0.001; AB p < 0.001) and 3 (sVNT p = 0.002; AB p = 0.001) and 6 months (sVNT p = 0.062; AB p = 0.061) after the second vaccination. Although seroconversion rates (sVNT, IgG-S) did not differ between the two groups 3 months after second vaccination, a significant difference was seen 6 months after second vaccination (sVNT p = 0.045). Before and three months after the second vaccination, patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents showed significantly lower AB than healthy subjects. In conclusion, an early booster shot vaccination should be discussed for IBD patients on anti-TNF therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
Shirley LL Kwok ◽  
Samuel MS Cheng ◽  
Jennifer NS Leung ◽  
Kathy Leung ◽  
Cheuk-Kwong Lee ◽  

The mRNA vaccine Comirnaty and the inactivated vaccine CoronaVac are both available in Hong Kong’s COVID-19 vaccination programme. We observed waning antibody levels in 850 fully vaccinated (at least 14 days passed after second dose) blood donors using ELISA and surrogate virus neutralisation test. The Comirnaty-vaccinated group’s (n = 593) antibody levels remained over the ELISA and sVNT positive cut-offs within the first 6 months. The CoronaVac-vaccinated group’s (n = 257) median antibody levels began to fall below the cut-offs 4 months after vaccination.

2022 ◽  
Arinjay Banerjee ◽  
Jocelyne Lew ◽  
Andrea Kroeker ◽  
Kaushal Baid ◽  
Patryk Aftanas ◽  

The omicron variant of concern (VOC) of SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in November 2021 in Botswana and South Africa. Omicron variant has evolved multiple mutations within the spike protein and the receptor binding domain (RBD), raising concerns of increased antibody evasion. Here, we isolated infectious omicron from a clinical specimen obtained in Canada. The neutralizing activity of sera from 65 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine recipients and convalescent individuals against clinical isolates of ancestral SARS-CoV-2, beta, delta, and omicron VOCs was assessed. Convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by the ancestral virus during the first wave of COVID-19 in Canada (July, 2020) demonstrated reduced neutralization against beta, delta and omicron VOCs. Convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by the delta variant (May-June, 2021) neutralized omicron to significantly lower levels compared to the delta variant. Sera from individuals that received three doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines demonstrated reduced neutralization of both delta and omicron variants relative to ancestral SARS-CoV-2. Sera from individuals that were naturally infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently received two doses of the Pfizer vaccine induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody levels against ancestral virus and all VOCs. Importantly, infection alone, either with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 or the delta variant was not sufficient to induce high neutralizing antibody titers against omicron. This data will inform current booster vaccination strategies and we highlight the need for additional studies to identify longevity of immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and optimal neutralizing antibody levels that are necessary to prevent infection and/or severe COVID-19.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010108
Laura Willen ◽  
Philip Milton ◽  
Jonathan I. D. Hamley ◽  
Martin Walker ◽  
Mike Y. Osei-Atweneboana ◽  

Background In onchocerciasis endemic areas in Africa, heterogenous biting rates by blackfly vectors on humans are assumed to partially explain age- and sex-dependent infection patterns with Onchocerca volvulus. To underpin these assumptions and further improve predictions made by onchocerciasis transmission models, demographic patterns in antibody responses to salivary antigens of Simulium damnosum s.l. are evaluated as a measure of blackfly exposure. Methodology/Principal findings Recently developed IgG and IgM anti-saliva immunoassays for S. damnosum s.l. were applied to blood samples collected from residents in four onchocerciasis endemic villages in Ghana. Demographic patterns in antibody levels according to village, sex and age were explored by fitting generalized linear models. Antibody levels varied between villages but showed consistent patterns with age and sex. Both IgG and IgM responses declined with increasing age. IgG responses were generally lower in males than in females and exhibited a steeper decline in adult males than in adult females. No sex-specific difference was observed in IgM responses. Conclusions/Significance The decline in age-specific antibody patterns suggested development of immunotolerance or desensitization to blackfly saliva antigen in response to persistent exposure. The variation between sexes, and between adults and youngsters may reflect differences in behaviour influencing cumulative exposure. These measures of antibody acquisition and decay could be incorporated into onchocerciasis transmission models towards informing onchocerciasis control, elimination, and surveillance.

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