cellular response
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Author(s):  
Zezhong Feng ◽  
Lingjuan Wu ◽  
Zhenjie Sun ◽  
Jiali Yang ◽  
Guiyan Liu ◽  
...  

Neopyropia yezoensis is an economically important marine crop that can survive dehydrating conditions when nets are lifted from seawater. During this process, production of oxygen radicals and the resulting up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes mediated by the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway played an important role. However, there were no reports about the significance regarding the protection of seaweed throughout the entire production season. Especially, in new aquatic farms in Shandong Province that were formed when traditional N. yezoensis cultivation moved north. Here, we determined the levels of ABA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), soluble protein, chlorophyll, and cell wall polysaccharides in samples collected at different harvest periods from Jimo aquatic farm, Shandong Province. The activities and expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and antioxidant enzymes in the corresponding samples were also determined. Combined with the monitoring data of sea surface temperature and solar light intensity, we proposed that the cultivation of N. yezoensis in Shandong Province was not affected by high-temperature stress. However, photoinhibition in N. yezoensis usually occurs at noon, especially in March. Both the activities and the expression of NOX and antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated continuously. It is reasonable to speculate that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NOX induced the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes through the ABA signaling pathway. Although antioxidant enzymes play a pivotal role during the cultivation of N. yezoensis, the production of ROS also caused a shift in gene expression, accumulation of secondary metabolites, and even decreased the chlorophyll pool size, which eventually led to a decrease in algae assimilation. Accordingly, we suggest that the dehydration of N. yezoensis nets should be adopted when necessary and the extent of dehydration should be paid special consideration to avoid an excessive cellular response caused by ROS.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ekaterina Olkhov-Mitsel ◽  
Anjelica Hodgson ◽  
Stan K. Liu ◽  
Danny Vesprini ◽  
Jane Bayani ◽  
...  

AbstractTumor inflammation is prognostically significant in high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To identify inflammation-associated immune gene expression patterns, we performed transcriptomic profiling of 40 MIBC archival tumors using the NanoString nCounter Human v.1.1 PanCancer Panel. Findings were validated using the TCGA MIBC dataset. Unsupervised and supervised clustering identified a distinctive immune-related gene expression profile for inflammation, characterized by significant upregulation of 149 genes, particularly chemokines, a subset of which also had potential prognostic utility. Some of the most enriched biological processes were lymphocyte activation and proliferation, leukocyte adhesion and migration, antigen processing and presentation and cellular response to IFN-γ. Upregulation of numerous IFN-γ-inducible chemokines, class II MHC molecules and immune checkpoint genes was detected as part of the complex immune response to MIBC. Further, B-cell markers linked to tertiary lymphoid structures were upregulated, which in turn is predictive of tumor response to immunotherapy and favorable outcome. Our findings of both an overall activated immune profıle and immunosuppressive microenvironment provide novel insights into the complex immune milieu of MIBC with inflammation and supports its clinical significance for predicting prognosis and immunotherapeutic responsiveness, which warrants further investigation. This may open novel opportunities to identify mechanisms for developing new immunotherapeutic strategies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alessandra Cecchini ◽  
D. D. W. Cornelison

Although intracellular signal transduction is generally represented as a linear process that transmits stimuli from the exterior of a cell to the interior via a transmembrane receptor, interactions with additional membrane-associated proteins are often critical to its success. These molecules play a pivotal role in mediating signaling via the formation of complexes in cis (within the same membrane) with primary effectors, particularly in the context of tumorigenesis. Such secondary effectors may act to promote successful signaling by mediating receptor-ligand binding, recruitment of molecular partners for the formation of multiprotein complexes, or differential signaling outcomes. One signaling family whose contact-mediated activity is frequently modulated by lateral interactions at the cell surface is Eph/ephrin (EphA and EphB receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands ephrin-As and ephrin-Bs). Through heterotypic interactions in cis, these molecules can promote a diverse range of cellular activities, including some that are mutually exclusive (cell proliferation and cell differentiation, or adhesion and migration). Due to their broad expression in most tissues and their promiscuous binding within and across classes, the cellular response to Eph:ephrin interaction is highly variable between cell types and is dependent on the cellular context in which binding occurs. In this review, we will discuss interactions between molecules in cis at the cell membrane, with emphasis on their role in modulating Eph/ephrin signaling.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Matthias Brandt ◽  
Volker Gerke ◽  
Timo Betz

As endothelial cells form the inner layer of blood vessels they display the first barrier to interstitial tissues, which results in a crucial role for inflammation. On the global, systemic level an important element of the complex process controlling the inflammatory response is the release of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). While other pro-inflammatory agents like thrombin or histamine are known to induce acute but transient changes in endothelial cells which have been well studied biologically as well as mechanically, TNF-α is primarily known for its sustained effects on permeability and leukocyte recruitment. These functions are associated with transcriptional changes that take place on the timescale of hours and days. Here we show that already 4 minutes after the addition of TNF-α onto monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, a striking rise in mechanical substrate traction force and internal monolayer tension can be recorded. As expected, the traction forces act primarily at the boundary of the monolayer. While the traction forces increase monotonically during the initial cellular response, we find that the internal monolayer tension displays a rapid peak that can be abolished when applying a shear flow to the cells. The increased internal monolayer tension may provide a mechanical signal for the cells to prepare for the recruitment of leukocytes, additionally to the well studied biochemical response.


2022 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Author(s):  
Massimo Pizzato ◽  
Chiara Baraldi ◽  
Giulia Boscato Sopetto ◽  
Davide Finozzi ◽  
Carmelo Gentile ◽  
...  

The ability of a virus to spread between individuals, its replication capacity and the clinical course of the infection are macroscopic consequences of a multifaceted molecular interaction of viral components with the host cell. The heavy impact of COVID-19 on the world population, economics and sanitary systems calls for therapeutic and prophylactic solutions that require a deep characterization of the interactions occurring between virus and host cells. Unveiling how SARS-CoV-2 engages with host factors throughout its life cycle is therefore fundamental to understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the viral infection and to design antiviral therapies and prophylactic strategies. Two years into the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, this review provides an overview of the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and the host cell, with focus on the machinery and compartments pivotal for virus replication and the antiviral cellular response. Starting with the interaction with the cell surface, following the virus replicative cycle through the characterization of the entry pathways, the survival and replication in the cytoplasm, to the mechanisms of egress from the infected cell, this review unravels the complex network of interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and the host cell, highlighting the knowledge that has the potential to set the basis for the development of innovative antiviral strategies.


Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Author(s):  
Joanna Szczepanek ◽  
Monika Skorupa ◽  
Agnieszka Goroncy ◽  
Joanna Jarkiewicz-Tretyn ◽  
Aleksandra Wypych ◽  
...  

Background: COVID-19 vaccines induce a differentiated humoral and cellular response, and one of the comparable parameters of the vaccine response is the determination of IgG antibodies. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed at three time points (at the beginning of May, at the end of June and at the end of September). Serum samples were obtained from 954 employees of the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (a total of three samples each were obtained from 511 vaccinated participants). IgG antibody concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The statistical analysis included comparisons between vaccines, between convalescents and COVID-19 non-patients, between individual measurements and included the gender, age and blood groups of participants. Results: There were significant differences in antibody levels between mRNA and vector vaccines. People vaccinated with mRNA-1273 achieved the highest levels of antibodies, regardless of the time since full vaccination. People vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-2019 produced several times lower antibody levels compared to the mRNA vaccines, while the antibody levels were more stable. In the case of each of the vaccines, the factor having the strongest impact on the level and stability of the IgG antibody titers was previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. There were no significant correlations with age, gender and blood type. Summary: mRNA vaccines induce a stronger humoral response of the immune system with the fastest loss of antibodies over time.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 424
Author(s):  
Alessio Alesci ◽  
Noemi Nicosia ◽  
Angelo Fumia ◽  
Federica Giorgianni ◽  
Antonello Santini ◽  
...  

The use of polyphenols as adjuvants in lowering risk factors for various debilitating diseases has been investigated in recent years due to their possible antioxidant action. Polyphenols represent a fascinating and relatively new subject of research in nutraceuticals and nutrition, with interest rapidly expanding since they can help maintain health by controlling metabolism, weight, chronic diseases, and cell proliferation. Resveratrol is a phenolic compound found mostly in the pulp, peels, seeds, and stems of red grapes. It has a wide variety of biological actions that can be used to prevent the beginning of various diseases or manage their symptoms. Resveratrol can influence multiple inflammatory and non-inflammatory responses, protecting organs and tissues, thanks to its interaction with immune cells and its activity on SIRT1. This compound has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anticancer, and antiviral properties, making it a potential adjunct to traditional pharmaceutical therapy in public health. This review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of resveratrol in terms of active biological effects and mechanism of action in modifying the immune cellular response to promote human psychophysical health.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 133
Author(s):  
Daniel S. Layton ◽  
Kostlend Mara ◽  
Meiling Dai ◽  
Luis Fernando Malaver-Ortega ◽  
Tamara J. Gough ◽  
...  

Influenza A viruses (IAV) pose a constant threat to human and poultry health. Of particular interest are the infections caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, such as H5N1, which cause significant production issues. In response to influenza infection, cells activate immune mechanisms that lead to increased interferon (IFN) production. To investigate how alterations in the interferon signaling pathway affect the cellular response to infection in the chicken, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate a chicken cell line that lacks a functional the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR1). We then assessed viral infections with the WSN strain of influenza. Cells lacking a functional IFNAR1 receptor showed reduced expression of the interferon stimulated genes (ISG) such as Protein Kinase R (PKR) and Myxovirus resistance (Mx) and were more susceptible to viral infection with WSN. We further investigated the role or IFNAR1 on low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) strains (H7N9) and a HPAI strain (H5N1). Intriguingly, Ifnar−/− cells appeared more resistant than WT cells when infected with HPAI virus, potentially indicating a different interaction between H5N1 and the IFN signaling pathway. Our findings support that ChIFNAR1 is a key component of the chicken IFN signaling pathway and these data add contributions to the field of host-avian pathogen interaction and innate immunity in chickens.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 658
Author(s):  
Alexandre Joushomme ◽  
André Garenne ◽  
Mélody Dufossée ◽  
Rémy Renom ◽  
Hermanus Johannes Ruigrok ◽  
...  

It remains controversial whether exposure to environmental radiofrequency signals (RF) impacts cell status or response to cellular stress such as apoptosis or autophagy. We used two label-free techniques, cellular impedancemetry and Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM), to assess the overall cellular response during RF exposure alone, or during co-exposure to RF and chemical treatments known to induce either apoptosis or autophagy. Two human cell lines (SH-SY5Y and HCT116) and two cultures of primary rat cortex cells (astrocytes and co-culture of neurons and glial cells) were exposed to RF using an 1800 MHz carrier wave modulated with various environmental signals (GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications, 2G signal), UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, 3G signal), LTE (Long-Term Evolution, 4G signal, and Wi-Fi) or unmodulated RF (continuous wave, CW). The specific absorption rates (S.A.R.) used were 1.5 and 6 W/kg during DHM experiments and ranged from 5 to 24 W/kg during the recording of cellular impedance. Cells were continuously exposed for three to five consecutive days while the temporal phenotypic signature of cells behavior was recorded at constant temperature. Statistical analysis of the results does not indicate that RF-EMF exposure impacted the global behavior of healthy, apoptotic, or autophagic cells, even at S.A.R. levels higher than the guidelines, provided that the temperature was kept constant.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Huihui Ji ◽  
Kehan Li ◽  
Wenbin Xu ◽  
Ruyi Li ◽  
Shangdan Xie ◽  
...  

Yimucao has been used as an herbal medicine to treat gynecological diseases. Common genes of Yimucao active compounds were investigated using network pharmacology. The components and targets of Yimucao were retrieved from the TCMSP database. Cervical cancer targets were collected from GeneCards, TTD, DisGeNET, and KEGG. Cisplatin-related genes were downloaded from GeneWeaver. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was created using the STRING database. A drug-bioactive compound-disease-target network was constructed using Cytoscape. GO and KEGG analyses were performed to investigate common targets of quercetin and cisplatin in cervical cancer. We found that quercetin was the highly bioactive compound in Yimucao. The drug-bioactive compound-disease-target network contained 93 nodes and 261 edges. Drug-related key targets were identified, including EGFR, IL6, CASP3, VEGFA, MYC, CCND1, ERBB2, FOS, PPARG, and CASP8. Core targets were primarily related to the response to metal ions, cellular response to xenobiotic stimulus, and transcription factor complex. The KEGG pathway analysis revealed that quercetin and cisplatin may affect cervical cancer through platinum drug resistance and the p53 and HIF-1 pathways. Furthermore, quercetin combined with cisplatin downregulated the expression of EGFR, MYC, CCND1, and ERBB2 proteins and upregulated CASP8 expression in HeLa and SiHa cells. Functionally, quercetin enhanced cisplatin-induced anticancer activity in cervical cancer cells. Our results indicate that quercetin can be used to overcome cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer cells.


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